Cellular Respiration Exam: MCQ Quiz!

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Cellular Respiration Exam: MCQ Quiz! - Quiz


Could you explain the process of cellular respiration? Cellular respiration is a catabolic activity that breaks down polymers into smaller, more controllable pieces. The primary purpose of cellular respiration is to take carbohydrates, convert them into glucose molecules, and use glucose to deliver energy-rich ATP molecules. Cells require fuel to operate the chemical process to create other forms of energy. This scientific quiz will help you know all about cellular respiration.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ___________ occurs when a phosphate group is transferred from a metabolic intermediate to ADP to form ATP.

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Kreb's cycle

    • C.

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    • E.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    C. Substrate level phosphorylation
    Explanation
    Substrate level phosphorylation occurs when a phosphate group is transferred from a metabolic intermediate to ADP to form ATP. This process takes place in glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle, where high-energy phosphate groups are directly transferred to ADP. In contrast, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the electron transport chain, where ATP is generated through the transfer of electrons.

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  • 2. 

    One mole of _____ completely oxidized creates carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Glycogen

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Acetyl CoA

    • E.

      NAD

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is a common fuel source for cellular respiration. When one mole of glucose is completely oxidized, it undergoes a series of chemical reactions known as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. These reactions result in the production of carbon dioxide, water, and ATP, which are essential for energy production in cells.

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  • 3. 

    Glycolysis occurs in the

    • A.

      Inner mitochondrial membrane

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      ICF

    • D.

      Cytosol

    • E.

      ECF

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytosol
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. It occurs in the cytosol, which is the fluid portion of the cell outside of the organelles. This is where the enzymes necessary for glycolysis are located. The other options, such as the inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, ICF (intracellular fluid), and ECF (extracellular fluid), are not the correct locations for glycolysis to occur.

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  • 4. 

    ADP binds with free inorganic phosphate to form ATP in _________________.

    • A.

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • B.

      Glycolysis

    • C.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • D.

      Kreb's cycle

    • E.

      Chemiostic coupling

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxidative phosphorylation
    Explanation
    Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ADP binds with free inorganic phosphate to form ATP. This process occurs in the mitochondria and involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to the electron transport chain, which generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The flow of protons back into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase drives the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. Therefore, oxidative phosphorylation is the correct process in which ADP binds with inorganic phosphate to form ATP.

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  • 5. 

    Glycolysis produces ___ ATP.

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      0

    • D.

      34

    • E.

      30

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy. During glycolysis, two molecules of ATP are produced. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.

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  • 6. 

    Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the ___________.

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      ISF

    • D.

      Plasma membrane

    • E.

      Inner mitochondrial membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Inner mitochondrial membrane
    Explanation
    Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This is where the electron transport chain and ATP synthase are located. The electron transport chain transfers electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors, generating a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ATP synthase then uses this proton gradient to produce ATP. Therefore, the inner mitochondrial membrane is the correct location for oxidative phosphorylation to occur.

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  • 7. 

    In the Kreb's cycle, the coenzymes _________ and ________ are __________.

    • A.

      Acetyle CoA and FADH are reduced

    • B.

      NADH and FADH are oxidized

    • C.

      NADH and FADH are reduced

    • D.

      NADH and ATP are oxidized

    • E.

      FADH and pyruvate are reduced

    Correct Answer
    C. NADH and FADH are reduced
    Explanation
    In the Kreb's cycle, NADH and FADH are reduced. This means that they gain electrons and become NADH and FADH2, respectively. Reduction reactions involve the gain of electrons and are typically associated with energy storage. In the Kreb's cycle, NADH and FADH2 carry the electrons to the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the reduction of NADH and FADH is an important step in the production of energy in the cell.

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  • 8. 

    Glycolysis takes one molecule of glucose and converts it into two molecules of ______.

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Pyruvate

    • C.

      Acetyl CoA

    • D.

      NADH

    • E.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    B. Pyruvate
    Explanation
    During glycolysis, one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Pyruvate is then further metabolized in the presence of oxygen to produce additional energy in the form of ATP, or it can be converted into other molecules such as lactate in the absence of oxygen.

