Psychology By Hockenbury Chapter 11: Personality Quiz!

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Psychology By Hockenbury Chapter 11: Personality Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The psychoanalytic persepctive of personality theory____________

    • A.

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.

    • B.

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • C.

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • D.

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    Correct Answer
    C. Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.
    Explanation
    See pg. 459

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  • 2. 

    The humanistic perspective of personality theory __________________

    • A.

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • B.

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • C.

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.

    • D.

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.
    Explanation
    See pg. 459

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  • 3. 

    The social cognitive perspective of personality theory_____________________.

    • A.

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • B.

      Emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • C.

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • D.

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.
    Explanation
    See pg. 459

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  • 4. 

    The trait perspective of personality theory __________________.

    • A.

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • B.

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.

    • C.

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • D.

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.
    Explanation
    See pg. 459

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  • 5. 

    A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneoulsy reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.

    • A.

      Hypnosis

    • B.

      Free association

    • C.

      Introspection

    Correct Answer
    B. Free association
    Explanation
    Free association is a psychoanalytic technique where the patient is encouraged to express their thoughts, feelings, and mental images without censorship or judgment. This technique allows the unconscious mind to surface and provides insight into the patient's underlying conflicts and desires. Unlike hypnosis, which involves a state of altered consciousness, and introspection, which involves self-reflection, free association focuses on the spontaneous expression of the patient's inner world.

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  • 6. 

    According to Freud, psychological energy develops into the three basic structures of personality. Which is NOT one of those three structures?

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      Libido

    • C.

      Ego

    • D.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    B. Libido
    Explanation
    Freud proposed that psychological energy develops into three basic structures of personality: id, ego, and superego. The id represents the unconscious and instinctual drives, while the ego is the conscious and rational part of the mind that mediates between the id and the external world. The superego represents the internalized moral and societal values. Libido, on the other hand, refers to the energy or drive associated with sexual instincts. It is not considered as one of the three structures of personality according to Freud's theory.

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  • 7. 

    In Freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle.

    • A.

      Eros

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Id

    • D.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    C. Id
    Explanation
    The correct answer is id. In Freud's theory, the id represents the completely unconscious and irrational part of personality. It operates based on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives. The id is driven by basic needs and desires, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual gratification, and it operates without any consideration for social norms or consequences.

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  • 8. 

    Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.

    • A.

      Projection

    • B.

      Denial

    • C.

      Reaction formation

    • D.

      Regression

    Correct Answer
    C. Reaction formation
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism where individuals behave or think in a way that is the extreme opposite of their unacceptable urges or impulses. This defense mechanism helps individuals to cope with anxiety or guilt by adopting a behavior or attitude that is completely opposite to their true feelings. In this case, the individual may have unacceptable urges or impulses, but they consciously exhibit thoughts or behaviors that are the complete opposite of those urges. This is a way for the individual to deny or suppress their true feelings and present themselves in a socially acceptable manner.

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  • 9. 

    A form of displacement in which sexual urges are rechanneled into productive, nonsexual activities.

    • A.

      Sublimation

    • B.

      Denial

    • C.

      Undoing

    • D.

      Rationalization

    Correct Answer
    A. Sublimation
    Explanation
    Sublimation refers to a psychological defense mechanism where individuals redirect their sexual urges into productive and nonsexual activities. This process allows individuals to channel their energy and desires into socially acceptable and constructive outlets. It helps to prevent the expression of sexual impulses in inappropriate or harmful ways, promoting personal growth and societal harmony. Denial involves refusing to acknowledge or accept a reality, undoing involves trying to reverse or undo a previous action, and rationalization involves justifying or providing logical reasons for one's behavior.

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  • 10. 

    Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development.

    • A.

      Denial

    • B.

      Regression

    • C.

      Repression

    • D.

      Undoing

    Correct Answer
    B. Regression
    Explanation
    Regression refers to the act of retreating to a behavior pattern that is characteristic of an earlier stage of development. This means that when faced with stress or anxiety, an individual may revert back to behaviors or habits that they displayed during a previous stage of their life. In this context, denial refers to the refusal to acknowledge or accept reality, repression refers to the unconscious blocking of unwanted thoughts or memories, and undoing refers to the attempt to reverse or negate a previous action. Therefore, regression is the most appropriate term to describe the given behavior pattern.

