Psychology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide

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Psychology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A child learns to be afraid of spiders by observing his parents' highly emotional and negative response to them. This demonstrates:

    • A.

      Higher order conditioning.

    • B.

      Vicarious classical conditioning.

    • C.

      Stimulus generalization.

    • D.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    Correct Answer
    B. Vicarious classical conditioning.
    Explanation
    This scenario describes vicarious classical conditioning, as the child learns to be afraid of spiders by observing his parents' highly emotional and negative response to them. Vicarious conditioning involves learning through observation of others' experiences, rather than through direct personal experiences. The child is acquiring a fear response to spiders by witnessing the negative emotions displayed by his parents, which is a form of vicarious learning.

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  • 2. 

    What is considered stage 1 in sleep cycles?

    • A.

      Theta waves - sudden increase wave freq - sleep spindles

    • B.

      Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude

    • C.

      50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude

    • D.

      50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers

    Correct Answer
    B. Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude
    Explanation
    Stage 1 in sleep cycles is considered to be characterized by theta waves with slower frequency and greater amplitude. Theta waves are brain waves that are present during light sleep and are associated with drowsiness and relaxation. In stage 1, the brain transitions from being awake to falling asleep, and theta waves become more prominent. The slower frequency and greater amplitude of theta waves indicate a deeper state of relaxation and a transition towards deeper stages of sleep.

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  • 3. 

    A decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimulus is known as:

    • A.

      Dishabituation

    • B.

      Perserveration

    • C.

      A perceptual set

    • D.

      Habituation

    Correct Answer
    D. Habituation
    Explanation
    Habituation refers to a decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimulus. This means that over time, an individual becomes less responsive or attentive to a stimulus that they have encountered repeatedly. This process allows the individual to filter out irrelevant or unimportant stimuli and focus on more relevant or novel ones. Habituation is a common phenomenon observed in both humans and animals and plays an important role in the efficient allocation of attention and cognitive resources.

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  • 4. 

    Peter is 12-years-old and is about to be punished by his parents. According to the guidelines for punishment in the textbook, the parents should use:

    • A.

      All of these techniques

    • B.

      Frequent punishment, since this strategy will be the most effective.

    • C.

      A delayed punishment in order to give Peter more time to think about his transgression.

    • D.

      Response cost, since this strategy is usually best for older children.

    Correct Answer
    D. Response cost, since this strategy is usually best for older children.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is response cost, since this strategy is usually best for older children. Response cost is a form of punishment where a child loses a privilege or reward as a consequence of their behavior. This technique is typically more effective for older children who can understand the concept of losing something valuable. Delayed punishment or frequent punishment may not be as effective in this situation.

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  • 5. 

    Agricultural workers are paid according to the number of barrels of apples they pick. They are on which schedule of reinforcement?

    • A.

      Fixed ratio

    • B.

      Fixed interval

    • C.

      Variable interval

    • D.

      Variable ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed ratio
    Explanation
    Agricultural workers being paid according to the number of barrels of apples they pick suggests that their pay is based on a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. This means that they receive a specific amount of payment for each unit of work completed (in this case, each barrel of apples picked). The more barrels they pick, the more they get paid, creating a direct relationship between their behavior (picking apples) and the reinforcement (payment).

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  • 6. 

    Alcoholics may have terrible nightmares for a while after they stop drinking because of:

    • A.

      Sleep apnea

    • B.

      REM rebound

    • C.

      The drug enhanced sleep effect

    • D.

      Narcolepsy

    Correct Answer
    B. REM rebound
    Explanation
    After quitting alcohol, alcoholics may experience REM rebound, which refers to an increase in the amount and intensity of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Alcohol suppresses REM sleep, so when alcoholics stop drinking, their brain tries to compensate for the lost REM sleep by increasing its duration and intensity. This can lead to vivid and intense dreams, which may be perceived as terrible nightmares.

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  • 7. 

    Because of the difference in the images that reach each eye, we receive two slightly different views of the world. This phenomenon is known as:

    • A.

      Retinal disparity

    • B.

      Accommodation

    • C.

      Interposition

    • D.