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  • 9. 

    The Kreb's cycle occurs in the __________.

    • A.

      ISF

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      ECF

    • D.

      Plasma membrane

    • E.

      Inner mitochondrial matrix

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondrial matrix
    Explanation
    The Kreb's cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria. More specifically, it takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, which is the innermost compartment of the mitochondria. This is where the enzymes and substrates necessary for the Kreb's cycle are located, allowing for the production of ATP, the cell's main energy source. The other options listed, such as ISF, ECF, and plasma membrane, are not involved in the Kreb's cycle.

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  • 10. 

    The only step in aerobic respiration that produces carbon dioxide is _________.

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Chemiostic coupling

    • C.

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    • E.

      Kreb's cycle

    Correct Answer
    E. Kreb's cycle
    Explanation
    The Kreb's cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is the only step in aerobic respiration that produces carbon dioxide. This cycle occurs in the mitochondria and is responsible for the oxidation of acetyl-CoA, resulting in the production of ATP, NADH, FADH2, and carbon dioxide. During the Kreb's cycle, carbon atoms from the acetyl-CoA are released as carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled by the organism. The other steps mentioned in the options are involved in different processes of aerobic respiration but do not directly produce carbon dioxide.

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  • 11. 

    The linking step between glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle converts _______ to ________.

    • A.

      Acetyl CoA to pyruvate

    • B.

      Glucose to acetyl CoA

    • C.

      Pyruvate to acetyl CoA

    • D.

      Pyruvate to glucose

    • E.

      Glucose to ATP

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyruvate to acetyl CoA
    Explanation
    The linking step between glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. This step is known as pyruvate decarboxylation and occurs in the mitochondria. Pyruvate, which is the end product of glycolysis, is converted to acetyl CoA by removing a carbon dioxide molecule and transferring the remaining two-carbon fragment to coenzyme A. Acetyl CoA then enters the Kreb's cycle to further generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation. This conversion is an important step in cellular respiration as it connects glycolysis with the Kreb's cycle, allowing for the efficient breakdown of glucose to produce ATP.

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  • 12. 

    In glycolysis, the coenzyme ______ is _______.

    • A.

      NAD is reduced

    • B.

      FAD is reduced

    • C.

      NAD is oxidized

    • D.

      FAD is oxidized

    • E.

      NAD and FAD are oxidized

    Correct Answer
    A. NAD is reduced
    Explanation
    In glycolysis, NAD is reduced. This means that NAD gains electrons and becomes NADH. NAD acts as a coenzyme in glycolysis, accepting electrons from glucose during the energy-yielding steps of the process. The reduction of NAD to NADH is an important step in glycolysis as it helps to generate ATP, the energy currency of the cell.

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  • 13. 

    Glucose, NAD, ADP, and Pi are needed for _______ to occur.

    • A.

      Chemiostic coupling

    • B.

      Kreb's cycle

    • C.

      Glycolysis

    • D.

      Anaerobic respiration

    • E.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    C. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glucose, NAD, ADP, and Pi are needed for glycolysis to occur. Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH in the process. ADP and Pi are required for the phosphorylation of glucose, initiating the glycolytic pathway. NAD is involved in the redox reactions that occur during glycolysis, accepting electrons and becoming reduced to NADH. Therefore, all these components are necessary for the glycolytic process to take place.

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  • 14. 

    __________ is the catalyst for chemiostic coupling.

    • A.

      ATP synthase

    • B.

      NADH

    • C.

      FADH

    • D.

      ATP

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. ATP synthase
    Explanation
    ATP synthase is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of ATP in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. It acts as a catalyst by facilitating the coupling of the electron transport chain and the synthesis of ATP. This enzyme is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and utilizes the proton gradient generated during electron transport to convert ADP and inorganic phosphate into ATP. Therefore, ATP synthase is the catalyst for chemiostic coupling, which is the process of coupling the flow of protons with the synthesis of ATP.

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  • 15. 

