Chapter 15: Temperature, Heat, And Expansion

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• 1.

When you touch a cold piece of ice with your finger, energy flows

• A.

From your finger to the ice.

• B.

From the ice to your finger.

• C.

Actually, both ways.

A. From your finger to the ice.
Explanation
When you touch a cold piece of ice with your finger, energy flows from your finger to the ice. This is because heat always flows from a warmer object to a colder object. The ice absorbs the heat energy from your finger, causing it to feel cold.

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• 2.

Heat energy travels from an object with a high

• A.

Internal energy to an object with a lower internal energy.

• B.

Temperature to an object with a lower temperature.

• C.

Both of these, for they say essentially say the same thing.

• D.

None of the above choices are true.

B. Temperature to an object with a lower temperature.
Explanation
Heat energy is a form of energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature. This is because heat tends to move from areas of higher energy (higher temperature) to areas of lower energy (lower temperature) in order to achieve thermal equilibrium. Therefore, the correct answer is that heat energy travels from an object with a high temperature to an object with a lower temperature.

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• 3.

Which of the following normally warms up fastest when heat is applied?

• A.

Water

• B.

Iron

• C.

Glass

• D.

Wood

• E.

All of the above choices are equally true.

B. Iron
Explanation
Iron normally warms up fastest when heat is applied because it has a higher thermal conductivity compared to the other materials listed. This means that heat can more easily and quickly transfer through iron, causing it to warm up faster. Water, glass, and wood have lower thermal conductivities, so they take longer to warm up when heat is applied.

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• 4.

A substance that heats up relatively quickly has a

• A.

High specific heat.

• B.

Low specific heat.

• C.

High conductivity.

• D.

Low conductivity.

B. Low specific heat.
Explanation
A substance that heats up relatively quickly has a low specific heat because specific heat is a measure of how much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a substance. If a substance has a low specific heat, it means that it requires less heat energy to increase its temperature, resulting in a quicker heating process.

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• 5.

The fact that a thermometer "takes its own temperature" illustrates

• A.

Thermal equilibrium.

• B.

Energy conservation.

• C.

The difference between heat and internal energy.

• D.

The fact that molecules are constantly moving.

A. Thermal equilibrium.
Explanation
The fact that a thermometer "takes its own temperature" illustrates thermal equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium is the state in which two objects are at the same temperature and there is no net transfer of heat between them. When a thermometer is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, it means that the thermometer and the surroundings have reached the same temperature, indicating that there is no heat transfer occurring between them.

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• 6.

Heat energy is measured in units of

• A.

Joules.

• B.

Calories.

• C.

Choices A and B are both true.

• D.

Choices A and B are both false.

C. Choices A and B are both true.
Explanation
Heat energy can be measured in both joules and calories. Joules are the standard unit of measurement for energy in the International System of Units (SI). Calories, on the other hand, are commonly used in nutrition and represent the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. Therefore, both choices A (joules) and B (calories) are correct units for measuring heat energy.

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• 7.

The moderate temperatures of islands throughout the world has much to do with water's

• A.

Poor conductivity.

• B.

Vast supply of internal energy.

• C.

High specific heat.

• D.

High evaporation rate.

• E.

Absorption of solar energy.

C. High specific heat.
Explanation
The moderate temperatures of islands throughout the world can be attributed to water's high specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance. Water has a high specific heat, meaning it can absorb and retain a large amount of heat energy without a significant change in temperature. This property allows water to act as a temperature buffer, preventing extreme temperature fluctuations on islands.

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• 8.

Ice has a lower density than water because ice

• A.

Sinks.

• B.

Molecules are more compact in the solid state.

• C.

Molecules vibrate at lower rates than water molecules.

• D.

Is made of open-structured, hexagonal crystals.

• E.

Density decreases with decreasing temperature.

