They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.
They do not depend on enzymes.
They are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions.
They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.
Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.
The entropy of the universe is decreasing.
Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter.
The entropy of the universe is constant.
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
Organisms are unable to transform energy.
The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.
The energy content of an organism is constant.
Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the
Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy.
As a consequence of growing, organisms create more disorder in their environment than the
Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy
Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.
Enthalpy of the universe
Free energy of the system
Free energy of the universe
Entropy of the universe
Entropy of the system
Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.
If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in the
Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy of
Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.
Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work.
Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe.
Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.
Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organisation.
Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of free
Requires that due to evolution, the entropy of the universe increased.
Is based on the fact that organisms function as closed systems.
Is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
A and B only
A, B and C
A firefly using light flashes to attract a mate
Boy mowing grass
A food molecule made up of energy-rich macromolecules
Water rushing over Niagara Falls
An insect foraging for food
A sealed terrarium
Food cooking in a pressure cooker
Liquid in a corked bottle
Metabolism is a property of organismal life
Metabolism depends on an organism's adequate hydration
Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism
Metabolism utilises all of an organism's resources
Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy from food
The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.
The products have more total energy than the reactants.
Some reactants will be converted to products.
The reactions are nonspontaneous.
A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.
A chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an
A reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any
An endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is
A chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolic
There is no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell.
The system's entropy
The condition of a cell that is not able to react
The cell's energy equilibrium
The heat content of a chemical system
The total kinetic energy of a system
It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
Its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolysed releases
Its terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two.
Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.
All of the above are true.
Reactant and product concentrations are not the same
Cells are open systems, but a test tube is a closed system.
The hydrolysis of ATP in a cell produces different chemical products than does the reaction in
The reaction in cells must be catalysed by enzymes, but the reaction in a test tube does not
Cells are less efficient at heat production than nonliving systems.
An RNA nucleotide
An amino acid with three phosphate groups
A DNA helix
An anabolic steroid
They build up complex molecules such as protein from simpler compounds.
They combine molecules into more energy-rich molecules.
They are usually coupled with anabolic pathways to which they supply energy in the form of
They are endergonic.
They are spontaneous and do not need enzyme catalysis.
It is lost to the environment.
It is used to generate ADP from nucleotide precursors.
It is used to store energy as more ATP.
It is transported to specific organs such as the brain.
It is used to power yet more cellular work.
It can be added to water and excreted as a liquid.
It can only be used to regenerate more ATP.
It can enter the nucleus to affect gene expression.
It can be added to other molecules in order to activate them.
It is released as an excretory waste.