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  • 11. 

    The attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities to others.

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Repression

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Denial

    Correct Answer
    C. Projection
    Explanation
    Projection is the attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities to others. This defense mechanism involves unconsciously denying the existence of certain aspects of oneself and instead attributing them to someone else. For example, a person who is dishonest may accuse others of being untrustworthy. This allows the individual to avoid confronting their own flaws and maintain a positive self-image.

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  • 12. 

    In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent.

    • A.

      Identification

    • B.

      Oedipus complex

    • C.

      Ego defense mechanism

    • D.

      Penis envy

    Correct Answer
    B. Oedipus complex
    Explanation
    The Oedipus complex is a concept in Freud's theory that describes a child's unconscious sexual desire for their opposite-sex parent. This desire is typically accompanied by hostile feelings towards the same-sex parent. The term "Oedipus complex" is derived from the Greek myth of Oedipus, who unknowingly kills his father and marries his mother. This complex is believed to be a normal stage of psychosexual development during childhood, where the child experiences conflicting emotions and desires towards their parents.

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  • 13. 

    Penis envy is a term used to describe_________________

    • A.

      A child's unconcious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings.

    • B.

      A man's desire to have a penis similar in size to those of African's and their descendents.

    • C.

      The sense of deprivation and loss a little girl exepriences when she discovers that boys have a penis, and she does not.

    Correct Answer
    C. The sense of deprivation and loss a little girl exepriences when she discovers that boys have a penis, and she does not.
    Explanation
    Penis envy is a term used to describe the sense of deprivation and loss a little girl experiences when she discovers that boys have a penis, and she does not. This concept was introduced by Sigmund Freud, who believed that girls develop a sense of inferiority and jealousy towards boys due to their perceived lack of a penis. Freud suggested that this envy plays a role in the development of female gender identity and the formation of the Oedipus complex.

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  • 14. 

    According to Freud, sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed during the ____________ stage in late childhood, due to the intense anxiety associated with the Oedipus complex.

    • A.

      Genital

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Oral

    • D.

      Anal

    Correct Answer
    B. Latency
    Explanation
    During the latency stage in late childhood, according to Freud, sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed due to the intense anxiety associated with the Oedipus complex. This stage is characterized by a temporary decrease in sexual interest and a focus on developing social and intellectual skills.

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  • 15. 

    According to Freud, the first year of life is characterized as the ___________ stage.

    • A.

      Anal

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Oral

    • D.

      Phallic

    Correct Answer
    C. Oral
    Explanation
    According to Freud, the first year of life is characterized as the oral stage. During this stage, the primary focus of pleasure and gratification is on the mouth, as infants explore the world through sucking, biting, and tasting. This stage is crucial for the development of trust and dependency, as well as the establishment of a basic sense of security. It is during this stage that conflicts related to weaning and dependency may arise, influencing the individual's personality development in later stages.

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  • 16. 

    The Freudian psychosexual stage in which pleasure is derived through elimination and acquiring control over elimination.

    • A.

      Oral

    • B.

      Phallic

    • C.

      Anal

    • D.

      Genital

    Correct Answer
    C. Anal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "anal." In Freudian psychosexual theory, the anal stage occurs during the ages of 1 to 3, where the focus of pleasure is on bowel movements and gaining control over elimination. This stage is characterized by the child's fascination with their own feces and their ability to control when and where they go to the bathroom. It is believed that conflicts and experiences during this stage can influence personality traits related to orderliness, cleanliness, and control.

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  • 17. 

    The Freudian psychosexual stage in which pleasure seeking is focused on the genitals. (Hint: Occurs during the first five years of life).

    • A.

      Phallic stage

    • B.

      Genital

    • C.

      Anal

    • D.

      Oral

    Correct Answer
    A. Phallic stage
    Explanation
    It's actually not the genital stage, as you may have expected. The phallic sage occurs during the first five years of life, however the genital stage doesn't occur until adolescence.

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  • 18. 

    The final resoluation of the Oedipus complex occurs in adolescence during the ________ stage, during which incestuous urges start to resurface, and the personb directs sexual urges toward socially acceptable substitutes.

