Health Belief Model Quiz Questions And Answers

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Health Belief Model Quiz Questions And Answers - Quiz

Are you aware of the Health Belief Model? You can take this quiz to check your knowledge on the same. Health Belief Model has various facts and aspects that make it a complete model. Here we have got a few questions to check how well you understand and know about this model. Take the quiz, choose the maximum correct answers as per your knowledge and find out your score. You can share the quiz with others too and help them check their knowledge.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The classical Roman poet Virgil once wrote, "Possunt quia posse videntur." (The Aeneid, V, 231) This can be translated as "They are able because they think they are able." What concept in health psychology is this closest to?

    • A.

      Normative beliefs

    • B.

      Self-efficacy

    • C.

      Pre-contemplation

    • D.

      Cue to action

    • E.

      Costs and benefits

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-efficacy
    Explanation
    This quote from Virgil aligns closely with the concept of self-efficacy in health psychology. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in their own ability to successfully perform a specific behavior or achieve a desired outcome. The quote suggests that individuals who believe they are capable of accomplishing something are more likely to actually be able to do so. This aligns with the idea that self-efficacy plays a crucial role in motivating and influencing health-related behaviors.

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  • 2. 

    In applying the Health Belief Model to the decision to have back surgery, a patient must first:

    • A.

      Find out what other people have done in the same situation.

    • B.

      Consult with his or her family to see what they think.

    • C.

      Try every possible medical treatment.

    • D.

      Check the internet for alternative options.

    • E.

      Acknowledge that a health threat exists.

    Correct Answer
    E. Acknowledge that a health threat exists.
    Explanation
    In applying the Health Belief Model to the decision to have back surgery, the first step for a patient is to acknowledge that a health threat exists. This means recognizing that there is a problem or condition that requires attention and potentially surgical intervention. Without acknowledging the existence of a health threat, the patient is unlikely to consider or pursue any further steps in the decision-making process. It is important for the patient to understand the potential risks and consequences associated with the health threat before moving forward with any decisions regarding back surgery.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a FALSE statement about health promotion programs? 

    • A.

      It can be more cost-effective to prevent illness through a health promotion program than it is to treat the illness.

    • B.

      They are designed so that they don’t affect people’s beliefs and values.

    • C.

      They provide information regarding the efficacy of preventative behaviors.

    • D.

      In keeping with the theory of planned behavior, health promotion programs focus on the gains rather than costs.

    • E.

      Health promotion programs can target at-risk populations.

    Correct Answer
    B. They are designed so that they don’t affect people’s beliefs and values.
    Explanation
    Health promotion programs are not designed to avoid influencing people's beliefs and values. On the contrary, these programs aim to educate and empower individuals to adopt healthier behaviors and make informed decisions. They provide information about the effectiveness of preventive measures and encourage individuals to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, health promotion programs often target specific populations that are at higher risk for certain health conditions, aiming to address their unique needs and challenges.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the health belief model?

    • A.

      Whether a person practices a particular health behavior is influenced by how they perceive a health threat and whether a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat.

    • B.

      One component of the health belief model is about how a person's perception of a particular health behavior depends on observing the actions and experiences of other people.

    • C.

      A person is likely to change their behavior if the costs outweigh the benefits.

    • D.

      The health belief model is most often used to explain the patient-provider relationship.

    • E.

      A person's self-efficacy is not a factor that affects their health behaviors.

    Correct Answer
    A. Whether a person practices a particular health behavior is influenced by how they perceive a health threat and whether a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat.
    Explanation
    The health belief model suggests that a person's perception of a health threat and the effectiveness of a health practice in reducing that threat influence whether they practice a particular health behavior. This means that if a person believes that a health threat is significant and that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat, they are more likely to engage in that behavior. This highlights the importance of perception and efficacy in determining health behaviors.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is an appropriate example for the social cognitive theory?

    • A.

      People will cross the street against a red light if a well-dressed person with a briefcase does it first, but not if the same person crosses the street in shabby clothes.

    • B.

      Nelson Mandela said of his father, “he could be exceedingly stubborn, another trait that may, unfortunately, have been passed down from father to son.” (Long Walk to Freedom)

    • C.

      If people are persuaded that they have what it takes to succeed (such as at a basketball game), they will exert more effort and avoid focusing on their doubts or problems in life.

    • D.

      Options B and C are correct.

    • E.