      Convergence

    Correct Answer
    A. Retinal disparity
    Explanation
    Retinal disparity refers to the difference in the images that each eye receives, resulting in slightly different views of the world. This difference in perspective allows us to perceive depth and three-dimensional objects. Accommodation refers to the adjustment of the lens in the eye to focus on objects at different distances. Interposition refers to the overlap of objects, where one object appears to be in front of another. Convergence refers to the inward movement of the eyes when focusing on nearby objects.

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  • 8. 

    Casey finds Dr. Madison's psychology lecture to be boring and uninteresting. Gradually, his muscles relax and his thoughts begin to drift. This very relaxed but wakeful state is associated with ________ brain waves.

    • A.

      Theta

    • B.

      Alpha

    • C.

      Beta

    • D.

      Delta

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha
    Explanation
    When Casey finds Dr. Madison's psychology lecture boring and uninteresting, his muscles relax and his thoughts start to drift. This relaxed yet wakeful state is associated with alpha brain waves. Alpha waves are typically present when a person is awake but in a relaxed state, such as during meditation or daydreaming. They are slower in frequency compared to beta waves, which are associated with active thinking and concentration.

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  • 9. 

    Children tend to act as if parents give them the message, aDo as I do, not as I say.a This is because of the powerful effect of:

    • A.

      Learning sets.

    • B.

      Cognitive mapping.

    • C.

      Modeling.

    • D.

      Punishment.

    Correct Answer
    C. Modeling.
    Explanation
    Children tend to act as if parents give them the message, "Do as I do, not as I say," because of the powerful effect of modeling. Modeling refers to the process in which children learn and imitate behaviors by observing others, particularly their parents or caregivers. Children are more likely to replicate behaviors they observe in their immediate environment, rather than simply following verbal instructions. Therefore, the influence of modeling plays a significant role in shaping children's behavior and attitudes.

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  • 10. 

    Each time the owner of an aquarium turns on the aquarium light, the fish gather in the corner in which he routinely places food. Because he always turns the light on before feeding the fish, their actions demonstrate:

    • A.

      A resistance to extinction.

    • B.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C.

      Extinction.

    • D.

      Stimulus control.

    Correct Answer
    D. Stimulus control.
    Explanation
    The fish gathering in the corner where food is routinely placed demonstrates stimulus control. This means that the fish have associated the turning on of the aquarium light with the presence of food, and they have learned to respond to this specific stimulus. The presence of the light serves as a cue for the fish to gather in the corner, as they have learned that food is likely to be placed there. This behavior shows that the fish's actions are under the control of the stimulus (the light) and the learned association with food.

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  • 11. 

    What is considered stage 3 in sleep cycles?

    • A.

      50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude

    • B.

      50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers

    • C.

      Theta waves - sudden increase wave freq - sleep spindles

    • D.

      Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude

    Correct Answer
    A. 50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude
    Explanation
    Stage 3 in sleep cycles is considered to have 50% less delta waves, which are the slowest frequency and have the highest amplitude. Delta waves are associated with deep sleep, so having less of them indicates a lighter stage of sleep. This stage is also known as slow-wave sleep and is characterized by a decrease in brain activity and relaxation of the muscles.

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  • 12. 

    A receiver runs down field, turns, and focuses on the tiny amissilea spiraling down to him. This receiver's ability to see the football emphasizes his excellent visual acuity due to the large concentration of ________ in the fovea of his eyes.

    • A.

      Cones

    • B.

      Stereocilia

    • C.

      Rods

    • D.

      Phosphens

    Correct Answer
    A. Cones
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cones. Cones are photoreceptor cells located in the fovea of the eye, which is responsible for sharp central vision. Cones are specialized for color vision and high visual acuity, allowing the receiver to see the football clearly as it spirals down towards him. The concentration of cones in the fovea enhances his ability to perceive fine details and colors accurately.

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  • 13. 

    Even though it will be four years before you graduate, you study and work hard because you know that having the degree will help you obtain a good job. Looking toward this degree helps maintain your hard work through a series of courses even though the reinforcement is delayed for several years. This illustrates:

    • A.

      Latent learning.

    • B.

      Acquisition.

    • C.

      Stimulus control.

    • D.

      Response chaining.

    Correct Answer
    D. Response chaining.
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes the motivation to study and work hard in anticipation of obtaining a degree, which will eventually lead to a good job. This motivation can be seen as a series of actions or responses (studying, working hard) that are linked together in a chain, with the ultimate goal being the degree and job. Therefore, the concept of response chaining best illustrates this scenario.