    Oxidative phosphorylation produces ___ ATP.

    Correct Answer
    34
    Explanation
    Oxidative phosphorylation is the final step in cellular respiration, where energy is generated by transferring electrons from electron carriers to oxygen. This process occurs in the mitochondria and involves the synthesis of ATP. For each molecule of glucose, oxidative phosphorylation produces a maximum of 34 ATP molecules. This is because the electron transport chain, which drives ATP synthesis, generates enough energy to produce 3 ATP molecules per NADH molecule and 2 ATP molecules per FADH2 molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is 34 ATP.

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  • 16. 

    _____________ and ____________ occur in oxidative phosphorylation.

    Correct Answer
    electron transport chain and chemiostic coupling
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain and chemiosmotic coupling are both processes that occur in oxidative phosphorylation. The electron transport chain is responsible for transferring electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors, generating a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Chemiosmotic coupling then utilizes this proton gradient to drive the synthesis of ATP. Together, these processes play a crucial role in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell, during oxidative phosphorylation.

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  • 17. 

    In oxidative phosphorylation, coenzymes ___ and _____ are _______ from the Kreb's cycle.

    • A.

      ATP and NADH are oxidized

    • B.

      FADH and NADH are reduced

    • C.

      NAD is reduced

    • D.

      NADH and FADH are oxidized

    • E.

      Acetyl CoA and NADH are oxidized

    Correct Answer
    D. NADH and FADH are oxidized
    Explanation
    In oxidative phosphorylation, NADH and FADH are oxidized. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final step in cellular respiration, where the majority of ATP is produced. NADH and FADH are electron carriers that are generated during the Kreb's cycle. These coenzymes donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, which is a series of protein complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As the electrons pass through the electron transport chain, energy is released, which is used to pump protons across the membrane. This creates an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis. The oxidation of NADH and FADH is an essential part of this process.

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  • 18. 

    Aerobic respiration requires __________.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Glucose

    • E.

      Acetyl CoA

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Aerobic respiration is a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen. Oxygen is necessary for the breakdown of glucose and the production of energy in the form of ATP. Without oxygen, aerobic respiration cannot take place, and cells would switch to anaerobic respiration, which is less efficient and produces lactic acid as a byproduct. Therefore, oxygen is required for aerobic respiration to occur.

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  • 19. 

    Aerobic respiration produces about _____ ATP molecules.

    • A.

      36-38

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      34

    • D.

      2

    • E.

      1

    Correct Answer
    A. 36-38
    Explanation
    Aerobic respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP. During this process, a maximum of 38 ATP molecules can be produced, although sometimes it may be slightly lower, around 36 ATP. This is because the exact number of ATP molecules produced can vary depending on factors such as the efficiency of the electron transport chain and the availability of oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is 36-38.

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  • 20. 

    ATP is synthesized from ______.

    • A.

      ADP and a phosphate

    • B.

      Glucose and a phosphate

    • C.

      ADP and glucose

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide and ADP

    • E.

      ADP and oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. ADP and a phosphate
    Explanation
    ATP is synthesized from ADP and a phosphate. This process is known as phosphorylation, where a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP. This occurs during cellular respiration, where energy is released from glucose molecules and used to regenerate ATP. By combining ADP and a phosphate, the cell is able to replenish its ATP stores and provide energy for various cellular processes.

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  • 21. 

    Anaerboic respiration produces _____ and _________.

    Correct Answer
    2 ATP and lactate
    Explanation
    Anaerobic respiration is a process that occurs in the absence of oxygen. During anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken down into pyruvate through a series of chemical reactions. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted into lactate, which allows for the regeneration of NAD+ to continue the glycolytic pathway. This process only produces a small amount of ATP, specifically 2 ATP molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 ATP and lactate.

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  • 22. 

    Anaerobic respiration does not use __________.

    Correct Answer
    oxygen
    Explanation
    Anaerobic respiration is a type of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen. It is a metabolic process that allows cells to produce energy without the need for oxygen. Instead, anaerobic respiration uses other electron acceptors, such as sulfate or nitrate, to carry out the final steps of the energy production process. This process is commonly observed in certain bacteria and archaea, as well as in muscle cells during intense physical activity when oxygen supply is limited. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen.