      All of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are correct.
    Explanation
    The social cognitive theory suggests that individuals learn and imitate behaviors by observing others. In the given examples, all three options demonstrate this theory. Option A shows how people are influenced by the behavior of a well-dressed person with a briefcase. Option B highlights how traits and behaviors can be passed down through generations, indicating observational learning. Option C illustrates how individuals' beliefs about their abilities can impact their motivation and effort. Therefore, all of the above examples align with the principles of the social cognitive theory.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following activities would be considered to be an example of PRIMARY prevention?

    • A.

      Clarifying the use and effects of prescribed medications with a pharmacist.

    • B.

      Receiving an immunization against influenza.

    • C.

      Receiving an annual mammogram.

    • D.

      Eliminating offending allergens from asthmatic patients.

    • E.

      In a diabetic patient, screening for renal, eye, and foot problems.

    Correct Answer
    B. Receiving an immunization against influenza.
    Explanation
    Receiving an immunization against influenza is considered an example of primary prevention because it aims to prevent the occurrence of the disease in the first place. By getting vaccinated, individuals protect themselves from contracting the influenza virus and reduce the risk of spreading it to others. Primary prevention focuses on promoting health and preventing diseases before they occur, rather than treating or managing existing conditions. The other activities mentioned in the question, such as clarifying medication use, receiving screenings, and eliminating allergens, are important for managing existing conditions or detecting diseases early, but they do not fall under primary prevention.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following activities would be considered to be an example of SECONDARY prevention?

    • A.

      Clarifying the use and effects of prescribed medications with a pharmacist.

    • B.

      Receiving an immunization against influenza.

    • C.

      Receiving an annual mammogram.

    • D.

      Eliminating offending allergens from asthmatic patients.

    • E.

      In a diabetic patient, screening for renal, eye, and foot problems.

    Correct Answer
    C. Receiving an annual mammogram.
    Explanation
    Receiving an annual mammogram is an example of secondary prevention because it involves detecting breast cancer at an early stage, before any symptoms appear. This screening test aims to identify potential cases of the disease in its early stages, allowing for timely treatment and improving the chances of successful outcomes. Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and intervention to prevent the progression of a disease or condition. In this case, the mammogram is used as a preventive measure to detect breast cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of successful treatment.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following statements could be an example of a normative belief within the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior?

    • A.

      Wearing a seatbelt when driving.

    • B.

      Expecting to have my blood pressure measured when I visit my physician.

    • C.

      Doing what my peers suggest to me about my health is important.

    • D.

      Having my family and friends think that I should go on a diet.

    • E.

      Being healthy is a desirable outcome of quitting smoking.

    Correct Answer
    D. Having my family and friends think that I should go on a diet.
    Explanation
    This statement reflects a normative belief within the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior because it is based on the perception of social norms and the influence of others. It suggests that the individual's family and friends have a belief that they should go on a diet, indicating a social pressure or expectation that can influence their behavior.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following challenges to the Canadian health care system can be targeted by health promotion programs?

    • A.

      Self-reported health ratings for off-reserve First Nations people is poorer than those of a non-First Nations population that is matched for socioeconomic levels and health behaviors.

    • B.

      Smoking adaptation patterns among adolescents.

    • C.

      Infant mortality rates are greater among people in Canada's lowest income bracket than the rates for people in the highest income bracket.

    • D.

      Risk-related behaviors are more common among people in particular occupations. For example, 43% of people working in construction-related professions smoked cigarettes daily, compared with 20% of people in managerial occupations.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    All of the challenges mentioned in the options can be targeted by health promotion programs. Health promotion programs can address self-reported health ratings among off-reserve First Nations people by providing interventions and resources to improve their overall health. They can also target smoking adaptation patterns among adolescents by implementing prevention and cessation programs. Additionally, health promotion programs can aim to reduce infant mortality rates among people in the lowest income bracket by addressing social determinants of health and providing access to healthcare services. Lastly, these programs can target risk-related behaviors among people in specific occupations by implementing workplace wellness initiatives.

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  • 10. 

    The Theory of Planned Behavior includes the concept of "perceived behavioral control."  Which of the following statements could be said by someone who is speaking about their self-efficacy?

    • A.

      I think that being healthy and looking good are desirable attributes.

    • B.

      I am confident that I could quit smoking if I wanted to.

    • C.

      The decision to exercise is within my control.

    • D.