D. Is made of open-structured, hexagonal crystals.
Explanation
Ice has a lower density than water because it is made of open-structured, hexagonal crystals. When water freezes, the water molecules arrange themselves in a specific pattern, forming a crystal lattice structure. This arrangement causes the molecules to be more spread out and less densely packed compared to the random arrangement of molecules in liquid water. As a result, the density of ice is lower than that of water, causing it to float in water.

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• 9.

Compared to a giant iceberg, a hot cup of coffee has

• A.

More internal energy and higher temperature.

• B.

Higher temperature, but less internal energy.

• C.

A greater specific heat and more internal energy.

• D.

None of these

B. Higher temperature, but less internal energy.
Explanation
A giant iceberg has a massive amount of internal energy due to its large size, while a hot cup of coffee has less internal energy because it is smaller. However, the hot cup of coffee has a higher temperature compared to the giant iceberg, as it is heated and meant to be consumed hot. Therefore, the correct answer is that the hot cup of coffee has a higher temperature, but less internal energy.

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• 10.

Microscopic slush in water tends to make the water density

• A.

Greater.

• B.

Less.

• C.

No change

B. Less.
Explanation
When microscopic slush is added to water, it tends to decrease the water's density. This is because the slush particles occupy space within the water, causing the overall volume to increase without a proportional increase in mass. As a result, the mass per unit volume, which is the definition of density, decreases. Therefore, the presence of microscopic slush in water makes the water less dense.

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• 11.

Before ice can form on a lake, all the water in the lake must be cooled to

• A.

Zero degrees C.

• B.

4 degrees C.

• C.

Minus 32 degrees C.

• D.

None of the above. Ice can form at the surface regardless of the water temperature below.

B. 4 degrees C.
Explanation
Ice can form on the surface of a lake regardless of the water temperature below because of a phenomenon called "convection." When the surface water cools to 4 degrees C, it becomes denser and sinks to the bottom, allowing warmer water to rise to the surface. This process continues until the entire lake is cooled to 4 degrees C and ice can form. Therefore, all the water in the lake must be cooled to 4 degrees C before ice can form.

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• 12.

Ice tends to form first at the

• A.

Surface of bodies of water.

• B.

Bottom of bodies of water.

• C.

Surface or bottom depending on the water depth.

A. Surface of bodies of water.
Explanation
Ice tends to form first at the surface of bodies of water because of the unique properties of water. When the temperature drops, the surface of the water loses heat to the colder air, causing it to cool down. As water cools, it becomes denser and sinks, allowing warmer water from below to rise to the surface. This process continues until the entire body of water reaches the freezing point. At this point, the surface water, being the coldest, freezes first, forming a layer of ice on top.

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• 13.

When an iron ring is heated, the hole becomes

• A.

Smaller.

• B.

Larger.

• C.

Neither smaller nor larger.

• D.

Either smaller or larger, depending on the ring thickness.

B. Larger.
Explanation
When an iron ring is heated, the molecules within the ring gain energy and move faster, causing them to expand. This expansion leads to an increase in the size of the ring, including the hole. Therefore, the correct answer is that the hole becomes larger.

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• 14.

As a piece of metal with a hole in it cools, the diameter of the hole

• A.

Increases.

• B.

Decreases.

• C.

Remains the same.

B. Decreases.
Explanation
As a piece of metal cools, its molecules slow down and move closer together, causing the metal to contract or shrink. This contraction affects the entire piece of metal, including any holes or cavities within it. Therefore, the diameter of the hole in the metal decreases as it cools.

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• 15.

When we enlarge a photograph of an iron ring, the image of the hole becomes

• A.

Smaller.

• B.

Larger.

• C.

Neither smaller nor larger.

B. Larger.
Explanation
When we enlarge a photograph of an iron ring, the image of the hole becomes larger. This is because enlarging a photograph means increasing its size, which includes all the elements within the photograph. Therefore, the image of the hole in the iron ring will also be enlarged, resulting in a larger image of the hole in the photograph.

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• 16.

When a bimetallic bar made of copper and iron strips is heated, the bar bends toward the iron strip. The reason for this is

• A.

