Distal convoluted tubule
Glomerular filtration membrane
Loop of Henle
Renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
Pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Hilum to urethra to bladder
Glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
An efferent arteriole
A vasa recta
A fenestrated capillary
Decrease in the production of ADH
Decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
Increase in the production of ADH
Increase in the production of aldosterone
When the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
By a decrease in the blood pressure
When the pH of the urine decreases
When the peritubular capillaries are dilated
Helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
Maintains blood osmolarity
Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
Eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
Is impermeable to most substances
Has a basement membrane
Has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems
Is drained by an efferent arteriole
Is freely permeable to sodium and urea
Is not permeable to water
Pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
Contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.
Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.
The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
Is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
Stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
Ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
Produces vitamin D
The renal papilla
The descending loop of Henle
The renal pyramid
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Loop of Henle
Basement membrane of the capillaries
The secretion of drugs
The secretion of acids and ammonia
Regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
Reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
The thickness of the capillary endothelium
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
The size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
The design and size of the podocytes
They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.
They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems but at different times.
The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.
The pressure of the fluid in the bladder
The stretching of the bladder wall
The sympathetic efferents
Cotransport with sodium ions
Hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
In the distal convoluted tubule
Completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached
Not Tm limited
Changes in solute content of the filtrate
Changes in pressure in the tubule
Increases secretion of ADH
Inhibits the release of ADH
Is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
Increases the rate of glomerular filtration
Constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
Decrease water absorption
Decrease arterial blood pressure
Decrease the production of aldosterone
3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron.
Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tubule.
Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure.
Net filtration would decrease.
Net filtration would increase above normal.
Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that filtration would not change.
By active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
Includes substances such as creatinine
By passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood
Is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste
They are too large to pass through the fenestrations.
They are extremely complex molecules.
They are not lipid soluble.
They lack carriers.
Secondary active transport
Absorb electrolytes actively with an automatic absorption of water by osmosis
Form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine
Form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
None of these
The placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood
there are no functional nephrons until after birth
There is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development
Fetuses do not have any waste to excrete
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.
Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Capsular hydrostatic pressure
Colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
Be reabsorbed by secondary active transport
Be actively secreted into the filtrate
Appear in the urine
Be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells
Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.
The presence of ADH
The presence of ADH
Relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
Transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
By secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate
By secreting sodium ions
By producing new bicarbonate ions
By reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions
Thin segment is freely permeable to water
Thick segment is permeable to water
Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
Thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride
The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.
The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.
Ridding the body of excessive potassium ions
Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
Eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes
Disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs
Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.
Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys
Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys
Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys
Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Loop of Henle
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Angiotensin I and epinephrine
Angiotensin II and ADH
Angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide
Angiotensin II and aldosterone
Macula densa cells