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  • 14. 

    Forty-two-year-old Debbie can clearly read the highway signs as she drives, but for the first time in her life, she is having trouble reading the words and numbers in the phone book. Debbie most likely has which vision problem?

    • A.

      Hyperopia

    • B.

      Astigmatism

    • C.

      Myopia

    • D.

      Presbyopia

    Correct Answer
    D. Presbyopia
    Explanation
    Presbyopia is the most likely vision problem for Debbie because it commonly occurs around the age of 40 and is characterized by difficulty in focusing on close objects. This aligns with her ability to read highway signs (which are farther away) but struggling with reading the phone book (which requires close-up focus). Hyperopia, astigmatism, and myopia are less likely because they do not specifically involve difficulty in near vision.

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  • 15. 

    In a classic experiment, Little Albert, a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a white rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Extinction.

    • B.

      Stimulus discrimination.

    • C.

      Stimulus generalization.

    • D.

      Shaping.

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimulus generalization.
    Explanation
    In this classic experiment, Little Albert was initially conditioned to be afraid of a white rat. However, he also developed fear responses to other similar stimuli, including white furry rabbits and bearded men. This demonstrates stimulus generalization, as Little Albert generalized his fear response to stimuli that were similar to the original conditioned stimulus (the white rat).

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  • 16. 

    Interest in hypnosis stems from the work of ________, who believed he could cure diseases with magnets.

    • A.

      Sigmund Freud

    • B.

      G. Stanley Hall

    • C.

      James Braid

    • D.

      Franz Mesmer

    Correct Answer
    D. Franz Mesmer
    Explanation
    Franz Mesmer is the correct answer because he is known for his work in hypnosis and magnetism. Mesmer believed that he could cure diseases by using magnets to manipulate the body's magnetic forces. His theories and practices laid the foundation for the development of hypnosis as a therapeutic technique. Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, and James Braid were all influential figures in psychology, but they did not specifically focus on hypnosis or magnetism in their work.

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  • 17. 

    It has been found that what you eat can affect how easily you go to sleep. For example, eating starchy foods increases the amount of ________ reaching the brain.

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Tryptophan

    • D.

      Dopamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Tryptophan
    Explanation
    Tryptophan is an amino acid that is found in certain foods such as turkey, chicken, and cheese. When consumed, tryptophan is converted into serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and mood. Serotonin is then further converted into melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Therefore, eating foods rich in tryptophan can increase the amount of serotonin reaching the brain, promoting better sleep.

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  • 18. 

    College students have learned that if they flush a toilet while someone is taking a shower, it will cause the water in the shower to become scalding hot. Naturally, the shower victim screams as his reflexes cause him to leap backward in pain. After this had occurred on several occasions, college students began to twitch involuntarily whenever they heard a toilet flush. In this example, the sound of the flushing toilet would be the:

    • A.

      Unconditioned response (UR).

    • B.

      Conditioned stimulus (CS).

    • C.

      Conditioned response (CR).

    • D.

      Unconditioned stimulus (US).

    Correct Answer
    B. Conditioned stimulus (CS).
    Explanation
    In this example, the sound of the flushing toilet has become associated with the scalding hot water in the shower through repeated experiences. As a result, the college students have developed an involuntary twitch whenever they hear the sound of a flushing toilet. This twitch is a learned response that is triggered by the conditioned stimulus, which is the sound of the flushing toilet. Therefore, the correct answer is conditioned stimulus (CS).

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  • 19. 

    Justin became fearful of doctors and nurses because doctors and nurses were paired with painful shots. Justin's doctor has his office in a round brick building. Now any round brick building will elicit fear and crying from Justin. Becoming fearful of round buildings because they were associated with his doctor is an example of:

    • A.

      Vicarious conditioning

    • B.

      Shaping.

    • C.

      Higher order conditioning.

    • D.

      Extinction.

    Correct Answer
    C. Higher order conditioning.
    Explanation
    Higher order conditioning refers to the process in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a new neutral stimulus (NS), resulting in the NS becoming a second conditioned stimulus (CS2) that elicits a conditioned response (CR). In this case, Justin initially associated doctors and nurses with painful shots, leading to fear. However, he then generalized this fear to round brick buildings, which were associated with his doctor. This demonstrates a higher order conditioning, as the fear response was transferred from the original CS (doctors and nurses) to a new CS2 (round brick buildings).