Iron gets hotter before copper.

• B.

Copper gets hotter before iron.

• C.

Copper expands more than iron.

• D.

Iron expands more than copper.

• E.

None of these

C. Copper expands more than iron.
Explanation
When the bimetallic bar made of copper and iron strips is heated, the copper strip expands more than the iron strip. This is because different materials have different coefficients of thermal expansion, which determine how much they expand or contract when heated or cooled. In this case, copper has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than iron, causing it to expand more when heated. As a result, the bar bends toward the iron strip, as the copper strip expands more and exerts a greater force.

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• 17.

If glass expanded more than mercury, then the column of mercury in a mercury thermometer would rise when the temperature

• A.

Increases.

• B.

Decreases.

• C.

Neither of these

B. Decreases.
Explanation
When the temperature increases, glass expands more than mercury. This means that the volume of the glass in the thermometer increases more than the volume of the mercury. As a result, the column of mercury in the thermometer will be pushed down due to the expansion of the glass. Therefore, the column of mercury in a mercury thermometer will decrease when the temperature increases.

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• 18.

Which of the following expands most when the temperature is increased? Equal volumes of

• A.

Iron.

• B.

Wood.

• C.

Ice water.

• D.

Helium.

• E.

All expand the same.

D. Helium.
Explanation
Helium expands the most when the temperature is increased compared to iron, wood, ice water, and equal volumes of other substances. This is because helium is a gas and its particles have more kinetic energy at higher temperatures, causing them to move faster and spread out, resulting in expansion. On the other hand, iron, wood, and ice water are solids or liquids, and their particles are closely packed, so they expand less when heated. Therefore, helium exhibits the greatest expansion when the temperature is increased.

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• 19.

Which of the following expands when the temperature is lowered? Equal volumes of

• A.

Iron.

• B.

Wood.

• C.

Helium.

• D.

Water at 4 degrees C.

• E.

None expands when the temperature is lowered.

D. Water at 4 degrees C.
Explanation
Water at 4 degrees Celsius expands when the temperature is lowered because it undergoes a unique phenomenon called the anomalous expansion of water. As water cools below 4 degrees Celsius, the hydrogen bonds between water molecules become more ordered, causing the molecules to move farther apart and the volume of water to increase. This is in contrast to most substances, including iron, wood, and helium, which contract and decrease in volume when the temperature is lowered. Therefore, water at 4 degrees Celsius is the only option that expands when the temperature is lowered.

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• 20.

Consider a closed, sealed can of air placed on a hot stove. The contained air undergoes an increase in

• A.

Mass.

• B.

Pressure.

• C.

Temperature.

• D.

All of these

• E.

Two of these

E. Two of these
Explanation
When a closed, sealed can of air is placed on a hot stove, the air inside the can undergoes an increase in temperature due to the heat from the stove. This increase in temperature leads to an increase in pressure as the air molecules gain more energy and move faster, colliding with the walls of the can more frequently and with greater force. However, there is no change in the mass of the air inside the can, as mass is a measure of the amount of matter and remains constant unless there is a change in the composition of the air. Therefore, the correct answer is "temperature" and "pressure".

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• 21.

Consider a sample of ice at 0 degrees C. If the temperature is decreased, the volume of the ice

• A.

Increases.

• B.

Decreases.

• C.

Stays the same.

B. Decreases.
Explanation
When the temperature of ice is decreased, it causes the water molecules to slow down and come closer together. This results in a decrease in the volume of the ice. Therefore, as the temperature decreases, the volume of the ice decreases.

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• 22.

Which of the following contracts most when the temperature is decreased? Equal volumes of

• A.

Iron.

• B.

Wood.

• C.

Water.

• D.

Helium.

• E.

All contract the same.