    • A.

      Latency

    • B.

      Genital

    • C.

      Phallic

    • D.

      Oral

    Correct Answer
    B. Genital
    Explanation
    During the genital stage of development, which occurs in adolescence, the Oedipus complex reaches its final resolution. In this stage, the individual experiences a resurgence of incestuous urges, but instead of directing them towards their opposite-sex parent, they redirect their sexual energy towards socially acceptable substitutes. This stage is characterized by the development of mature sexual relationships and the ability to form intimate connections with others.

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  • 19. 

    Children in the _____________ stage will outwardly show a strong desire to associate exclusively with same-sex peers.

    • A.

      Genital

    • B.

      Anal

    • C.

      Oral

    • D.

      Latency

    Correct Answer
    D. Latency
    Explanation
    During the latency stage of psychosexual development, children typically show a strong desire to associate exclusively with same-sex peers. This stage occurs between the ages of 6 and 12, and during this time, children tend to form close friendships with others of the same gender. This behavior is believed to be influenced by societal expectations and cultural norms, as well as the child's own developing sense of identity and gender roles.

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  • 20. 

    Psychologists who believed that the deepest part of the individual psyche is the collective unconcious, whihc is shared by all people and reflects humanity's collective evolutionary history.

    • A.

      Karen Horney

    • B.

      Sigmund Freud

    • C.

      Carl Junge

    • D.

      Alfred Adler

    Correct Answer
    C. Carl Junge
    Explanation
    Carl Jung is the correct answer because he is known for his concept of the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is a part of the psyche that contains inherited instincts and archetypes shared by all humans. This concept suggests that there are universal patterns and symbols that are deeply rooted in human history and culture. Unlike Freud, who focused on the individual unconscious, Jung believed in a collective aspect of the psyche that connects all individuals. Karen Horney, Sigmund Freud, and Alfred Adler did not specifically develop or emphasize the concept of the collective unconscious in their theories.

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  • 21. 

    Psychologist who stressed the importance of cultural and social factors in personality development.

    • A.

      Alfred Adler

    • B.

      Karen Horney

    • C.

      Carl Jung

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    B. Karen Horney
    Explanation
    Karen Horney is the correct answer because she was a psychologist who emphasized the significance of cultural and social factors in personality development. Horney believed that cultural and societal influences play a crucial role in shaping an individual's personality and behavior. She focused on the impact of cultural expectations, social norms, and interpersonal relationships on the development of personality. Horney's theories challenged Freudian psychoanalysis and provided a more holistic understanding of personality development.

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  • 22. 

    Psychologist who believed that the most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority.

    • A.

      Carl Rogers

    • B.

      Carl Jung

    • C.

      Karen Horney

    • D.

      Alfred Adler

    Correct Answer
    D. Alfred Adler
    Explanation
    Alfred Adler was a psychologist who believed that the most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority. He proposed that individuals are driven by a desire to overcome feelings of inferiority and to strive for success and mastery in life. Adler emphasized the importance of social relationships and the influence of early childhood experiences on one's personality development. He believed that individuals are motivated to compensate for perceived weaknesses and to achieve a sense of significance and belonging. Adler's theories have had a significant impact on the field of psychology, particularly in the areas of personality and motivation.

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  • 23. 

    In Freud's dynamic theory of personality, the _____________ level is the level of awareness that represents all the thoughts, feelings, and sensations that you're aware of at a particular moment .

    • A.

      Preconscious

    • B.

      Concious

    • C.

      Unconcious

    • D.

      Subconscious

    Correct Answer
    B. Concious
    Explanation
    In Freud's dynamic theory of personality, the conscious level refers to the level of awareness that represents all the thoughts, feelings, and sensations that an individual is aware of at a particular moment. This means that the conscious level includes everything that a person is currently aware of, such as their immediate thoughts and emotions. The preconscious level, on the other hand, refers to thoughts and memories that are not currently in the conscious awareness but can be easily brought into consciousness. The unconscious level represents thoughts, memories, and desires that are hidden from conscious awareness and can only be accessed through techniques like psychoanalysis. The term subconscious is often used interchangeably with the unconscious, but in Freud's theory, the unconscious is a deeper level of the mind.