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  • 20. 

    Let's say you have a friend, Hannah, who is having trouble memorizing information for an anatomy class. The simplest and most helpful thing you could do would be to explain the use of ________ to her.

    • A.

      Mnemonics

    • B.

      Eidetic memory

    • C.

      Implicit memory

    • D.

      Flashbulb memories

    Correct Answer
    A. Mnemonics
    Explanation
    One way to help Hannah with her memorization difficulties for her anatomy class is to explain the use of mnemonics to her. Mnemonics are techniques or strategies that aid in memory retrieval by associating information with easier-to-remember cues or patterns. By using mnemonic devices, such as acronyms, visualization, or rhymes, Hannah can create mental shortcuts that make it easier for her to recall and retain the information she needs for her anatomy class.

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  • 21. 

    Melzack and Wall's theory believe that ________ explains the painkilling effects of acupuncture.

    • A.

      The gate control theory

    • B.

      Physiological nystagmus

    • C.

      Receptor interlocking

    • D.

      The endorphin theory

    Correct Answer
    A. The gate control theory
    Explanation
    Melzack and Wall's theory, known as the gate control theory, suggests that painkilling effects of acupuncture can be explained through this theory. The gate control theory proposes that pain signals are regulated by a "gate" mechanism in the spinal cord, which can be opened or closed to control the transmission of pain signals to the brain. According to this theory, acupuncture may stimulate the nerve fibers that close the gate, thereby reducing the perception of pain. This theory provides a plausible explanation for the pain-relieving effects of acupuncture.

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  • 22. 

    If you stand in the middle of a cobblestone street, the street will look coarse near your feet and finer if you look into the distance. This is called...

    • A.

      Relative size

    • B.

      Relative motion

    • C.

      Texture gradient

    • D.

      Linear perspective

    Correct Answer
    C. Texture gradient
    Explanation
    Texture gradient refers to the visual effect where the texture of an object appears to change as it moves further away from the viewer. In the given scenario, standing in the middle of a cobblestone street, the texture of the street will appear coarse near the feet due to the close proximity, but it will appear finer and less detailed as it extends into the distance. This change in texture creates the visual effect known as texture gradient.

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  • 23. 

    Which one is NOT a level of awareness?

    • A.

      Higher level

    • B.

      Subconscious

    • C.

      No awareness

    • D.

      Inconscious

    Correct Answer
    D. Inconscious
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "inconscious." This is because "inconscious" is not a recognized level of awareness. The other options, such as "higher level," "subconscious," and "no awareness," are all valid levels of awareness that can be experienced by an individual.

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  • 24. 

    What is the trichromatic theory?

    • A.

      A theory stating that rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure

    • B.

      A theory of color vision based on three cone types: black, white, blue

    • C.

      A theory stating that rewards must be smaller than costs for relationships to endure

    • D.

      A theory of color vision based on three cone types: red, green, and blue

    Correct Answer
    D. A theory of color vision based on three cone types: red, green, and blue
    Explanation
    The trichromatic theory is a theory of color vision that states that there are three types of cones in the human eye that are responsible for perceiving color: red, green, and blue. These cones are sensitive to different wavelengths of light and work together to allow us to see a wide range of colors. According to this theory, our perception of color is based on the relative activation of these three types of cones in response to different wavelengths of light.

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  • 25. 

    Memories of historical facts are to ________ memory as memories of your breakfast this morning are to ________ memory.

    • A.

      Episodic; semantic

    • B.

      Semantic; episodic

    • C.

      Procedural; semantic

    • D.

      Episodic; procedural

    Correct Answer
    B. Semantic; episodic
    Explanation
    The given answer is semantic; episodic. Semantic memory refers to the memory of general knowledge and facts, such as historical events. Episodic memory, on the other hand, refers to the memory of specific personal experiences, such as what you had for breakfast this morning. Therefore, the analogy suggests that memories of historical facts are to semantic memory as memories of breakfast are to episodic memory.

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  • 26. 

    1.     In order to take you psychology quiz, you must read and process the information.  Detecting the black marks on a page depends on the process of ______________.  The ability to organize these black lines into meaningful patterns involves the process of _________.