D. Helium.
Explanation
Helium is a gas at room temperature and it exhibits the most significant contraction when the temperature is decreased. This is because gases have more freedom of movement compared to solids or liquids, and as the temperature decreases, the gas molecules slow down and move closer together, resulting in contraction. Iron, wood, and water are solids or liquids, and although they may also contract to some extent with temperature decrease, their contraction is not as pronounced as that of helium. Therefore, helium contracts the most when the temperature is decreased.

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• 23.

Which of the following contracts when the temperature is increased? Equal volumes of

• A.

Iron.

• B.

Wood.

• C.

Ice water.

• D.

Helium.

• E.

None of the above contract when heated.

C. Ice water.
Explanation
When the temperature is increased, most substances expand or increase in volume due to the increase in kinetic energy of their particles. However, ice water is an exception to this general trend. When ice water is heated, the temperature of the water rises until it reaches the boiling point of water, at which point it starts to boil and convert into steam. During this phase change, the water molecules gain enough energy to break the intermolecular bonds that hold them together in a rigid structure, causing the water to expand and occupy a larger volume. Therefore, ice water contracts when the temperature is increased.

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• 24.

Consider a sample of water at 0 degrees C. If the temperature is slightly increased, the volume of the water

• A.

Increases.

• B.

Decreases.

• C.

Remains the same.

B. Decreases.
Explanation
When the temperature of water at 0 degrees Celsius is slightly increased, the water molecules gain energy and start moving faster. This increased kinetic energy causes the water molecules to spread out and occupy more space, resulting in an increase in volume. Therefore, the correct answer is "decreases" which contradicts the explanation provided.

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• 25.

When water at 4 degrees C is heated it expands. When water at 4 degrees C is cooled, it

• A.

Contracts.

• B.

Expands.

• C.

Neither contracts nor expands.

B. Expands.
Explanation
Water has a unique property where it reaches its maximum density at 4 degrees Celsius. As it is heated from 4 degrees Celsius, the water molecules gain energy and move faster, causing them to spread out and occupy more space. This expansion leads to an increase in volume, causing the water to expand. On the other hand, when water at 4 degrees Celsius is cooled, the water molecules lose energy and slow down, causing them to come closer together and occupy less space. This contraction leads to a decrease in volume, causing the water to contract. Therefore, the correct answer is that water at 4 degrees Celsius expands when heated.

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• 26.

During a very cold winter, water pipes sometimes burst. The reason for this is

• A.

The ground contracts when colder, pulling pipes apart.

• B.

Water expands when freezing.

• C.

Water contracts when freezing.

• D.

The thawing process releases pressure on the pipes.

• E.

None of these

B. Water expands when freezing.
Explanation
Water expands when freezing because its molecules arrange themselves in a hexagonal structure, causing them to take up more space. As a result, the volume of water increases when it freezes, which can put pressure on the surrounding pipes. This increased pressure can cause the pipes to burst, leading to water leakage and damage.

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• 27.

Aluminum has a specific heat capacity more than twice that of copper. Place equal masses of aluminum and copper wire in a flame and the one to undergo the fastest increase in temperature will be

• A.

Copper.

• B.

Aluminum.

• C.

Both the same

A. Copper.
Explanation
Aluminum has a higher specific heat capacity than copper, which means it requires more energy to raise its temperature compared to copper. Therefore, when equal masses of aluminum and copper wire are placed in a flame, copper will undergo a faster increase in temperature because it requires less energy to heat up.

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• 28.

Can a sample of water possibly have the same volume after being warmed by several Celsius degrees?

• A.

Sometimes

• B.

Always

• C.

Never

A. Sometimes
Explanation
The volume of water can change when it is warmed due to thermal expansion. However, the extent of the volume change depends on factors such as the initial temperature, the material of the container, and the amount of heating. In some cases, the volume change may be negligible, resulting in the same volume after being warmed by several Celsius degrees. Therefore, it is possible for a sample of water to sometimes have the same volume after being warmed.

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• 29.

A temperature difference of 10 degrees Celsius is also equal to a temperature difference of 10 on the

• A.

Fahrenheit scale.

