Chapter 13-stress, Health, And Coping.

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Stress And Health Quizzes & Trivia

Stress, Health, and Coping

Chapter 13-Hockenbury & Hockenbury Fifth Edition


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The flight-or-fight response was first described by  ___________________

    • A.

      Richard Lazarus

    • B.

      Hans Selye

    • C.

      Walter Cannon

    • D.

      Robert Ader

    Correct Answer
    C. Walter Cannon
    Explanation
    Walter Cannon is the correct answer because he was the first to describe the flight-or-fight response. In his research, Cannon observed that when faced with a perceived threat, the body goes through physiological changes to prepare for either fighting or running away. He identified the sympathetic nervous system as the key player in this response, activating the release of adrenaline and other stress hormones. Cannon's work laid the foundation for our understanding of how the body responds to stress and danger.

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  • 2. 

    The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture.

    • A.

      Acculturative stress

    • B.

      Conflict

    • C.

      Flight-or-fight response

    • D.

      Catecholamines

    Correct Answer
    A. Acculturative stress
    Explanation
    Acculturative stress refers to the stress that individuals experience when they are trying to adapt to a new culture. This can include feelings of anxiety, confusion, and frustration as they navigate unfamiliar social norms, customs, and language. The pressure to conform and fit into the new culture can create significant stress, which can impact mental and physical well-being. Acculturative stress can manifest in various ways, such as difficulties in communication, homesickness, and identity conflicts. It is a common experience for immigrants, international students, and individuals who have relocated to a new country.

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  • 3. 

    Hans Selye discovered that if bodily "wear and tear" of the a stress producing event continued, the effects became evident in three progressive stages called the general adaptation syndrome. The stages occured in which order: 

    • A.

      Resistance stage; alarm stage; exhaustion stage

    • B.

      Alarm stage; resistance stage; exhaustion stage

    • C.

      Exhaustion stage; alarm stage; resistance stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Alarm stage; resistance stage; exhaustion stage
    Explanation
    According to Hans Selye's discovery, the three progressive stages of the general adaptation syndrome occur in the following order: alarm stage, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage. In the alarm stage, the body initially reacts to the stressor by activating the fight-or-flight response. In the resistance stage, the body tries to adapt and cope with the ongoing stress, attempting to restore balance. Finally, if the stress continues for a prolonged period without relief, the body enters the exhaustion stage, where its resources are depleted, and it becomes more susceptible to illness and physical and mental breakdown.

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  • 4. 

    Stage of the general adaptation syndrome in which the adrenal medulla releases catecholamines, as Cannon had previously described.

    • A.

      Resistance stage

    • B.

      Exhaustion stage

    • C.

      Alarm stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Alarm stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is alarm stage. During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body experiences a fight-or-flight response to a stressor. This is characterized by the release of stress hormones, including catecholamines, from the adrenal medulla. This stage is the initial response to stress and prepares the body for potential danger or threat.

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  • 5. 

    Stage of the general adaptation syndrome during which the body activity tries to adjust to the continuing stressful situation. Physiological arousal remains above normal and resistance to new stressors is impaired.

    • A.

      Exhaustion stage

    • B.

      Alarm stage

    • C.

      Resistance stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Resistance stage
    Explanation
    The resistance stage is the correct answer because during this stage, the body tries to adapt to the ongoing stressful situation. Physiological arousal remains elevated, indicating that the body is still responding to the stress. However, the body's ability to resist new stressors is impaired, suggesting that it is becoming fatigued and less able to cope with additional stress. This stage occurs after the initial alarm stage and before the exhaustion stage in the general adaptation syndrome model.

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  • 6. 

    The stage during the general adaptation syndrome during which the symptoms of the alarm stage reappear, only now irreversibly.

    • A.

      Alarm stage

    • B.

      Exhaustion stage

    • C.

      Resistance stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Exhaustion stage
    Explanation
    The exhaustion stage is the stage during the general adaptation syndrome when the symptoms of the alarm stage reappear, but now irreversibly. This stage occurs after prolonged exposure to stressors and the body's resources are depleted. The body is no longer able to cope with the stress and its ability to adapt becomes exhausted. This leads to physical and mental exhaustion, increased vulnerability to illness, and a decreased ability to function effectively.

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  • 7. 

    An interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous endocrine system functions, and the immune system.

    • A.

      Health psychology

    • B.

      Biopsychosocial model

    • C.

      Psychoneuroimmunology

    Correct Answer
    C. Psychoneuroimmunology
    Explanation
    Psychoneuroimmunology is the correct answer because it is the interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous endocrine system functions, and the immune system. This field focuses on how psychological factors, such as stress and emotions, can impact the functioning of the immune system and overall health. By studying these interconnections, psychoneuroimmunology aims to understand how psychological and physiological factors interact to influence health outcomes.

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  • 8. 

    Specialized white blood cells that are responsible for immune defenses

    • A.

      Corticosteroids

    • B.

      Lymphocytes

    • C.

      Catecholamines

    Correct Answer
    B. Lymphocytes
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes are specialized white blood cells that play a crucial role in immune defenses. They are responsible for recognizing and attacking foreign substances in the body, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Lymphocytes are part of the adaptive immune system and include two main types: B cells and T cells. B cells produce antibodies that can neutralize pathogens, while T cells directly destroy infected cells. Overall, lymphocytes are essential for maintaining a healthy immune system and defending the body against harmful invaders.

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  • 9. 

    The research in which the immune systems of rats were classically conditioned to respond to flavored water, and helped to establish psychoneuroimmunology, was conducted by which psychologists:

    • A.

      Robert Ader; Nicholas Cohen

    • B.

      Nicholas Cohen; Hans Selye

    • C.

      Hans Selye; Walter Cannon

    • D.

      Robert Ader; Walter Cannon

    Correct Answer
    A. Robert Ader; Nicholas Cohen
    Explanation
    Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen conducted the research in which the immune systems of rats were classically conditioned to respond to flavored water. This research helped to establish the field of psychoneuroimmunology, which explores the connection between the mind, nervous system, and immune system.

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