    • A.

      Neural processing; neural transfer

    • B.

      Sensory adaptation; sensory accommodation

    • C.

      Sensation; perception

    • D.

      Perception; transduction

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensation; perception
    Explanation
    The process of detecting the black marks on a page is referred to as sensation. This involves the activation of sensory receptors in the eyes that respond to the physical stimulus of the black lines. Once the sensory information is received, it is then organized and interpreted into meaningful patterns, which is known as perception. Therefore, the ability to organize the black lines into meaningful patterns involves the process of perception.

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  • 27. 

    What is the Opponent-process theory?

    • A.

      Strong emotions tend to be followed by an opposite emotional states

    • B.

      Low emotions tend to be followed by an opposite emotional states

    • C.

      Strength of both emotional states change over time.

    • D.

      Both A & B

    • E.

      Both A & C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both A & C
    Explanation
    The Opponent-process theory suggests that strong emotions tend to be followed by opposite emotional states and that the strength of both emotional states changes over time. This means that after experiencing a strong emotion, such as fear or excitement, individuals are likely to experience an opposite emotion, such as calmness or sadness. Additionally, the theory proposes that the intensity of both the initial emotion and its opposite gradually diminish over time.

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  • 28. 

    On a TV game show, you are asked which way Lincoln's head faces on a penny. You are unable to answer correctly, and you lose a large prize. Your memory failure is most likely a result of:

    • A.

      Priming

    • B.

      The serial position effect

    • C.

      Repression

    • D.

      Encoding failure

    Correct Answer
    D. Encoding failure
    Explanation
    Encoding failure refers to the inability to properly store or retrieve information in memory due to a failure in the initial encoding process. In this case, the person was unable to encode the information about which way Lincoln's head faces on a penny, leading to a memory failure and the inability to answer the question correctly.

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  • 29. 

    Research on the effectiveness of hypnosis in solving crimes found that:

    • A.

      Hypnosis increased pseudo-memories as the person filled in memory gaps with imagination.

    • B.

      If the person felt confident about the information gained through hypnosis then the information was more likely to be true.

    • C.

      Hypnosis improved memory only for crimes involving high emotion, such as rape or murder.

    • D.

      Hypnosis was only accurate for good hypnotic subjects.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypnosis increased pseudo-memories as the person filled in memory gaps with imagination.
    Explanation
    Research on the effectiveness of hypnosis in solving crimes has shown that hypnosis can lead to an increase in pseudo-memories. This occurs when the person undergoing hypnosis fills in memory gaps with their imagination, creating false or distorted memories. This suggests that hypnosis may not be a reliable method for retrieving accurate information in criminal investigations.

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  • 30. 

    What drugs are considered depressants?

    • A.

      Alcohol - Barbiturates - Tranquilizers (morphine) - Opiates

    • B.

      LSD - Marijuana

    • C.

      Amphetamines - Cocaine - Ecstasy - Caffeine - Nicotine

    • D.

      Coke - weed - speed

    Correct Answer
    A. Alcohol - Barbiturates - Tranquilizers (morphine) - Opiates
    Explanation
    Depressants are drugs that slow down the central nervous system, resulting in relaxation, sedation, and reduced brain activity. The drugs listed in the answer (Alcohol, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, and Opiates) are all examples of depressants. Alcohol is a commonly used depressant that can cause relaxation and impaired judgment. Barbiturates are prescription drugs used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders, but they can also be abused for their sedative effects. Tranquilizers, such as morphine, are used to relieve pain and induce relaxation. Opiates, like heroin and prescription painkillers, are highly addictive and also have depressant effects on the body.

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  • 31. 

    What drugs are considered stimualnts?

    • A.

      Amphetamines - Cocaine - Ecstasy - Caffeine - Nicotine

    • B.

      Coke - weed - speed

    • C.

      Alcohol - Barbiturates - Tranquilizers (morphine) - Opiates

    • D.

      LSD - Marijuana

    Correct Answer
    A. Amphetamines - Cocaine - Ecstasy - Caffeine - Nicotine
  • 32. 

    What is the meaning of Transduction?

    • A.

      Cells that send signals via distinct neural pathways

    • B.

      Process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy (action potential)

    • C.