• B.

Kelvin scale.

• C.

Both of these

• D.

Neither of these

B. Kelvin scale.
Explanation
The Kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale where 0 Kelvin represents absolute zero, the point at which all molecular motion ceases. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are relative scales based on the freezing and boiling points of water. Since the Kelvin scale is absolute, a temperature difference of 10 degrees Celsius is also equal to a temperature difference of 10 on the Kelvin scale. However, this is not the case for the Fahrenheit scale, as the size of the degree is different. Therefore, the correct answer is the Kelvin scale.

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• 30.

Room temperature on the Kelvin scale is about

• A.

100 K.

• B.

200 K.

• C.

300 K.

• D.

400 K.

• E.

More than 400 K.

C. 300 K.
Explanation
Room temperature on the Kelvin scale is about 300 K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale where 0 K represents absolute zero, the point at which all molecular motion ceases. Room temperature is typically defined as the average temperature experienced indoors, which is around 20-25 degrees Celsius or 68-77 degrees Fahrenheit. Converting this to Kelvin gives a range of approximately 293-298 K. Therefore, the closest option is 300 K.

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• 31.

Between 0 degrees Celsius and 8 degrees Celsius a red-dyed-water-in-glass thermometer would

• A.

Be especially suitable.

• B.

Always be wrong.

• C.

• D.

Explode.

• E.

Implode.

Explanation
A red-dyed-water-in-glass thermometer would give ambiguous readings between 0 degrees Celsius and 8 degrees Celsius because this range is close to the freezing point of water. At these temperatures, the red dye may freeze or separate from the water, causing the readings to be unclear or inconsistent. Therefore, the thermometer would not provide accurate and reliable measurements within this temperature range.

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• 32.

The white-hot sparks that strike your skin from a 4th-of-July-type sparkler don't harm you because

• A.

They have a low temperature.

• B.

The energy per molecule is very low.

• C.

The energy per molecule is high, but little energy is transferred because of the few molecules in the spark.

C. The energy per molecule is high, but little energy is transferred because of the few molecules in the spark.
Explanation
The correct answer is that the energy per molecule is high, but little energy is transferred because of the few molecules in the spark. This means that while the individual molecules in the spark may have a high amount of energy, there are not enough molecules present to transfer a significant amount of energy to your skin. Therefore, the sparks do not harm you.

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• 33.

Some molecules are able to absorb large amounts of energy in the form of internal vibrations and rotations. Materials composed of such molecules have

• A.

Low specific heats.

• B.

High specific heats.

• C.

None of the above

B. High specific heats.
Explanation
Molecules that can absorb large amounts of energy in the form of internal vibrations and rotations have high specific heats. This means that they require a large amount of energy to increase their temperature. This is because the energy is being used to excite the internal vibrations and rotations of the molecules, rather than increasing their kinetic energy. Therefore, materials composed of such molecules will have high specific heats.

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• 34.

The fact that desert sand is very hot in the day and very cold at night is evidence that sand has

• A.

A low specific heat.

• B.

A high specific heat.

• C.

No specific heat.

A. A low specific heat.
Explanation
Desert sand being very hot in the day and very cold at night indicates that it has a low specific heat. Specific heat refers to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance. Since desert sand quickly heats up during the day and cools down rapidly at night, it means that it does not retain heat for long, indicating a low specific heat.

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• 35.

The temperature at the bottom of Lake Tahoe, high in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, at this moment is

• A.

Below 4 degrees C.

• B.

4 degrees C.

• C.

Above 4 degrees C.

• D.

Uncertain.

B. 4 degrees C.
Explanation
The correct answer is 4 degrees C. The question asks about the temperature at the bottom of Lake Tahoe, and the answer states that it is 4 degrees C.

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• 36.

Pour a liter of water at 40 degrees C into a liter of water at 20 degrees C and the final temperature of the two becomes

• A.

Less than 30 degrees C.

• B.

At or about 30 degrees C.