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  • 24. 

    In Freud's dynamic theory of personality, the ______________ level of awareness contains information that you're not currently aware of but can easily bring to concious awareness.

    • A.

      Conscious

    • B.

      Unconscious

    • C.

      Preconscious

    • D.

      Subconscious.

    Correct Answer
    C. Preconscious
    Explanation
    In Freud's dynamic theory of personality, the preconscious level of awareness contains information that you're not currently aware of but can easily bring to conscious awareness. This means that the information stored at the preconscious level is just below the surface of consciousness and can be readily accessed when needed. It is like a mental storage area where memories, thoughts, and feelings are not actively in our conscious awareness but can be easily retrieved and brought into our conscious mind.

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  • 25. 

    In Freud's theory, the _______________ level of awareness represents the thoughts, feelings, wishes and drives that are operating below the level of concious awareness.

    • A.

      Unconscious

    • B.

      Conscious

    • C.

      Subconscious

    • D.

      Preconscious

    Correct Answer
    A. Unconscious
    Explanation
    In Freud's theory, the unconscious level of awareness represents the thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness. This means that these thoughts and feelings are not readily accessible to our conscious mind, but they still influence our behavior and experiences. The unconscious mind holds repressed memories, desires, and instincts that shape our thoughts and actions without our awareness.

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  • 26. 

    The Neo-Freudians include:

    • A.

      Hans Eysenck, Karen Horney, Albert Bandura

    • B.

      Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler

    • C.

      Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler

    • D.

      Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura

    Correct Answer
    C. Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler. These three individuals are considered Neo-Freudians because they were psychologists who were influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories but also developed their own unique theories and perspectives on psychology. Carl Jung, for example, developed the concept of the collective unconscious and the archetypes. Karen Horney focused on interpersonal relationships and the impact of culture on personality. Alfred Adler emphasized the importance of social factors and the desire for superiority in shaping personality.

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  • 27. 

    Carl Rogers believed that the most basic human motive is the ___________________, which is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism.

    • A.

      Self-concept

    • B.

      Actualizing tendency

    • C.

      Conditional positive regard

    • D.

      Unconditional positive regard

    Correct Answer
    B. Actualizing tendency
    Explanation
    Carl Rogers believed that the most basic human motive is the actualizing tendency, which refers to the innate drive that individuals have to fulfill their potential and become the best version of themselves. This drive is what motivates individuals to seek personal growth, self-actualization, and to strive for self-improvement. Rogers believed that when individuals are able to align their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with their true selves, they can experience a sense of fulfillment and live a more authentic and meaningful life.

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  • 28. 

    The ________________ is the set of perceptions and beliefs that you have about yourself, including your nature, your personal qualitites and your typical behaviour.

    • A.

      Actualizing tendency

    • B.

      Conditional positive regard

    • C.

      Self concept

    • D.

      Unconditional positive regard

    Correct Answer
    C. Self concept
    Explanation
    The self-concept refers to the set of perceptions and beliefs that an individual holds about themselves, including their nature, personal qualities, and typical behavior. It encompasses how a person sees themselves and how they define their identity. It is formed through experiences, interactions with others, and self-reflection, and it plays a crucial role in shaping one's self-esteem and self-image. The self-concept can influence a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as it serves as a framework for understanding oneself and guiding one's actions.

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  • 29. 

    In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others is called _________________

    • A.

      Actualizing tendency

    • B.

      Self-concept

    • C.

      Conditional positive regard

    • D.

      Unconditional positive regard

    Correct Answer
    C. Conditional positive regard
    Explanation
    In Roger's theory, conditional positive regard refers to the belief that one will be valued and loved only if they conform to the expectations and standards set by others. This means that one's worth and acceptance are contingent upon meeting certain conditions or behaving in a way that is deemed acceptable by others. It implies that love and acceptance are conditional, and individuals may feel pressured to conform and suppress their true selves in order to receive validation from others.

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  • 30. 

    In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others is called:

    • A.

      Conditional positive regard

    • B.

      Unconditional positive regard

    • C.

      Actualizing tendency

    • D.