      Options B and C are correct.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. Options B and C are correct.
    Explanation
    The Theory of Planned Behavior includes the concept of "perceived behavioral control," which refers to an individual's belief in their ability to perform a behavior. Option B, "I am confident that I could quit smoking if I wanted to," reflects self-efficacy as it demonstrates the speaker's belief in their ability to quit smoking. Option C, "The decision to exercise is within my control," also reflects self-efficacy as it indicates that the speaker believes they have control over their decision to exercise. Therefore, options B and C are correct in relation to self-efficacy.

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  • 11. 

    ParticipAction is an example of a health promotion program that:

    • A.

      Uses vicarious learning as a tool for affecting health behaviors through its "Body Break" commercials.

    • B.

      Can serve as a cue to action for viewers to improve their health behaviors.

    • C.

      Targets people's beliefs about costs and benefits by emphasizing the fun of exercise.

    • D.

      Options B and C are correct.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    ParticipAction is an example of a health promotion program that uses vicarious learning through its "Body Break" commercials. These commercials serve as a cue to action for viewers to improve their health behaviors. Additionally, ParticipAction targets people's beliefs about costs and benefits by emphasizing the fun of exercise. Therefore, options B and C are both correct.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is an INCORRECT example of the instability of health habits?  Consider if each example matches the appropriate component of health habits.

    • A.

      "Person A started smoking for social reasons but continues to smoke to cope with stress. Person B started because of stress but continues for social reasons." This is an example of how health behavior patterns across a lifetime will vary between individuals.

    • B.

      "Person C's decision to smoke is related to stress, while her decision to exercise depends on the ease of access to sports facilities." This is an example of how different health habits are controlled by different factors.

    • C.

      "Children get regular exercise because it is a part of their school curriculum, but adults must consciously practice this health habit." This is an example of how factors may change over a lifetime.

    • D.

      "Person D started smoking because of peer pressure, but now only smokes when stressed out." This is an example of how different healthy habits are controlled by different factors.

    • E.

      "Person E doesn't wear a seatbelt when riding with friends because he wants to look 'cool,' while Person F doesn't wear a seatbelt because of a phobia." This is an example of how different factors may control the same health behavior for different people.

    Correct Answer
    D. "Person D started smoking because of peer pressure, but now only smokes when stressed out." This is an example of how different healthy habits are controlled by different factors.
    Explanation
    This answer correctly identifies the example that demonstrates how different healthy habits are controlled by different factors. It explains that Person D started smoking due to peer pressure, but now only smokes when stressed out. This shows that the factors influencing their smoking behavior have changed over time.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is correctly matched to a stage of the Transtheoretical Model?

    • A.

      Preparation stage: "Stress causes me to crave a cigarette, so I use yoga to help me relax."

    • B.

      Maintenance: "For the last year, my friends and I go golfing every Sunday instead of spending the day drinking beer at the pub."

    • C.

      Contemplative: "High blood pressure runs in my family. There's nothing that I can do about it."

    • D.

      Options A and C are correct.

    • E.

      All of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    B. Maintenance: "For the last year, my friends and I go golfing every Sunday instead of spending the day drinking beer at the pub."
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Maintenance: "For the last year, my friends and I go golfing every Sunday instead of spending the day drinking beer at the pub." This statement aligns with the Maintenance stage of the Transtheoretical Model, which is characterized by sustained behavior change over an extended period of time. The individual has successfully made the change to their behavior and has been able to maintain it for a year.

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  • 14. 

    According to the lecture presented by Tiffany and Sultan, which of these is not considered a form of physical activity?

    • A.

      Aerobic.

    • B.

      Anaerobic.

    • C.

      Isometric.

    • D.

      Isostatic.

    • E.

      Isokinetic.

    Correct Answer
    D. Isostatic.
    Explanation
    Isostatic is not considered a form of physical activity because it refers to a state of equilibrium or balance in the body, rather than a specific type of movement or exercise. In contrast, aerobic, anaerobic, isometric, and isokinetic activities all involve physical exertion and movement of the body.

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  • 15. 

    According to the lecture presented by Tiffany and Sultan, which of these statistics is false?

    • A.

      Males eat about 10% fewer fruits and vegetables than females in our age group.

    • B.

      Males are more physically inactive than females in our age group.

    • C.

      Approximately 40% of females and 55% of males are overweight or obese in Canada.

    • D.

      The total cost of obesity to society is less than the total cost of physical inactivity.

    • E.

      The indirect fiscal costs of obesity are greater than the direct cost.

