Chapter 12: Urinary System Medical Terms

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Chapter 12: Urinary System Medical Terms - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pertaining to a medication that decreases urine production and secretion

    • A.

      Pyuria

    • B.

      Dysuria

    • C.

      Micturation

    • D.

      Antidiuretic

    Correct Answer
    D. Antidiuretic
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic refers to a medication that decreases urine production and secretion. It works by increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidneys, leading to a decrease in urine volume. This can be beneficial in conditions such as diabetes insipidus, where there is excessive urine production. By inhibiting diuresis, antidiuretic medications help to maintain fluid balance in the body.

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  • 2. 

    Surgical excision of the bladder or part of the bladder

    • A.

      Hypercalciuria

    • B.

      Cystectomy

    • C.

      Nephrolith

    • D.

      Urologist

    Correct Answer
    B. Cystectomy
    Explanation
    Cystectomy refers to the surgical removal of the bladder or a part of the bladder. In the context of the given options, cystectomy is the most relevant term as it directly relates to the surgical excision of the bladder. Hypercalciuria, nephrolith, and urologist are not directly related to the surgical removal of the bladder. Hypercalciuria refers to excessive calcium in the urine, nephrolith refers to kidney stones, and urologist is a medical specialist who deals with the urinary system. Therefore, cystectomy is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 3. 

    Inflammation of the bladder

    • A.

      Periurethral

    • B.

      Glomerilitis

    • C.

      Pyuria

    • D.

      Cystitis

    Correct Answer
    D. Cystitis
    Explanation
    Cystitis refers to the inflammation of the bladder. It is characterized by symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and a strong urge to urinate. This condition is commonly caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by other factors such as irritation from certain medications or hygiene products. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and relieve symptoms.

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  • 4. 

    Difficult or painful urination

    • A.

      Cyctectomy

    • B.

      Ureteropathy

    • C.

      Dysuria

    • D.

      Micturation

    Correct Answer
    C. Dysuria
    Explanation
    Dysuria refers to difficult or painful urination. It is a symptom that can be caused by various conditions such as urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or inflammation of the urethra. It is important to identify the underlying cause of dysuria in order to provide appropriate treatment.

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  • 5. 

    Inflammation of the renal glomeruli

    • A.

      Ureteropathy

    • B.

      Pyuria

    • C.

      Glomerulitis

    • D.

      Dysuria

    Correct Answer
    C. Glomerulitis
    Explanation
    Glomerulitis refers to the inflammation of the renal glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that help filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. This inflammation can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications. Symptoms of glomerulitis may include blood in the urine, proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), and decreased urine output. Treatment usually involves addressing the underlying cause of inflammation and managing symptoms to prevent further kidney damage.

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  • 6. 

    Excessive amount of calcium in the urine

    • A.

      Periurethral

    • B.

      Hypercalciuria

    • C.

      Nephrolith

    • D.

      Urethralgia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypercalciuria
    Explanation
    Hypercalciuria is the excessive amount of calcium in the urine. This condition can lead to the formation of kidney stones (nephrolith) and cause pain in the urethra (urethralgia). The term "periurethral" is not directly related to hypercalciuria, so it is not the correct answer.

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  • 7. 

    The process of urination

    • A.

      Antidiuretic

    • B.

      Urethralgia

    • C.

      Micturation

    • D.

      Ureteropathy

    Correct Answer
    C. Micturation
    Explanation
    Micturation refers to the process of urination. It is the act of emptying the bladder, where urine is expelled from the body through the urethra. The term "micturation" is derived from the Latin word "micturire," which means "to desire to urinate." This term is often used in medical contexts to describe the physiological process of voiding urine.

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  • 8. 

    Kidney stone

    • A.

      Micturition

    • B.

      Periurethral

    • C.

      Nephrolith

    • D.

      Glomerulitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Nephrolith
    Explanation
    A nephrolith is a medical term that refers to a kidney stone. It is a hard mass that forms in the kidneys due to the concentration of certain substances in the urine. The other terms mentioned in the question - micturition, periurethral, and glomerulitis - are not related to kidney stones. Micturition refers to the process of urination, periurethral refers to the area around the urethra, and glomerulitis refers to inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidneys. Therefore, the correct answer is nephrolith, which is the only term related to kidney stones.