      Self-concept

    Correct Answer
    B. Unconditional positive regard
    Explanation
    Unconditional positive regard refers to the belief that individuals are valued and loved regardless of whether they conform to societal standards and expectations. This concept, proposed by Roger in his theory, emphasizes the importance of acceptance and support for personal growth and development. It suggests that individuals should be accepted for who they are, without any conditions or judgments placed upon them. Unconditional positive regard creates an environment that fosters self-acceptance, self-esteem, and psychological well-being.

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  • 31. 

    The _____________ perspective stresses concious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences.

    • A.

      Social cognitive

    • B.

      Humanistic

    • C.

      Trait

    • D.

      Psychoanalytic

    Correct Answer
    A. Social cognitive
    Explanation
    The social cognitive perspective focuses on how individuals perceive, interpret, and respond to social situations. It emphasizes the role of conscious thought processes, such as attention, memory, and problem-solving, in shaping behavior. It also recognizes the importance of self-regulation, or the ability to control one's thoughts, emotions, and actions. Additionally, the social cognitive perspective acknowledges that situational influences, such as social norms and expectations, can impact behavior.

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  • 32. 

    Albert Bandura was a proponent of which perspective of personality?

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Behaviorist

    • C.

      Humanistic

    • D.

      Social cognitive

    Correct Answer
    D. Social cognitive
    Explanation
    Albert Bandura was a proponent of the social cognitive perspective of personality. This perspective emphasizes the role of cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and thinking, in shaping personality. Bandura's theory of social learning, also known as social cognitive theory, focuses on how individuals learn and develop through observing others and imitating their behavior. He believed that personality is influenced by both internal cognitive factors and external social factors, and that individuals have the ability to actively shape their own behavior through self-regulation and self-efficacy.

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  • 33. 

    Theory of personality which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.

    • A.

      Social cognitive

    • B.

      Humanistic

    • C.

      Psychoanalytic

    • D.

      Trait

    Correct Answer
    A. Social cognitive
    Explanation
    The given theory of personality emphasizes various factors such as observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism. This suggests that individuals learn and develop their personalities through observing others, their own cognitive processes, social interactions, and their belief in their own abilities. This theory focuses on the role of cognition and social experiences in shaping personality, which aligns with the social cognitive perspective. Thus, the correct answer is social cognitive.

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  • 34. 

    A model proposed by Albert Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.

    • A.

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B.

      Self-efficacy

    • C.

      Trait theory

    • D.

      Sublimation

    Correct Answer
    A. Reciprocal determinism
    Explanation
    Reciprocal determinism is the correct answer because it aligns with the description provided. Albert Bandura's model suggests that human functioning and personality are influenced by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors. Reciprocal determinism refers to the idea that these factors mutually influence and shape each other. In other words, an individual's behavior can be influenced by their thoughts and beliefs, as well as the environment they are in, and in turn, their behavior can also influence their thoughts, beliefs, and environment. This concept emphasizes the bidirectional nature of the relationship between individuals and their environment in shaping behavior and personality.

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  • 35. 

    The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt.

    • A.

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B.

      Self-efficacy

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Ego defense mechanism

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-efficacy
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy refers to the beliefs that individuals hold about their ability to handle the challenges of a particular situation, and it encompasses feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt. This concept is closely related to one's perception of their own competence and effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes. Reciprocal determinism refers to the interaction between a person's behavior, personal factors, and environmental influences, while self-concept refers to an individual's overall perception of themselves. Ego defense mechanisms, on the other hand, are psychological strategies used to protect oneself from anxiety or threats to self-esteem. Therefore, self-efficacy is the most appropriate term to describe the beliefs and feelings of confidence or doubt in meeting situational demands.

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  • 36. 

    A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions.

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Humanistic

    • C.

      Trait

    • D.

      Social cognitive

    Correct Answer
    C. Trait
    Explanation
    The theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions is trait theory. This theory emphasizes that individuals possess specific traits that influence their behavior and can be measured and categorized. Unlike psychoanalytic theory, which focuses on unconscious motivations, humanistic theory, which emphasizes personal growth and self-actualization, and social cognitive theory, which emphasizes the role of cognitive processes in behavior, trait theory specifically looks at the observable and measurable characteristics that differentiate individuals.

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  • 37. 

    A relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way.

