Distal convoluted tubule
Glomerular filtration membrane
Loop of Henle
Renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
Pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Hilum to urethra to bladder
Glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
An efferent arteriole
A vasa recta
A fenestrated capillary
Decrease in the production of ADH
Decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
Increase in the production of ADH
Increase in the production of aldosterone
When the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
By a decrease in the blood pressure
When the pH of the urine decreases
When the peritubular capillaries are dilated
Helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
Maintains blood osmolarity
Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
Eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
Is impermeable to most substances
Has a basement membrane
Has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems
Is drained by an efferent arteriole
Is freely permeable to sodium and urea
Is not permeable to water
Pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
Contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.
Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.
The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
Is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
Stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
Ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
Produces vitamin D
The renal papilla
The descending loop of Henle
The renal pyramid
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Loop of Henle
Basement membrane of the capillaries
The secretion of drugs
The secretion of acids and ammonia
Regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
Reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
The thickness of the capillary endothelium
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
The size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
The design and size of the podocytes
They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.
They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems but at different times.
The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.
The pressure of the fluid in the bladder
The stretching of the bladder wall
The sympathetic efferents
Cotransport with sodium ions
Hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
In the distal convoluted tubule
Completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached
Not Tm limited
Changes in solute content of the filtrate
Changes in pressure in the tubule