    Correct Answer
    B. Males are more physically inactive than females in our age group.
    Explanation
    The lecture presented by Tiffany and Sultan states that males eat about 10% fewer fruits and vegetables than females in our age group, approximately 40% of females and 55% of males are overweight or obese in Canada, and the total cost of obesity to society is less than the total cost of physical inactivity. Additionally, the lecture mentions that the indirect fiscal costs of obesity are greater than the direct cost. However, it does not state that males are more physically inactive than females in our age group.

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  • 16. 

    As discussed by Strong et al. which of these factors does not contribute to the increased susceptibility to the weight gain of college students?

    • A.

      They have academic pressure that removes them away from time that can be spent exercising.

    • B.

      The a la carte style of dining halls discourages waiting for a balanced meal.

    • C.

      They don't believe that exercise and diet are important issues.

    • D.

      Students eat what is most readily available to them.

    • E.

      Residence life does not include enough social, physical activity.

    Correct Answer
    C. They don't believe that exercise and diet are important issues.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "They don't believe that exercise and diet are important issues." This means that the lack of belief in the importance of exercise and diet does not contribute to the increased susceptibility to weight gain in college students. The other factors mentioned, such as academic pressure limiting exercise time, the a la carte style of dining halls discouraging balanced meals, students eating what is readily available, and insufficient social and physical activity in residence life, all contribute to the increased susceptibility to weight gain in college students.

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  • 17. 

    Suarez and Mullins discussed motivational interviewing in their paper. Which one of the stages of the transtheoretical model of change used in the paper is correctly matched to its definition?

    • A.

      Termination- the intervention is stopped.

    • B.

      Precontemplation- the person begins to brainstorm change.

    • C.

      Action -A plan of action is developed.

    • D.

      Maintenance- The person is engaged in changing their behavior.

    • E.

      Contemplation- change is considered, but the person is ambivalent towards change.

    Correct Answer
    E. Contemplation- change is considered, but the person is ambivalent towards change.
    Explanation
    In their paper, Suarez and Mullins discussed motivational interviewing and its application to the transtheoretical model of change. One of the stages of this model, contemplation, is correctly matched to its definition in the paper. Contemplation refers to the stage where change is considered, but the person may still have mixed feelings or ambivalence towards making that change. This aligns with the concept of motivational interviewing, which aims to help individuals explore and resolve their ambivalence towards change.

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  • 18. 

    Manderbacka studies the relationship between health behaviors and self-ratings of health. Which of these health behaviors is not correlated with health ratings?

    • A.

      Dietary fat.

    • B.

      Smoking.

    • C.

      Exercise.

    • D.

      Leisure time.

    • E.

      Vitamin use.

    Correct Answer
    A. Dietary fat.
    Explanation
    The question asks which health behavior is not correlated with health ratings. The other options, such as smoking, exercise, leisure time, and vitamin use, can all have an impact on health ratings. However, dietary fat is not mentioned as being correlated with health ratings, suggesting that it is the health behavior that is not associated with self-ratings of health.

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  • 19. 

    As  described by the American Heart Association, which of these modes of action can prevent cardiovascular disease?

    • A.

      Behavioral targets of change.

    • B.

      Community implementation of an intervention.

    • C.

      Essential public health services allow for direct prevention.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    All of the options mentioned in the question can prevent cardiovascular disease. Behavioral targets of change refer to adopting healthy behaviors such as regular exercise and a balanced diet. Community implementation of an intervention involves implementing strategies at a community level to promote cardiovascular health. Essential public health services aim to directly prevent cardiovascular disease through various interventions and programs. Therefore, all of these modes of action can contribute to preventing cardiovascular disease.

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  • 20. 

    Chiuve et al. examined the relationship between lifestyle factors and stroke. Which of these is not a lifestyle factor that the investigators assessed in their survey?

    • A.

      Smoking.

    • B.

      Stress levels.

    • C.

      Diet.

    • D.

      Alcohol consumption.

    • E.

      Exercise.

    Correct Answer
    B. Stress levels.
    Explanation
    The researchers examined the relationship between lifestyle factors and stroke, and assessed smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, and exercise as potential factors. However, stress levels were not assessed as a lifestyle factor in their survey.

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  • 21. 

    In a study conducted by Babyak et al. on major depression, it was found that:

    • A.

      Exercise has a known mechanism of action for reducing major depression.

    • B.

