Psychology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide

77 Questions | Total Attempts: 1228

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Psychology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A child learns to be afraid of spiders by observing his parents' highly emotional and negative response to them. This demonstrates:
    • A. 

      Higher order conditioning.

    • B. 

      Vicarious classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Stimulus generalization.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 2. 
    What is considered stage 1 in sleep cycles?
    • A. 

      Theta waves - sudden increase wave freq - sleep spindles

    • B. 

      Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude

    • C. 

      50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude

    • D. 

      50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers

  • 3. 
    A decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimulus is known as:
    • A. 

      Dishabituation

    • B. 

      Perserveration

    • C. 

      A perceptual set

    • D. 

      Habituation

  • 4. 
    Peter is 12-years-old and is about to be punished by his parents. According to the guidelines for punishment in the textbook, the parents should use:
    • A. 

      All of these techniques

    • B. 

      Frequent punishment, since this strategy will be the most effective.

    • C. 

      A delayed punishment in order to give Peter more time to think about his transgression.

    • D. 

      Response cost, since this strategy is usually best for older children.

  • 5. 
    Agricultural workers are paid according to the number of barrels of apples they pick. They are on which schedule of reinforcement?
    • A. 

      Fixed ratio

    • B. 

      Fixed interval

    • C. 

      Variable interval

    • D. 

      Variable ratio

  • 6. 
    Alcoholics may have terrible nightmares for a while after they stop drinking because of:
    • A. 

      Sleep apnea

    • B. 

      REM rebound

    • C. 

      The drug enhanced sleep effect

    • D. 

      Narcolepsy

  • 7. 
    Because of the difference in the images that reach each eye, we receive two slightly different views of the world. This phenomenon is known as:
    • A. 

      Retinal disparity

    • B. 

      Accommodation

    • C. 

      Interposition

    • D. 

      Convergence

  • 8. 
    Casey finds Dr. Madison's psychology lecture to be boring and uninteresting. Gradually, his muscles relax and his thoughts begin to drift. This very relaxed but wakeful state is associated with ________ brain waves.
    • A. 

      Theta

    • B. 

      Alpha

    • C. 

      Beta

    • D. 

      Delta

  • 9. 
    Children tend to act as if parents give them the message, aDo as I do, not as I say.a This is because of the powerful effect of:
    • A. 

      Learning sets.

    • B. 

      Cognitive mapping.

    • C. 

      Modeling.

    • D. 

      Punishment.

  • 10. 
    Each time the owner of an aquarium turns on the aquarium light, the fish gather in the corner in which he routinely places food. Because he always turns the light on before feeding the fish, their actions demonstrate:
    • A. 

      A resistance to extinction.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C. 

      Extinction.

    • D. 

      Stimulus control.

  • 11. 
    What is considered stage 3 in sleep cycles?
    • A. 

      50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude

    • B. 

      50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers

    • C. 

      Theta waves - sudden increase wave freq - sleep spindles

    • D. 

      Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude

  • 12. 
    A receiver runs down field, turns, and focuses on the tiny amissilea spiraling down to him. This receiver's ability to see the football emphasizes his excellent visual acuity due to the large concentration of ________ in the fovea of his eyes.
    • A. 

      Cones

    • B. 

      Stereocilia

    • C. 

      Rods

    • D. 

      Phosphens

  • 13. 
    Even though it will be four years before you graduate, you study and work hard because you know that having the degree will help you obtain a good job. Looking toward this degree helps maintain your hard work through a series of courses even though the reinforcement is delayed for several years. This illustrates:
    • A. 

      Latent learning.

    • B. 

      Acquisition.

    • C. 

      Stimulus control.

    • D. 

      Response chaining.

  • 14. 
    Forty-two-year-old Debbie can clearly read the highway signs as she drives, but for the first time in her life, she is having trouble reading the words and numbers in the phone book. Debbie most likely has which vision problem?
    • A. 

      Hyperopia

    • B. 

      Astigmatism

    • C. 

      Myopia

    • D. 

      Presbyopia

  • 15. 
    In a classic experiment, Little Albert, a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a white rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Extinction.

    • B. 

      Stimulus discrimination.

    • C. 

      Stimulus generalization.

    • D. 

      Shaping.

  • 16. 
    Interest in hypnosis stems from the work of ________, who believed he could cure diseases with magnets.
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      G. Stanley Hall

    • C. 

      James Braid

    • D. 

      Franz Mesmer

  • 17. 
    It has been found that what you eat can affect how easily you go to sleep. For example, eating starchy foods increases the amount of ________ reaching the brain.
    • A. 

      Epinephrine

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Tryptophan

    • D. 

      Dopamine

  • 18. 
    College students have learned that if they flush a toilet while someone is taking a shower, it will cause the water in the shower to become scalding hot. Naturally, the shower victim screams as his reflexes cause him to leap backward in pain. After this had occurred on several occasions, college students began to twitch involuntarily whenever they heard a toilet flush. In this example, the sound of the flushing toilet would be the:
    • A. 

      Unconditioned response (UR).

    • B. 

      Conditioned stimulus (CS).

    • C. 

      Conditioned response (CR).

    • D. 

      Unconditioned stimulus (US).

  • 19. 
    Justin became fearful of doctors and nurses because doctors and nurses were paired with painful shots. Justin's doctor has his office in a round brick building. Now any round brick building will elicit fear and crying from Justin. Becoming fearful of round buildings because they were associated with his doctor is an example of:
    • A. 

      Vicarious conditioning

    • B. 

      Shaping.

    • C. 

      Higher order conditioning.

    • D. 

      Extinction.

  • 20. 
    Let's say you have a friend, Hannah, who is having trouble memorizing information for an anatomy class. The simplest and most helpful thing you could do would be to explain the use of ________ to her.
    • A. 

      Mnemonics

    • B. 

      Eidetic memory

    • C. 

      Implicit memory

    • D. 

      Flashbulb memories

  • 21. 
    Melzack and Wall's theory believe that ________ explains the painkilling effects of acupuncture.
    • A. 

      The gate control theory

    • B. 

      Physiological nystagmus

    • C. 

      Receptor interlocking

    • D. 

      The endorphin theory

  • 22. 
    If you stand in the middle of a cobblestone street, the street will look coarse near your feet and finer if you look into the distance. This is called...
    • A. 

      Relative size

    • B. 

      Relative motion

    • C. 

      Texture gradient

    • D. 

      Linear perspective

  • 23. 
    Which one is NOT a level of awareness?
    • A. 

      Higher level

    • B. 

      Subconscious

    • C. 

      No awareness

    • D. 

      Inconscious

  • 24. 
    What is the trichromatic theory?
    • A. 

      A theory stating that rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure

    • B. 

      A theory of color vision based on three cone types: black, white, blue

    • C. 

      A theory stating that rewards must be smaller than costs for relationships to endure

    • D. 

      A theory of color vision based on three cone types: red, green, and blue

  • 25. 
    Memories of historical facts are to ________ memory as memories of your breakfast this morning are to ________ memory.
    • A. 

      Episodic; semantic

    • B. 

      Semantic; episodic

    • C. 

      Procedural; semantic

    • D. 

      Episodic; procedural

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