      Focuses on specific item

    • D.

      Perception

    Correct Answer
    B. Process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy (action potential)
    Explanation
    Transduction refers to the process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy, specifically in the form of action potentials. This process occurs in sensory systems, where sensory receptors convert various forms of energy (such as light, sound, or pressure) into electrical signals that can be transmitted and interpreted by the nervous system. By undergoing transduction, the physical energy is converted into a language that the brain can understand, allowing us to perceive and make sense of our environment.

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  • 33. 

    Sleepwalking and night terrors both occur during:

    • A.

      Stage 1 NREM

    • B.

      Rem Rebound

    • C.

      Rem sleep

    • D.

      Stage 4 NREM

    Correct Answer
    D. Stage 4 NREM
    Explanation
    Sleepwalking and night terrors both occur during Stage 4 NREM sleep. Stage 4 NREM sleep is the deepest stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep, also known as slow-wave sleep. During this stage, the brain waves slow down significantly, and it is during this deep sleep that sleepwalking and night terrors can occur. Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder where a person walks or performs other complex behaviors while still asleep, while night terrors are episodes of intense fear and panic that occur during sleep. Both of these sleep disorders are more common in children and tend to happen during the deeper stages of sleep, such as Stage 4 NREM.

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  • 34. 

    What is presbyopia?

    • A.

      Farsightedness caused by aging

    • B.

      Nearsightedness caused by aging

    • C.

      Farsightedness at birth

    • D.

      Nearsightedness at birth

    Correct Answer
    A. Farsightedness caused by aging
    Explanation
    Presbyopia is a condition that commonly occurs with age and is characterized by the loss of ability to focus on close objects. This is due to the natural aging process of the eye, which causes the lens to become less flexible and unable to adjust its shape for near vision. As a result, individuals with presbyopia may have difficulty reading or performing tasks that require close vision, but may still have clear distance vision. Therefore, the correct answer is farsightedness caused by aging.

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  • 35. 

    The Ames distorted room is a powerful illusory situation. It works because:

    • A.

      Most civilized cultures have limited experience with rectangular shapes.

    • B.

      It capitalizes on perceptual habits.

    • C.

      Subjects can see only one of the two persons in the room at any one time.

    • D.

      Of pictorial depth cues.

    Correct Answer
    B. It capitalizes on perceptual habits.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "it capitalizes on perceptual habits." This is because the Ames distorted room illusion takes advantage of our perceptual tendencies and habits. Our brains are wired to make assumptions and fill in missing information based on our previous experiences and knowledge. In the case of the Ames room, our brain automatically assumes that the room is rectangular, even though it is actually distorted. This illusion works because it plays with our perceptual habits and tricks us into perceiving the room in a certain way.

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  • 36. 

    What is considered stage 3 in sleep cycles?

    • A.

      Theta waves - slower freq/greater amplitude

    • B.

      Theta waves - sudden increase wave freq - sleep spindles

    • C.

      50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers

    • D.

      50% less delta waves - slowest freq/highest amplitude

    Correct Answer
    C. 50% more delta waves - difficult to wake sleepers
    Explanation
    Stage 3 in sleep cycles is characterized by 50% more delta waves, which are slow brain waves with high amplitude. This stage is also known as deep sleep or slow-wave sleep. During this stage, it is difficult to wake sleepers as they are in a deep and restorative sleep.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is NOT a good strategy to improve memory?

    • A.

      Organization

    • B.

      Massed practice

    • C.

      Over learning

    • D.

      Review

    Correct Answer
    B. Massed practice
    Explanation
    Massed practice refers to cramming or studying for long periods of time without breaks. This strategy is not effective for improving memory because it does not allow for proper encoding and consolidation of information. Research has shown that spaced practice, where studying is spread out over time with breaks in between, is more beneficial for memory retention. Therefore, massed practice is not a good strategy to improve memory.

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  • 38. 

    The formation of long-term memories in the brain is known as:

    • A.

      Priming

    • B.

      Consolidation

    • C.

      Memory localization

    • D.

      Mnemonic processing

    Correct Answer
    B. Consolidation
    Explanation
    Consolidation refers to the process of converting short-term memories into long-term memories in the brain. During consolidation, the information is stabilized and strengthened, making it easier to retrieve later. This process involves the reorganization and strengthening of neural connections in the brain. Priming refers to the activation of previously stored information, memory localization is not a term related to the formation of long-term memories, and mnemonic processing refers to the use of memory techniques to enhance memory performance.

