Cp Bio 2 - Cellular Respiration Quiz (Spring 2014)

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Cp Bio 2 - Cellular Respiration Quiz (Spring 2014) - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Where does glycolysis take place?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Mitochondrial inner membrane

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose into pyruvate molecules to produce energy in the form of ATP. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled region of the cell outside the nucleus, where many cellular processes take place. Therefore, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements best describes cellular respiration?

    • A.

      Sunlight and carbon dioxide are used to make ATP.

    • B.

      ATP and oxygen are used to make sugars and starches.

    • C.

      Carbon-based molecules from food and oxygen are used to make ATP.

    • D.

      ATP and carbon dioxide are used to make ADP and water.

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon-based molecules from food and oxygen are used to make ATP.
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert carbon-based molecules from food and oxygen into ATP, the energy currency of the cell. This process occurs in the mitochondria and involves a series of biochemical reactions that release energy stored in the carbon-based molecules. The ATP produced is then used by the cell for various metabolic activities. This statement accurately describes the process of cellular respiration.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following are end products of glycolysis?

    • A.

      Two three-carbon molecules, ATP, and NAD+

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP

    • C.

      NAD+, oxygen, and two ATP molecules

    • D.

      Pyruvate, NADH, and ATP

    Correct Answer
    D. Pyruvate, NADH, and ATP
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process that breaks down glucose to produce energy. The end products of glycolysis are pyruvate, NADH, and ATP. Pyruvate is a three-carbon molecule, NADH is an electron carrier molecule, and ATP is the energy currency of the cell. This process occurs in the cytoplasm and is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

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  • 4. 

    What is the main function of the Krebs cycle?

    • A.

      Breaking down pyruvate molecules to form molecules of NADH and oxygen

    • B.

      Forming citric acid to make NADH, water, and carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Producing molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain

    • D.

      Bonding coenzyme A to pyruvate

    Correct Answer
    C. Producing molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain
    Explanation
    The main function of the Krebs cycle is to produce molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain. The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, takes place in the mitochondria and is an essential part of cellular respiration. During the cycle, acetyl-CoA is oxidized, resulting in the production of NADH and FADH2. These molecules carry high-energy electrons that are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is producing molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain.

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  • 5. 

    In the electron transport chain, energy from the Krebs cycle is used to pump hydrogen ions

    • A.

      Across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    • B.

      Through the ATP synthase enzyme in the mitochondrial matrix.

    • C.

      Along a concentration gradient in the thylakoid.

    • D.

      Along the thylakoid membrane.

    Correct Answer
    A. Across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. During the Krebs cycle, high-energy electrons are produced and carried by molecules such as NADH and FADH2 to the electron transport chain. As these electrons pass through the protein complexes, energy is released and used to pump hydrogen ions (protons) across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a concentration gradient. This gradient is then utilized by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is that energy from the Krebs cycle is used to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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  • 6. 

    What is the function of oxygen in cellular respiration?

    • A.

      To deliver hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain

    • B.

      To pick up electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

    • C.

      To provide oxygen for the production of carbon dioxide

    • D.

      To give a source of energy to the Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    B. To pick up electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
    Explanation
    Oxygen serves the function of picking up electrons at the end of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration. During the process of cellular respiration, electrons are transferred through a series of protein complexes in the electron transport chain. Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor, combining with these electrons and hydrogen ions to form water. This step is crucial for the production of ATP, the energy currency of cells.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following types of organisms uses cellular respiration for their cellular energy needs?

    • A.

      Eukaryotes

    • B.

      Plants only

    • C.

      Animals only

    • D.

      Prokaryotes

    Correct Answer
    A. Eukaryotes
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes use cellular respiration for their cellular energy needs. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main energy currency of cells. Eukaryotes, which include plants, animals, fungi, and protists, have membrane-bound organelles called mitochondria where cellular respiration takes place. Prokaryotes, on the other hand, such as bacteria and archaea, do not have mitochondria and use different metabolic pathways to obtain energy. Therefore, the correct answer is eukaryotes.

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  • 8. 

    Which process breaks down sugars to make ATP when oxygen is present?

    • A.

      Anaerobic respiration

    • B.

      Cellular respiration

    • C.

      Glycolysis

    • D.

      Photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    B. Cellular respiration
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the correct answer because it is the process by which cells break down sugars, such as glucose, to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy currency of cells. This process occurs in the presence of oxygen and involves three main stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Through cellular respiration, cells are able to efficiently convert the energy stored in sugars into ATP, which is used for various cellular activities. Anaerobic respiration, on the other hand, occurs in the absence of oxygen, while photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy.

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  • 9. 

    The part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down is called

    • A.

      Photosynthesis.

    • B.

      Aerobic respiration.

    • C.

      Electron transport.

    • D.

      Glycolysis.

    Correct Answer
    D. Glycolysis.
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the correct answer because it is the initial step of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into pyruvate. It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and does not require oxygen. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy-rich molecules, while aerobic respiration and electron transport are subsequent steps in cellular respiration that occur in the presence of oxygen.

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  • 10. 

    Two products of the Krebs cycle are

    • A.

      Water and carbon dioxide.

    • B.

      ATP and carbon dioxide.

    • C.

      ATP and oxygen.

    • D.

      ADP and water.

    Correct Answer
    B. ATP and carbon dioxide.
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells. It is a crucial part of cellular respiration, which is the process by which cells generate energy. During the Krebs cycle, carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product, which is then released from the body through respiration. Additionally, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is generated as a high-energy molecule that serves as the main source of energy for cellular processes. Therefore, the correct answer is ATP and carbon dioxide.

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  • 11. 

    What provides the electron transport chain in cellular respiration with the energy it needs to function?

    • A.

      ATP synthase

    • B.

      Glycolysis

    • C.

      Chlorophyll

    • D.

      Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    D. Krebs cycle
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, provides the electron transport chain in cellular respiration with the energy it needs to function. During the Krebs cycle, acetyl CoA is oxidized, producing high-energy molecules such as NADH and FADH2. These molecules then donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the Krebs cycle plays a crucial role in supplying the electron transport chain with the necessary energy for ATP production.

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  • 12. 

    The electron transport chain produces water and ATP. Where do the hydrogen atoms come from that are used to form water?

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      NADH and FADH2

    • C.

      The Calvin Cycle

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. NADH and FADH2
    Explanation
    The hydrogen atoms used to form water in the electron transport chain come from NADH and FADH2. These molecules donate their high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain, which creates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This proton gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, and the electrons ultimately combine with oxygen to form water.

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  • 13. 

    Which organelle converts molecules from the food you eat into usable energy?

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Lysosome

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The mitochondrion is the correct answer because it is the organelle responsible for converting molecules from the food we eat into usable energy. It is often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell because it produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the main energy currency of the cell. The process of converting food molecules into ATP occurs through cellular respiration, which takes place within the mitochondria. The Golgi apparatus is involved in packaging and transporting proteins, the chloroplast is responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells, and the lysosome contains enzymes for breaking down waste materials.

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  • 14. 

    What is another name for the Krebs cycle?

    • A.

      Citric acid cycle

    • B.

      Calvin cycle

    • C.

      Motor cycle

    • D.

      Cell cycle

    Correct Answer
    A. Citric acid cycle
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle. It is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells, where the breakdown of glucose and other molecules produces energy in the form of ATP. The cycle is named after Hans Krebs, a British biochemist who discovered it in the 1930s. The Calvin cycle, on the other hand, is a series of reactions that occur in plants during photosynthesis. The motor cycle and cell cycle are unrelated to cellular metabolism and energy production.

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  • 15. 

    In the electron transport chain, hydrogen ions are pumped across the mitochondrial membrane. What provides the energy to operate the protein pumps?

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      ATP

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrons
    Explanation
    In the electron transport chain, electrons provide the energy to operate the protein pumps. As electrons are passed along the chain, energy is released and used to pump hydrogen ions across the mitochondrial membrane. This creates a concentration gradient, which then drives the synthesis of ATP. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the chain, but it does not directly provide the energy for the protein pumps. Carbon dioxide is not involved in the electron transport chain.

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  • 16. 

    What enzyme is located at the end of the electron transport chain?

    • A.

      ATP synthase

    • B.

      Dehydrogenase

    • C.

      NADPH

    • D.