    • A.

      Trait

    • B.

      Surface trait

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Actualizing tendency

    Correct Answer
    A. Trait
    Explanation
    The given answer, "trait," is the correct option because it aligns with the definition provided. A trait refers to a relatively stable and enduring predisposition, which means it is a consistent way of behaving. Traits are considered to be a part of an individual's personality and can influence their behavior across different situations.

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  • 38. 

    Personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior.

    • A.

      Traits

    • B.

      Source traits

    • C.

      Surface traits

    • D.

      Self-concepts

    Correct Answer
    C. Surface traits
    Explanation
    Surface traits refer to personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior. These traits are evident in a person's actions and can be observed by others. They are the outward manifestations of a person's personality and can include traits such as being outgoing, friendly, or organized. Surface traits are different from source traits, which are underlying factors that influence behavior, and self-concepts, which are an individual's perception of themselves.

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  • 39. 

    The most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number.

    • A.

      Behaviors

    • B.

      Surface traits

    • C.

      Traits

    • D.

      Source traits

    Correct Answer
    D. Source traits
    Explanation
    Source traits are the most fundamental dimensions of personality. They are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number. These traits represent the underlying characteristics that drive and influence an individual's behavior. Surface traits, on the other hand, are specific behaviors or qualities that are observable and can be derived from source traits. Therefore, source traits best fit the description given in the question.

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  • 40. 

    Proponenents of trait theory include

    • A.

      Karen Horney,. Albert Bandura

    • B.

      Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck

    • C.

      Alfred Adler, Raymond Cattel

    • D.

      Hans Eysenck, Albert Bandura

    Correct Answer
    B. Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck. Trait theory is a psychological approach that focuses on identifying and measuring individual personality traits. Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck were both influential psychologists who contributed significantly to the development of trait theory. Cattell proposed the 16PF (16 Personality Factors) model, which identified 16 primary personality traits. Eysenck, on the other hand, proposed the PEN model, which focused on three primary dimensions of personality: psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Both Cattell and Eysenck's work has had a lasting impact on the field of personality psychology.

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  • 41. 

    Psycologists who advocated the trait apporach to personality. His research led to the development of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionaire, one of the most widely used psychological tests for assessing personality.

    • A.

      Hans Eysenk

    • B.

      Albert Bandura

    • C.

      Raymond Cattle

    • D.

      Carl Rogers

    Correct Answer
    C. Raymond Cattle
    Explanation
    Raymond Cattle is the correct answer because he is the psychologist who advocated the trait approach to personality and developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, a widely used psychological test for assessing personality. Hans Eysenck is known for his work on personality and intelligence, but he did not develop the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Albert Bandura is known for his work on social learning theory, not personality assessment. Carl Rogers is known for his humanistic approach to psychology, but he did not develop the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.

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  • 42. 

    A trait theory of personality that identifies extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality.

    • A.

      Five-factor model

    • B.

      16 personality factors

    • C.

      Surface trait model

    • D.

      Source trait model

    Correct Answer
    A. Five-factor model
    Explanation
    The given answer, "five-factor model," is the correct explanation for the trait theory of personality that identifies extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality. The five-factor model suggests that these five traits are the core dimensions of personality and can be used to describe and understand individual differences in personality. This model has gained significant support and is widely used in personality psychology research and assessment.

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  • 43. 

    People who rate high on the personality trait of __________________ tend to be upbeat, optimistic, and sociable.

    • A.

      Introversion

    • B.

      Extraversion

    • C.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    B. Extraversion
    Explanation
    People who rate high on the personality trait of extraversion tend to be upbeat, optimistic, and sociable. This trait is characterized by a preference for social interaction, assertiveness, and a tendency to be outgoing and talkative. Individuals who are extraverted often enjoy being around others, seek out new experiences, and are generally more positive and energetic in their outlook on life.

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  • 44. 

    People who rate high on ____________ tend to be anxious, worried, and socially insecure.

    • A.

      Neuroticim

    • B.

      Introversion

    • C.