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  • 9. 

    Pertaining to around the urethra

    • A.

      Glomerulitis

    • B.

      Nephrolith

    • C.

      Periurethral

    • D.

      Pyuria

    Correct Answer
    C. Periurethral
    Explanation
    Periurethral means "pertaining to around the urethra." It is a term used to describe any condition or structure located in the area surrounding the urethra. The other options, glomerulitis, nephrolith, and pyuria, do not relate to the urethra or its surrounding area, making them incorrect answers.

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  • 10. 

    Pus in the urine

    • A.

      Dysuria

    • B.

      Micturation

    • C.

      Neophrolith

    • D.

      Pyuria

    Correct Answer
    D. Pyuria
    Explanation
    Pyuria refers to the presence of pus in the urine. Pus is a thick, yellowish fluid that contains dead white blood cells, tissue debris, and bacteria. It is a sign of infection in the urinary tract, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI). Symptoms of a UTI can include dysuria, which is pain or discomfort during urination, and frequent urination, known as micturition. Neophrolith refers to a new kidney stone, which is unrelated to the presence of pus in the urine. Therefore, the correct answer is pyuria.

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  • 11. 

    Disease of the ureter

    • A.

      Glomerulitis

    • B.

      Urethralgia

    • C.

      Pyuria

    • D.

      Ureteropathy

    Correct Answer
    D. Ureteropathy
    Explanation
    Ureteropathy refers to any disease or disorder affecting the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Glomerulitis is inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidneys, urethralgia is pain in the urethra, and pyuria is the presence of pus in the urine. However, ureteropathy specifically refers to conditions that affect the ureter itself, such as blockages, strictures, or infections. Therefore, ureteropathy is the most appropriate term to describe a disease of the ureter.

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  • 12. 

    Pain in the urithra

    • A.

      Dysuria

    • B.

      Urethalgia

    • C.

      Pyuria

    • D.

      Micturation

    Correct Answer
    B. Urethalgia
    Explanation
    Urethalgia refers to the pain or discomfort experienced in the urethra. It is a term used to describe the symptom of pain specifically in the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Dysuria, on the other hand, refers to painful or difficult urination, and pyuria refers to the presence of pus in the urine. Micturition simply means the act of urinating. Therefore, out of the given options, urethalgia is the most appropriate term to describe the pain in the urethra.

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  • 13. 

    A physician who specializes in the study of the urinary system

    • A.

      Proctologist

    • B.

      Urologist

    • C.

      Myotologist

    • D.

      Hemotologist

    Correct Answer
    B. Urologist
    Explanation
    A urologist is a physician who specializes in the study of the urinary system. They diagnose and treat conditions related to the kidneys, bladder, urethra, and other parts of the urinary tract. They may also treat conditions related to the male reproductive system, such as prostate issues. The other options, proctologist, myotologist, and hematologist, do not specifically focus on the urinary system and are not as appropriate for this description.

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  • 14. 

    Medical device used to crush kidney stones

    • A.

      Hemodialysis

    • B.

      Lithrotripsy

    • C.

      Lithotriptor

    • D.

      Urochrome

    Correct Answer
    C. Lithotriptor
    Explanation
    A lithotriptor is a medical device used to crush kidney stones. This device uses shock waves to break down the stones into smaller pieces, making it easier for them to pass through the urinary tract and be excreted from the body. Hemodialysis is a different medical procedure used to filter waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. Urochrome is a pigment that gives urine its yellow color. Therefore, lithotriptor is the correct answer as it specifically refers to the device used for crushing kidney stones.

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  • 15. 

    Sharp severe pain in the lower back over the kidney radiating forward into the groin caused by blockage during the passing of a stone

    • A.

      Hemodialysis

    • B.

      Renal colic

    • C.

      Urethral stricture

    • D.

      Peritoneal dialysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal colic
    Explanation
    Renal colic is the correct answer because it accurately describes the symptoms mentioned in the question. Renal colic refers to sharp, severe pain in the lower back over the kidney that radiates forward into the groin. This type of pain is commonly caused by a blockage during the passing of a kidney stone. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and urethral stricture do not specifically match the symptoms described in the question.

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  • 16. 

    Process of voiding urin

    • A.