      Glycolase

    Correct Answer
    A. ATP synthase
    Explanation
    ATP synthase is located at the end of the electron transport chain. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the production of ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. ATP synthase uses the energy from the flow of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane to catalyze the synthesis of ATP. It acts as a molecular motor, converting the electrochemical gradient into mechanical energy to drive the synthesis of ATP. Therefore, ATP synthase is responsible for the final step in the electron transport chain, where the energy generated from the electron flow is utilized to produce ATP.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not a stage of cellular respiration?

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Electron transport chain

    • C.

      Krebs cycle

    • D.

      Calvin cycle

    Correct Answer
    D. Calvin cycle
    Explanation
    The Calvin cycle is not a stage of cellular respiration. It is actually a part of photosynthesis, specifically the light-independent reactions that occur in the stroma of chloroplasts. In these reactions, carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using the energy from ATP and NADPH produced during the light-dependent reactions. Cellular respiration, on the other hand, is the process by which cells convert glucose into ATP, releasing carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Therefore, the Calvin cycle is not involved in cellular respiration.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following stages occurs in the mitochondrial matrix?

    • A.

      The cirtic acid cycle

    • B.

      The Calvin cycle

    • C.

      Glycolysis

    • D.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    A. The cirtic acid cycle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the citric acid cycle. This stage occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, which is the innermost compartment of the mitochondria. The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the matrix and is responsible for the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to produce energy-rich molecules such as NADH and FADH2. This energy is then used in the subsequent stage of oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP.

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  • 19. 

    The three-carbon molecule formed by glycolysis is ___.

    • A.

      Pyruvate

    • B.

      NADH

    • C.

      Citric acid

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    A. Pyruvate
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate. Pyruvate is a three-carbon molecule that is produced as a result of glycolysis. This molecule can then enter the mitochondria and undergo further breakdown in the citric acid cycle to produce energy. NADH is a molecule that is produced during glycolysis, but it is not the three-carbon molecule formed. Carbon dioxide is produced during the citric acid cycle, but it is not the immediate product of glycolysis. Therefore, the correct answer is pyruvate.

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  • 20. 

    In the diagram to the right, what is structure A?

    • A.

      Folded inner membrane

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Folded inner membrane
    Explanation
    Structure A in the diagram is the folded inner membrane. This can be determined by the appearance of the structure in the diagram, which shows a series of folded or convoluted membranes. The folded inner membrane is a characteristic feature of mitochondria, which are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. The other options, such as the mitochondrial matrix, stroma, and thylakoid membrane, do not match the appearance or location of the structure in the diagram.

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  • 21. 

    In the diagram to the right, what is structure B?

    • A.

      Folded inner membrane

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondrial matrix
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitochondrial matrix. In a mitochondrion, the structure B refers to the mitochondrial matrix, which is the fluid-filled space inside the inner membrane. It contains enzymes that are involved in various metabolic reactions, including the citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation. The matrix is responsible for producing ATP, the energy currency of the cell, through oxidative phosphorylation.

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  • 22. 

    Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?

    • A.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • B.

      Folded inner membrane

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondrial matrix
    Explanation
    The Krebs Cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle, takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. This is the innermost compartment of the mitochondria, where various metabolic reactions occur. The Krebs Cycle is an important part of cellular respiration, where it plays a crucial role in generating energy in the form of ATP. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down acetyl-CoA and produce NADH, FADH2, and carbon dioxide as byproducts.

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  • 23. 

    Where does the electron transport chain take place?

    • A.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • B.

      Folded inner membrane

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Folded inner membrane
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain takes place in the folded inner membrane of the mitochondria. This is where the majority of the proteins and complexes involved in the electron transport chain are located. The folded inner membrane provides a large surface area for these proteins to carry out their functions, allowing for efficient electron transfer and ATP production. Additionally, the structure of the folded inner membrane allows for the establishment of a proton gradient, which is essential for the generation of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.

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  • 24. 

    How many net ATP can be produced from one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration?

    • A.

      38 ATP

    • B.

      24 ATP

    • C.

      2 ATP

    • D.

      680 ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. 38 ATP
    Explanation
    During aerobic respiration, glucose undergoes a series of reactions in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP. The process involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. In glycolysis, 2 ATP molecules are produced. In the Krebs cycle, 2 ATP molecules are produced. Finally, in the electron transport chain, 34 ATP molecules are produced. Therefore, the total number of ATP molecules produced from one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration is 2 + 2 + 34 = 38 ATP.

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