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  • 23. 

    Glucose is stored as _________ in glucogenesis.

    Correct Answer
    glycogen
    Explanation
    Glucogenesis is the process of converting glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver and muscles. Glycogen serves as a form of energy storage in the body, allowing for a readily available source of glucose when needed. Therefore, the correct answer is glycogen.

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  • 24. 

    What two tissues have the capacity to store glycogen?

    Correct Answer
    skeletal muscle and liver
    Explanation
    Skeletal muscle and liver are the two tissues in the human body that have the capacity to store glycogen. Glycogen is a form of glucose storage, and these tissues play a crucial role in maintaining blood glucose levels. Skeletal muscle stores glycogen to provide energy during physical activity, while the liver stores glycogen to regulate blood sugar levels and release glucose when needed. Both tissues are involved in maintaining overall glucose homeostasis in the body.

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  • 25. 

    __________ uses glycogen as an energy source.

    Correct Answer
    Glycogenolysis
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis is the process of breaking down glycogen into glucose to be used as an energy source. Therefore, it is correct to say that glycogenolysis uses glycogen as an energy source.

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  • 26. 

    Taking place in the liver, the process of ___________ uses glycerol, lactate, and amino acids to synthesize glucose.

    • A.

      Glycogenesis

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Glycogenolysis

    • D.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • E.

      Glycolysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Gluconeogenesis
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is the correct answer because it is the process in which glucose is synthesized in the liver using precursors such as glycerol, lactate, and amino acids. This process occurs when the body needs to produce glucose for energy, especially during periods of fasting or low carbohydrate intake. Glycogenesis is the opposite process, where glucose is converted into glycogen for storage. Glucose is the end product of both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, while glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose for energy.

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  • 27. 

    Fats are broken down for energy in

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Glycogenoslysis

    • C.

      Lipolysis

    • D.

      Aerobic respiration

    • E.

      Glucogenesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Lipolysis
    Explanation
    Lipolysis is the process by which fats are broken down for energy. During lipolysis, triglycerides are hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids, which can then be used as a fuel source by the body. This process primarily occurs in adipose tissue and is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline and glucagon. Lipolysis is an important metabolic pathway that allows the body to utilize stored fat as an energy source when other fuel sources, such as glucose, are limited.

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  • 28. 

    Fats are stored in ________ tissue.

    Correct Answer
    adipose
    Explanation
    Fats are stored in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is a specialized connective tissue that functions as the body's primary storage site for fat. It is made up of adipocytes, which are cells specifically designed to store and release fat. Adipose tissue is found throughout the body, particularly in areas such as the abdomen, buttocks, and thighs. It serves as a source of energy, insulation, and cushioning for organs.

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  • 29. 

    _________ is the process of proteins breaking down to amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    proteolysis
    Explanation
    Proteolysis refers to the process of proteins breaking down into amino acids. During proteolysis, proteins are broken down by enzymes called proteases, which cleave the peptide bonds between amino acids. This process is essential for various biological processes, including digestion, cellular recycling, and regulation of protein levels in the body. Proteolysis allows the body to obtain individual amino acids that can be used for protein synthesis or other metabolic pathways.

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  • 30. 

    Proteolysis produces ________, which is converted to _________ at the liver, and is elimated by the kidneys.

    Correct Answer
    ammonia, urea
    Explanation
    Proteolysis is the process of breaking down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. During this process, ammonia is produced as a byproduct. The liver then converts the ammonia into urea, a less toxic compound that can be safely eliminated by the kidneys through urine. Therefore, proteolysis produces ammonia, which is converted to urea at the liver and then eliminated by the kidneys.

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  • 31. 

    ______ are proteins specialized to act as catalysts.

    • A.

      Substrates

    • B.

      Solutes

    • C.

      Enzymes

    • D.