• C.

More than 30 degrees C.

B. At or about 30 degrees C.
Explanation
When two bodies at different temperatures are mixed together, they tend to reach a common temperature through the process of thermal equilibrium. In this case, pouring a liter of water at 40 degrees C into a liter of water at 20 degrees C will result in the final temperature being at or about 30 degrees C. This is because the warmer water will transfer some of its heat energy to the cooler water until both reach a balance, resulting in a final temperature that is intermediate between the initial temperatures.

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• 37.

If you stake out a plot of land with a steel tape on a very hot day, the actual amount of land you will have will be

• A.

Smaller than measured.

• B.

Larger than measured.

• C.

Correct.

A. Smaller than measured.
Explanation
When you stake out a plot of land with a steel tape on a very hot day, the heat causes the tape to expand. This expansion leads to an overestimation of the measured distance. As a result, the actual amount of land you will have will be smaller than what was initially measured.

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• 38.

Place a kilogram block of iron at 40 degrees C into a kilogram of water at 20 degrees C and the final temperature of the two becomes

• A.

Less than 30 degrees C.

• B.

At or about 30 degrees C.

• C.

More than 30 degrees C.

A. Less than 30 degrees C.
Explanation
When a kilogram block of iron at 40 degrees C is placed into a kilogram of water at 20 degrees C, heat will transfer from the iron to the water until they reach thermal equilibrium. Since the iron is at a higher temperature than the water, heat will flow from the iron to the water, causing the temperature of the iron to decrease and the temperature of the water to increase. However, the specific heat capacity of iron is lower than that of water, meaning that a given amount of heat will cause a greater change in temperature for iron compared to water. Therefore, when the two substances reach thermal equilibrium, the final temperature will be less than 30 degrees C.

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• 39.

If the specific heat of water were lower than it is, ponds in the cold of winter would be

• A.

More likely to freeze.

• B.

Less likely to freeze.

• C.

Neither more nor less likely to freeze.

A. More likely to freeze.
Explanation
If the specific heat of water were lower than it is, it would mean that water would require less energy to change its temperature. In the context of ponds in the cold of winter, this would mean that the water in the ponds would cool down faster and reach the freezing point more quickly. Therefore, if the specific heat of water were lower, ponds would be more likely to freeze.

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• 40.

When ice floats in water, a small part of it extends above the surface. Interestingly enough, the volume of ice that extends above the surface is equal to the volume of the

• A.

Water the ice displaces.

• B.

Vast number of open spaces in the hexagonal ice crystals.

• C.

Both of these

• D.

Neither of these

B. Vast number of open spaces in the hexagonal ice crystals.
Explanation
When ice floats in water, it displaces a volume of water equal to its own volume. This is because the density of ice is lower than that of water. The reason for this is the presence of a vast number of open spaces in the hexagonal ice crystals. These open spaces create gaps between the ice molecules, making ice less dense than water. As a result, when ice is placed in water, it floats and a part of it extends above the surface, with the volume of the extended part being equal to the volume of water displaced.

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• 41.

Consider a metal ring with a gap cut in it. When the ring is heated, the gap

• A.

Becomes narrower.

• B.

Becomes wider.

• C.

Retains its size.

B. Becomes wider.
Explanation
When the metal ring is heated, the molecules in the ring gain energy and move faster. This increased motion causes the atoms in the ring to vibrate more vigorously, leading to an expansion in the size of the ring. As a result, the gap in the ring also becomes wider.

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• 42.

If you measure a plot of land with a brass tape on a cold day, the actual amount of land you have will be

• A.

Smaller than measured.

• B.

Larger than measured.

• C.

The same.

B. Larger than measured.
Explanation
When measuring a plot of land with a brass tape on a cold day, the tape will contract due to the cold temperature. This contraction will result in a shorter measurement than the actual size of the land. Therefore, the actual amount of land will be larger than what is measured.

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• Mar 21, 2023
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• Dec 20, 2012
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