Chapter 15: Genes And How They Work

51 Questions | Total Attempts: 110

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Work Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The connection that exists between genes and hereditary traits requires the deciphering of the information encoded in genes into
    • A. 

      Amino acids.

    • B. 

      Nucleotides.

    • C. 

      Proteins.

    • D. 

      Histone molecules.

    • E. 

      Complementary bases.

  • 2. 
    Both DNA and RNA are made up of building blocks known as
    • A. 

      Nucleotides.

    • B. 

      Complementary base pairs.

    • C. 

      Amino acids.

    • D. 

      Genes.

  • 3. 
    The "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis was proposed by
    • A. 

      Watson and Crick.

    • B. 

      Griffith.

    • C. 

      Garrod.

    • D. 

      Franklin.

    • E. 

      Beadle and Tatum.

  • 4. 
    DNA and RNA nucleotides are composed of five carbon sugars, phosphate, and nitrogen bases. How many total nitrogen bases are there for use in the two nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5

  • 5. 
    The polypeptide-making organelles residing in the cytoplasm are large protein aggregates to which RNA is associated. They are called
    • A. 

      Ribosomes.

    • B. 

      Golgi bodies.

    • C. 

      Lysosomes.

    • D. 

      The endoplasmic reticulum.

    • E. 

      Mitochondria.

  • 6. 
    Amino acids are transported to the ribosome for use in building the polypeptide by
    • A. 

      MRNA molecules.

    • B. 

      TRNA molecules.

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase molecules.

    • D. 

      RRNA molecules.

    • E. 

      DNA ligase molecules.

  • 7. 
    The process in which an RNA polymerase molecule assembles an mRNA molecule whose nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence is called
    • A. 

      Gene amplification.

    • B. 

      Translation.

    • C. 

      Transcription.

    • D. 

      Polypeptide sequencing.

    • E. 

      Complementary base pairing.

  • 8. 
    Similar to the complementary purine-pyrimidine relationship observed in DNA, which of the following choices pairs with adenine in RNA?
    • A. 

      Thymine

    • B. 

      Cytosine

    • C. 

      Guanine

    • D. 

      Uracil

  • 9. 
    The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of how many bases?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      16

    • E. 

      64

  • 10. 
    The hereditary information in DNA is conveyed through the
    • A. 

      Production of all three kinds of RNA molecules.

    • B. 

      Production of a lipid bilayer.

    • C. 

      Production of DNA copies.

    • D. 

      Production of many proteins and polypeptides.

    • E. 

      Production of all of the codons.

  • 11. 
    Protein synthesis takes place on
    • A. 

      The plasma membrane.

    • B. 

      The nucleus.

    • C. 

      Ribosomes.

    • D. 

      Lysosomes.

    • E. 

      Microbodies.

  • 12. 
    Ribosomes are complex arrangements of
    • A. 

      RNA and DNA.

    • B. 

      RNA and large proteins.

    • C. 

      RNA and sugars.

    • D. 

      DNA and proteins.

    • E. 

      Nucleosomes and RNA.

  • 13. 
    The sites A, P, and E are progressively occupied by amino acids being assembled into a chain in protein synthesis. These sites are part of
    • A. 

      Small ribosomal subunit.

    • B. 

      Large ribosomal subunit.

    • C. 

      MRNA.

    • D. 

      TRNA.

    • E. 

      DNA (the gene itself.)

  • 14. 
    Each amino acid has a specific tRNA molecule that can transport it to the site of protein synthesis. Therefore, in humans the number of different tRNA molecules would be
    • A. 

      3.

    • B. 

      20.

    • C. 

      40.

    • D. 

      80.

    • E. 

      Thousands.

  • 15. 
    In eukaryotic cells, mRNA is made as a copy of the DNA coding information in the
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      Mitochondria.

    • C. 

      ER.

    • D. 

      Nucleus.

    • E. 

      Plasma membrane.

  • 16. 
    Gene expression includes which two of the following processes?
    • A. 

      Transcription and replication

    • B. 

      Replication and repression

    • C. 

      Protein synthesis and replication

    • D. 

      Mutation and cell division

    • E. 

      Transcription and translation

  • 17. 
    The enzyme that initiates transcription is
    • A. 

      RNA polymerase.

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • C. 

      Carbonic anhydrase.

    • D. 

      ATP synthetase.

    • E. 

      Transformation principle.

  • 18. 
    Because nucleic acid sequence information is changed into amino acid sequence information, polypeptide synthesis is known as
    • A. 

      Breaking the code.

    • B. 

      Decoding.

    • C. 

      Transcription.

    • D. 

      Translocation.

    • E. 

      Translation.

  • 19. 
    The number of nucleotides required to specify an amino acid is
    • A. 

      1.

    • B. 

      2.

    • C. 

      3.

    • D. 

      4.

    • E. 

      A variable number.

  • 20. 
    The genetic code operates on all the following principles except
    • A. 

      All four of the nucleotide bases must be used.

    • B. 

      Each combination of any three nucleotides can act as a codon.

    • C. 

      The first nucleotide in every codon is always the same.

    • D. 

      A particular codon always specifies the same amino acid.

  • 21. 
    How many unique mRNA codons can be constructed from the four different RNA nucleotides?
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      32

    • E. 

      64

  • 22. 
    The 3-nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is called the
    • A. 

      Codon.

    • B. 

      Anticodon.

    • C. 

      Amino acid.

    • D. 

      Transcript.

    • E. 

      Template.

  • 23. 
    Besides the triplet nature of the genetic code, the other major piece of information that was provided by Crick and his coworkers is that
    • A. 

      Each codon specified a different amino acid.

    • B. 

      The code of all DNA molecules is the same.

    • C. 

      The proteins made from the coded information are always the same.

    • D. 

      The reading of the code occurs without any punctuation.

    • E. 

      The genetic code is the same in all organisms with no exceptions.

  • 24. 
    The tRNA nucleotide sequence that lines up on the mRNA is
    • A. 

      An intron.

    • B. 

      An exon.

    • C. 

      A release factor.

    • D. 

      An initiation factor.

    • E. 

      An anticodon.

  • 25. 
    Protein synthesis proceeds by the ribosome
    • A. 

      Alternating between many chains.

    • B. 

      Moving three nucleotides at a time on the mRNA.

    • C. 

      Attaching amino acids in a random fashion.

    • D. 

      Selecting the tRNA molecule that fits.

    • E. 

      Attaching amino acids to the growing chain without charged tRNAs.