      Amino acids

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    C. Enzymes
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins specialized to act as catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions in the body by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are highly specific and can only catalyze certain reactions, depending on their structure and active site. They bind to specific substrates and convert them into products. Enzymes are essential for various biological processes, including metabolism, digestion, and DNA replication.

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  • 32. 

    A ______ is considered the reactant molecule.

    Correct Answer
    substrate
    Explanation
    A substrate is considered the reactant molecule because it is the molecule that undergoes a chemical reaction and is transformed into a product. In enzymatic reactions, the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme and is catalyzed to form the desired product. The substrate is typically specific to a particular enzyme, and the reaction rate depends on the concentration of the substrate. Therefore, in this context, the term "substrate" refers to the molecule that is being acted upon by a catalyst or enzyme to produce a chemical change.

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  • 33. 

    An __________ is a particular site on an enzyme molecule.

    Correct Answer
    active site
    Explanation
    An active site refers to a specific location on an enzyme molecule where a substrate binds and undergoes a chemical reaction. This region typically has a unique shape and chemical properties that enable it to interact with the substrate and facilitate the conversion of reactants into products. The active site plays a crucial role in enzyme catalysis by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby increasing the rate of the reaction.

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  • 34. 

    _______ is the ability to recognize and bind to a substrate.

    Correct Answer
    Specificity
    Explanation
    Specificity is the ability to recognize and bind to a substrate. This means that a molecule or a biological entity has the capability to selectively identify and attach itself to a particular substrate, while ignoring others. It is an important characteristic in various biological processes, such as enzyme-substrate interactions, receptor-ligand interactions, and immune responses. Specificity ensures that only the intended substrates are targeted, allowing for precise and efficient molecular recognition and signaling within biological systems.

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  • 35. 

    _______ is the measure of how tightly substrates bind to an active site.

    Correct Answer
    Affinity
    Explanation
    Affinity refers to the strength of the interaction between substrates and the active site of an enzyme. It measures how tightly the substrates bind to the active site. A high affinity indicates a strong binding, while a low affinity suggests a weak binding. This property is crucial for enzymatic reactions as it determines the efficiency and specificity of the enzyme in catalyzing the reaction.

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  • 36. 

    __________ are additional nonprotein components.

    Correct Answer
    Cofactors
    Explanation
    Cofactors are additional nonprotein components that are required for the proper functioning of enzymes. These molecules can be either inorganic ions or organic molecules, and they assist in the catalytic activity of enzymes by binding to them and participating in the chemical reactions. Cofactors can be classified into two types: coenzymes, which are organic molecules derived from vitamins, and metal ions, which are inorganic ions such as zinc, magnesium, or iron. Together with the protein component of enzymes, cofactors play a crucial role in facilitating and regulating biochemical reactions in the body.

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  • 37. 

    _______ don't have catalytic activity, but participate directly in reactions.

    Correct Answer
    Coenzymes
    Explanation
    Coenzymes are molecules that do not have catalytic activity on their own, but they play a crucial role in facilitating and participating directly in various reactions. They work alongside enzymes to help them carry out their functions effectively. Coenzymes often act as carriers of specific atoms or functional groups, transferring them between different enzymes or molecules involved in the reaction. This enables the enzymes to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Therefore, coenzymes are essential for the proper functioning of many metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions in the body.

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  • 38. 

    The three most important coenzymes are ______, _________, and __________.

    Correct Answer
    FAD, NAD, and CoA
    Explanation
    FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and CoA (coenzyme A) are considered the three most important coenzymes. These coenzymes play crucial roles in various metabolic reactions within cells. FAD and NAD are involved in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers, while CoA is essential for the transfer of acetyl groups during energy metabolism. These coenzymes are vital for the proper functioning of many enzymes and metabolic pathways, making them significant for cellular processes and overall organismal health.

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  • 39. 

    NAD + 2H yields _____.

    Correct Answer
    NADH + H+
    Explanation
    When NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) accepts two hydrogen ions (2H), it gets reduced to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) along with the release of one proton (H+). This reduction reaction is an important step in cellular respiration and other metabolic processes. NADH is an energy-rich molecule that carries the electrons and hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain where they are used to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of the cell.