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  • 39. 

    In analyzing dreams, Calvin Hall tended to:

    • A.

      Think of dreams as plays and the dreamer as a playwright.

    • B.

      Consider dreams as messages of "what was missing" in one's life.

    • C.

      Use four dream processes.

    • D.

      Focus only on the emotional tone of the dreams.

    Correct Answer
    A. Think of dreams as plays and the dreamer as a playwright.
    Explanation
    Calvin Hall tended to think of dreams as plays and the dreamer as a playwright. This suggests that he viewed dreams as a form of storytelling, where the dreamer takes on the role of a playwright who creates and directs the dream. This perspective implies that dreams have a narrative structure and can be interpreted as symbolic representations of the dreamer's thoughts, emotions, and experiences. By viewing dreams in this way, Hall likely believed that analyzing the content and symbolism of dreams could provide insights into the dreamer's subconscious mind and their psychological well-being.

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  • 40. 

    Recall, recognition, and the tests you take in school rely on ________ memories.

    • A.

      Explicit

    • B.

      Primed

    • C.

      Eidetic

    • D.

      Implicit

    Correct Answer
    A. Explicit
    Explanation
    Explicit memories are conscious memories that can be intentionally recalled or recognized. These memories are formed through conscious effort and are usually associated with facts, events, and personal experiences. In contrast, implicit memories are unconscious memories that are formed without conscious awareness and are often related to skills, habits, and conditioned responses. Primed memories refer to the activation of specific information or concepts in memory, which can influence subsequent thoughts and behaviors. Eidetic memories, also known as photographic memories, involve the ability to vividly recall visual information. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is explicit, as recall, recognition, and tests in school rely on conscious and intentional retrieval of information.

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  • 41. 

    What kind of learning is low active and/or unconcious learning?

    • A.

      Hardly learning

    • B.

      Active learning

    • C.

      Daring learning

    • D.

      Passive learning

    Correct Answer
    D. Passive learning
    Explanation
    Passive learning refers to a type of learning where the individual is not actively engaged or participating in the learning process. It involves acquiring knowledge or skills through observation, listening, or reading without actively interacting or applying the information. In passive learning, the learner is more of a recipient of information rather than an active participant. This type of learning is often associated with traditional classroom lectures or watching educational videos, where the learner absorbs information without actively engaging in discussions or hands-on activities.

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  • 42. 

    The more information you learn, the easier it becomes:

    • A.

      To forget previously learned information

    • B.

      For interference and retrieval failure to occur.

    • C.

      To add new information to memory.

    • D.

      For a person to develop Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia.

    Correct Answer
    C. To add new information to memory.
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that as you learn more information, it becomes easier to add new information to memory. This implies that the more you learn, the more efficient your memory becomes in encoding and storing new information. It does not mention anything about forgetting previously learned information, interference and retrieval failure, or the development of Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. Therefore, the correct answer is to add new information to memory.

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  • 43. 

    What is a Conditional Response?  (CR)

    • A.

      An occurrence that currently does not produce a response when it is presented.

    • B.

      The response made to the conditioned stimulas

    • C.

      A previously neutral stimulas that has now been conditioned to produce a response

    • D.

      Any stimulas that automatically produces response

    Correct Answer
    B. The response made to the conditioned stimulas
    Explanation
    A conditional response (CR) refers to the response that is made to the conditioned stimulus. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a response. Over time, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, and the response it elicits is known as the conditional response. This response is learned and is not naturally produced by the conditioned stimulus alone.

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  • 44. 

    The somesthetic senses include:

    • A.

      Gustation, olfaction, and the vestibular sense.

    • B.

      The vestibular sense, the kinesthetic sense, and audition.

    • C.

      Olfaction, the vestibular sense, and the kinesthetic sense.

    • D.

      Touch, the vestibular sense, and the kinesthetic sense.