      Lithrotripsy

    • B.

      Urochrome

    • C.

      Urgency

    • D.

      Urination

    Correct Answer
    D. Urination
    Explanation
    Urination refers to the process of voiding urine from the body. It is a natural and necessary function of the urinary system, where urine is expelled from the bladder through the urethra. This process helps to eliminate waste products, excess water, and toxins from the body. Urination is controlled by the muscles of the bladder and the urethra, and it is regulated by signals from the brain.

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  • 17. 

    Crushing of a kidney stone

    • A.

      Peritoneal dialysis

    • B.

      Lithrotripsy

    • C.

      Urination

    • D.

      Hemodialysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Lithrotripsy
    Explanation
    Lithrotripsy is the correct answer because it is a medical procedure used to crush kidney stones into smaller pieces, making it easier for them to pass through the urinary tract and be excreted through urination. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are both treatments for kidney failure, while urination is a natural process of excreting waste from the body.

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  • 18. 

    Use of an artificial kidney to separate waste from the blood

    • A.

      Urination

    • B.

      Hemodialysis

    • C.

      Lithrotripsy

    • D.

      Urinometer

    Correct Answer
    B. Hemodialysis
    Explanation
    Hemodialysis is a process that involves using an artificial kidney to separate waste from the blood. This is done by passing the blood through a dialyzer, which acts as a filter, removing waste products and excess fluids. The clean blood is then returned to the body. Hemodialysis is commonly used as a treatment for individuals with kidney failure or chronic kidney disease, as it helps to maintain the balance of electrolytes and fluids in the body.

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  • 19. 

    Separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis

    • A.

      Renal colic

    • B.

      Urethral stricture

    • C.

      Hemodialysis

    • D.

      Peritoneal dialysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Peritoneal dialysis
    Explanation
    Peritoneal dialysis is a method of separating waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis. It involves introducing a sterile dialysis solution into the abdomen through the catheter, which then absorbs waste products and excess fluids from the blood through the peritoneal membrane. This solution is then drained out, taking the waste with it. This process helps to remove toxins and maintain the balance of electrolytes and fluids in the body. Unlike hemodialysis, which uses a machine to filter the blood, peritoneal dialysis can be done at home and does not require a specialized facility.

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  • 20. 

    Narrowing or constriction of the urethra

    • A.

      Hemodialysis

    • B.

      Urethral stricture

    • C.

      Urgency

    • D.

      Peritoneal dialysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Urethral stricture
    Explanation
    A urethral stricture refers to the narrowing or constriction of the urethra. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as scar tissue formation, inflammation, or injury. It can lead to difficulties in urination, including urgency and a weakened urine stream. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are unrelated to the narrowing of the urethra and urgency symptoms. Therefore, the correct answer is urethral stricture.

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  • 21. 

    Pigment that gives urine its normal yellow color

    • A.

      Urochrome

    • B.

      Renal colic

    • C.

      Urinometer

    • D.

      Urgency

    Correct Answer
    A. Urochrome
    Explanation
    Urochrome is the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow color.

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  • 22. 

    Medical instrument used to measure the specific gravity of urine

    • A.

      Urethral stricture

    • B.

      Urination

    • C.

      Urinometer

    • D.

      Urochrome

    Correct Answer
    C. Urinometer
    Explanation
    A urinometer is a medical instrument used to measure the specific gravity of urine. Specific gravity is a measure of the concentration of solutes in urine, which can provide information about a person's hydration status and kidney function. By measuring the specific gravity, healthcare professionals can assess the density of urine and determine if it is within the normal range. This information can be helpful in diagnosing certain medical conditions or monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. Therefore, a urinometer is the correct answer as it is specifically designed for this purpose.

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  • 23. 

    Sudden need to void urine

    • A.

      Urination

    • B.

      Urgency

    • C.

      Urethral stricture

    • D.

      Renal colic

    Correct Answer
    B. Urgency
    Explanation
    The sudden need to void urine is known as urgency. This can be caused by various factors such as urinary tract infections, bladder spasms, or certain medications. It is a common symptom of conditions like overactive bladder or urinary incontinence. Urgency can also be a sign of more serious conditions like urethral stricture or renal colic. In these cases, urgent medical attention may be required to address the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment.

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