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  • 40. 

    FAD + 2H yields ______.

    Correct Answer
    FADH2
    Explanation
    When FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) reacts with 2H (two hydrogen atoms), it forms FADH2 (flavin adenine dinucleotide, reduced form). This reaction involves the transfer of two electrons and two protons, resulting in the reduction of FAD. FADH2 is an important molecule in cellular respiration and acts as an electron carrier, participating in various metabolic reactions to generate ATP.

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  • 41. 

    ____________________ is effected by catalytic rate, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration.

    Correct Answer
    Rate of enzyme activity
    Explanation
    The rate of enzyme activity is affected by catalytic rate, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration. Catalytic rate refers to the efficiency of the enzyme in converting the substrate into product. A higher catalytic rate means a faster rate of enzyme activity. Enzyme concentration also plays a role, as a higher concentration of enzymes means more active sites available for substrate binding, leading to an increase in the rate of enzyme activity. Similarly, substrate concentration affects the rate of enzyme activity, as a higher concentration of substrate molecules increases the likelihood of enzyme-substrate collisions and therefore increases the rate of enzyme activity.

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  • 42. 

    ________ is the amount of product molecules generated per unit time.

    Correct Answer
    Catalytic rate
    Explanation
    The catalytic rate refers to the amount of product molecules that are produced per unit time. It measures the efficiency of a catalyst in facilitating a chemical reaction and determining the speed at which the reaction proceeds. The higher the catalytic rate, the faster the reaction occurs and the more product molecules are generated.

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  • 43. 

    ______________ increases chance of converted product.

    Correct Answer
    enzyme concentration
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that increasing the concentration of enzymes can increase the chance of converting a product. Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions. By increasing their concentration, there are more enzymes available to interact with the reactants, leading to a higher likelihood of successful conversion. This is because enzymes lower the activation energy required for a reaction to occur, making it easier for the reactants to reach the transition state and form the desired product. Therefore, increasing the enzyme concentration can enhance the efficiency and rate of the conversion process.

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  • 44. 

    _______________ occurs when a modulator binds reversely on an enzyme, inducing a change.

    Correct Answer
    Allosteric regulation
    Explanation
    Allosteric regulation refers to the process in which a modulator binds reversely on an enzyme, causing a conformational change. This change can either enhance or inhibit the enzyme's activity, ultimately impacting the overall function of the enzyme. Allosteric regulation is an important mechanism in cellular processes as it allows for the fine-tuning of enzyme activity in response to various signals and metabolic needs.

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  • 45. 

    ______________ occurs when covalent bonding of specific group on a molecule, usually with a phosphate group.

    Correct Answer
    Covalent regulation
    Explanation
    Covalent regulation refers to the process of modifying a molecule through covalent bonding, typically involving the addition or removal of a phosphate group. This type of regulation can have significant effects on the molecule's structure and function, often altering its activity or interactions with other molecules. By undergoing covalent regulation, the molecule can be controlled and regulated in response to various cellular signals or environmental cues.

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  • 46. 

    _______ catalyzes phosphorylation of a protein.

    Correct Answer
    Kinase
    Explanation
    A kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein. Phosphorylation is a process in which a phosphate group is added to a protein, altering its structure and function. Kinases play a crucial role in cell signaling pathways, regulating various cellular processes such as cell growth, division, and metabolism. By adding phosphate groups to specific proteins, kinases can activate or deactivate them, thereby controlling their activity and influencing cellular responses. Therefore, the answer "Kinase" is correct as it accurately describes the enzyme responsible for phosphorylating proteins.

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  • 47. 

    _________ catalyzes dephosphorylation of a protein.

    Correct Answer
    Phosphatase
    Explanation
    Phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate group from a protein molecule through the process of dephosphorylation. This enzymatic activity is essential for regulating cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and gene expression. By removing the phosphate group, phosphatase can modulate the activity and function of the protein, thereby influencing various cellular pathways.

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