      Extraversion

    Correct Answer
    A. Neuroticim
    Explanation
    People who rate high on neuroticism tend to be anxious, worried, and socially insecure. Neuroticism is a personality trait characterized by emotional instability and a tendency to experience negative emotions such as fear, sadness, and anger. Individuals high in neuroticism may be more prone to stress, have difficulty managing their emotions, and may be more likely to perceive situations as threatening or dangerous. They may also exhibit higher levels of self-consciousness and be more prone to worrying about social interactions and their own perceived shortcomings.

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  • 45. 

    One criticism, or weakness, of __________ theories is that they don't really explain human personality. Intead, they simply label general predispositions to behave in a certain way.

    • A.

      Humanistic

    • B.

      Psyhcoanalytic

    • C.

      Trait

    • D.

      Social-cognitive

    Correct Answer
    C. Trait
    Explanation
    Trait theories are criticized for not providing a comprehensive explanation of human personality, as they mainly focus on categorizing individuals based on general predispositions to behave in a certain way. These theories do not delve into the complex and unique aspects of individual personalities, such as personal experiences, motivations, and environmental factors. Therefore, while trait theories may provide some understanding of broad behavioral tendencies, they do not fully explain the intricacies of human personality.

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  • 46. 

    One major criticism of the _________________ and _______________ perspectives on personality theory, is the lack of scientific testability and empircal evidence.

    • A.

      Trait, humanistic

    • B.

      Humanistic, psychoanalytic

    • C.

      Humanistic, social-cognitive

    • D.

      Social-cognitive, trait

    Correct Answer
    B. Humanistic, psychoanalytic
    Explanation
    The humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives on personality theory are criticized for their lack of scientific testability and empirical evidence. These theories are often based on subjective interpretations and introspection, making it difficult to measure and test their claims using scientific methods. Additionally, these perspectives rely heavily on case studies and subjective observations, rather than objective data and empirical research, further limiting their scientific credibility.

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  • 47. 

    A type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assess unconcious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits.

    • A.

      Psychological test

    • B.

      Projective test

    • C.

      Rorscach Inkblot Test

    • D.

      Graphology

    Correct Answer
    B. Projective test
    Explanation
    A projective test is a type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image. It is used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits. This type of test allows individuals to project their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions onto the image, providing insights into their inner world. The Rorscach Inkblot Test is a specific example of a projective test, where individuals interpret inkblot images. Graphology, on the other hand, refers to the analysis of handwriting to assess personality traits. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is projective test.

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  • 48. 

    The ________________ is a projective test using inkblots.

    • A.

      Rorscach Inkblot Test

    • B.

      Psychological test

    • C.

      Thematic Apperception Test

    Correct Answer
    A. Rorscach Inkblot Test
    Explanation
    The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a projective test that uses inkblots to assess a person's personality and psychological functioning. It involves showing a series of inkblots to the individual and asking them to describe what they see in each image. The test is based on the idea that the individual's interpretations of the ambiguous images reveal their unconscious thoughts, emotions, and personality traits. The Rorschach Inkblot Test is widely used in clinical and forensic settings to gain insight into a person's psychological state.

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  • 49. 

    A projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of amiguous scenes.

    • A.

      Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

    • B.

      Inkblot Test

    • C.

      Psychological test

    • D.

      Graphology

    Correct Answer
    A. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    Explanation
    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective personality test that involves creating stories about ambiguous scenes. This test is designed to reveal a person's unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations by analyzing the themes and content of their stories. The TAT consists of a series of picture cards, and the individual is asked to create a story based on each card. The test is often used in clinical and research settings to gain insight into a person's personality, emotional state, and underlying psychopathology.

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  • 50. 

    A type of psychological test in which a person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms.

    • A.

      Projective test

    • B.

      Inkblot test

    • C.

      Thematic Apperception Test

    • D.

      Self-report inventory

    Correct Answer
    D. Self-report inventory
    Explanation
    A self-report inventory is a type of psychological test that involves standardized questions. The person taking the test responds to these questions, and their answers are compared to established norms to assess their psychological characteristics. This type of test relies on the individual's self-reporting of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and it is commonly used in psychology to measure personality traits, attitudes, and other psychological constructs. The other options, such as projective tests, inkblot tests, and Thematic Apperception Test, involve different methods of assessing psychological characteristics and do not rely on self-reporting.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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    Adkinsjr
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