      Exercise and medication combined prevent relapse in depression more so than medication or exercise alone.

    • C.

      Exercise prevents relapse in depression more so than medication or a combination of medication and exercise.

    • D.

      Participants involved in exercise only were treated more quickly than the medication group.

    • E.

      The exercise group had the highest percentage of partially recovered patients as compared to the medication and combined groups.

    Correct Answer
    C. Exercise prevents relapse in depression more so than medication or a combination of medication and exercise.
    Explanation
    The study conducted by Babyak et al. found that exercise is more effective in preventing relapse in depression compared to medication alone or a combination of medication and exercise. This suggests that exercise has a stronger impact on reducing the likelihood of relapse in individuals with major depression.

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  • 22. 

    A lack of sleep has been found to have a negative effect on:

    • A.

      Behavior.

    • B.

      Cognitive performance.

    • C.

      Motor function.

    • D.

      The immune system.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    A lack of sleep can have a negative effect on behavior, cognitive performance, motor function, and the immune system. When individuals do not get enough sleep, they may experience mood swings, irritability, and difficulty concentrating, affecting their behavior. Cognitive performance, such as memory, attention, and problem-solving skills, can also be impaired due to lack of sleep. Motor function, including coordination and reaction time, can be negatively impacted, leading to increased risk of accidents. Additionally, sleep deprivation weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to illnesses and infections. Therefore, all of the given options are correct.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following are not findings from Wal's study on eating and body image concerns in African American and Hispanic girls?

    • A.

      Children who are overweight or obese are at greater risk of developing eating disorders.

    • B.

      There was an observed higher prevalence of overweight and obese girls among the African American and Hispanic girls.

    • C.

      Average-weight African American and Hispanic girls felt pressured to gain weight.

    • D.

      There is no greater concern over eating attitudes and behaviors in the overweight and obese African American and Hispanic girls.

    • E.

      Overweight and obese African American and Hispanic girls had less concern over peer influence than their average-weight counterparts.

    Correct Answer
    E. Overweight and obese African American and Hispanic girls had less concern over peer influence than their average-weight counterparts.
    Explanation
    The study conducted by Wal on eating and body image concerns in African American and Hispanic girls found that children who are overweight or obese are at greater risk of developing eating disorders. It also observed a higher prevalence of overweight and obese girls among the African American and Hispanic girls. Additionally, average-weight African American and Hispanic girls felt pressured to gain weight. However, the study did not find any greater concern over eating attitudes and behaviors in the overweight and obese African American and Hispanic girls.

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  • 24. 

     The study conducted by Valiyeva et al. on the relationship between health behaviors and nursing home admissions revealed a number of findings. Which of these is not one of the findings from that study?

    • A.

      Cholesterol levels were associated with a higher risk of nursing home admission in both the middle-aged and elderly participants.

    • B.

      The practice of multiple risky health behaviors leads to a higher risk of nursing home admission than the practice of only one.

    • C.

      Risk ratios were significantly greater in the middle-aged group than in the elderly group.

    • D.

      Preventative measures must be implemented earlier to effectively change risky health behaviors and reduce the economic burden of nursing home care.

    • E.

      None of the above are findings from the study.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cholesterol levels were associated with a higher risk of nursing home admission in both the middle-aged and elderly participants.
    Explanation
    The given answer states that cholesterol levels were associated with a higher risk of nursing home admission in both the middle-aged and elderly participants. However, this is not one of the findings from the study conducted by Valiyeva et al. The other options in the question present valid findings from the study, such as the practice of multiple risky health behaviors leading to a higher risk of nursing home admission, risk ratios being significantly greater in the middle-aged group, and the need for implementing preventative measures earlier to reduce the economic burden of nursing home care. Therefore, the correct answer is that cholesterol levels were not associated with a higher risk of nursing home admission.

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  • 25. 

    What is the result of having a positive health behavior?

    • A.

      Reduces the well-being.

    • B.

      Increases the health care cost

    • C.

      Increase the chances of living a healthy life for more time.

    • D.

      Increases the risk factors for diseases.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Increase the chances of living a healthy life for more time.
    Explanation
    Having a positive health behavior increases the chances of living a healthy life for a longer period of time. This means that individuals who engage in behaviors such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful substances are more likely to maintain good health and prevent the onset of diseases. By adopting positive health behaviors, individuals can improve their overall well-being and reduce the need for healthcare interventions, ultimately leading to a longer and healthier life.

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