    Correct Answer
    D. Touch, the vestibular sense, and the kinesthetic sense.
    Explanation
    The somesthetic senses refer to the senses that are related to the body's perception of touch and movement. The correct answer includes touch, which is the sense of physical contact and pressure on the skin. The vestibular sense is responsible for detecting the body's position and movement in space, including balance and spatial orientation. The kinesthetic sense, also known as proprioception, involves the awareness of the body's position and movement of its limbs and muscles. Therefore, the correct answer includes touch, the vestibular sense, and the kinesthetic sense as the somesthetic senses.

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  • 45. 

    Praise, approval, affection, and money are considered ________ reinforcers.

    • A.

      Secondary

    • B.

      Unconditional

    • C.

      Primary

    • D.

      Negative

    Correct Answer
    A. Secondary
    Explanation
    Praise, approval, affection, and money are considered secondary reinforcers because they acquire their reinforcing properties through association with primary reinforcers. Unlike primary reinforcers such as food or water, which have innate value, secondary reinforcers gain their value through learned associations. For example, money becomes reinforcing because it is associated with obtaining primary reinforcers such as food or shelter. Similarly, praise, approval, and affection become reinforcing because they are associated with positive social interactions and feelings of acceptance.

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  • 46. 

    What level of processing is when semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used?

    • A.

      Deep processing

    • B.

      Low level processing

    • C.

      Meaningful processing

    • D.

      Mindful processing

    Correct Answer
    A. Deep processing
    Explanation
    Deep processing refers to the level of processing where semantic, meaningful, and symbolic characteristics are used. It involves encoding information in a way that connects it to existing knowledge and understanding, making it easier to remember and retrieve. This type of processing requires a more thorough engagement with the material and a deeper level of understanding. It is in contrast to low level processing, which involves shallow encoding of surface-level features such as physical appearance or sound. Meaningful processing and mindful processing are not specific terms used to describe levels of processing, so they are not the correct answers.

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  • 47. 

    The ________ theory also explains why hunters sometimes lose hearing in a narrow pitch range, known as the aHunter's notch.a

    • A.

      Tone

    • B.

      Place

    • C.

      Frequency

    • D.

      Conduction

    Correct Answer
    B. Place
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "place". The place theory of hearing explains that different frequencies of sound stimulate different areas along the cochlea, or inner ear. This theory suggests that the perception of pitch is determined by the specific location of the stimulated area. The "Hunter's notch" refers to a specific region in the cochlea that is commonly damaged in hunters due to exposure to loud gunshot sounds. This damage leads to a loss of hearing in a narrow pitch range, which aligns with the concept of the place theory.

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  • 48. 

    The ________ theory of color vision applies to the retina, while the ________ theory of color vision explains what happens in the optic pathways and the brain after information leaves the eye.

    • A.

      Accommodation; gate control

    • B.

      Trichromatic; opponent-process

    • C.

      Opponent-process; trichromatic

    • D.

      Gate control; accommodation

    Correct Answer
    B. Trichromatic; opponent-process
    Explanation
    The trichromatic theory of color vision applies to the retina, explaining how cones in the eye respond to different wavelengths of light and enable us to perceive color. On the other hand, the opponent-process theory of color vision explains what happens in the optic pathways and the brain after the information leaves the eye. It suggests that color perception is based on opposing pairs of colors, such as red-green and blue-yellow.

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  • 49. 

    What are some of the different sleep disorders?

    • A.

      Talking in your sleep, twitching

    • B.

      Punching your spouse, rolling over

    • C.

      Talking in your sleep, Night terrors

    • D.

      Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, Night Terrors

    Correct Answer
    D. Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, Night Terrors
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, Night Terrors. These are examples of different sleep disorders. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep. Sleep Apnea is a condition where a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep, leading to poor sleep quality. Night Terrors are episodes of intense fear and panic during sleep, often accompanied by screaming and flailing. These disorders can disrupt normal sleep patterns and cause various symptoms and health issues.

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  • 50. 

    What are the three tasks of Memory?

    • A.

      Encoding, storage, and retrieval

    • B.

      Storage, processing, rehearsal

    • C.

      Rehearsal, processing, knowledge

    • D.

      Knowledge, storage, retrieval

    Correct Answer
    A. Encoding, storage, and retrieval
    Explanation
    The three tasks of memory are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory. Storage involves the retention of encoded information over time. Retrieval is the process of accessing and recalling stored information when needed. This answer accurately identifies and lists all three tasks of memory.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 03, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Amyndods
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