Cellular Respiration Test - A

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Cellular Respiration Test - A - Quiz

Welcome to the biology electronic frontier classroom of the 21st century. Cellular respiration is the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. Cellular respiration includes other complex reactions such as glycolysis, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
When a "fill-in" type question presents itself on this test. Please enter your answer(s) using all lower case letters, unless you have specific directions at the question site.
I wish you very good luck in learning about cellular respiration cycles.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the product of acetyl CoA and Oxaloacetate (oxalacetic acid)?

    Explanation
    Acetyl CoA and Oxaloacetate can undergo a condensation reaction to form Citrate, which is also known as citric acid. This reaction is a key step in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle. In this cycle, Acetyl CoA is combined with Oxaloacetate to produce Citrate, which then undergoes a series of reactions to generate energy in the form of ATP. Therefore, the product of acetyl CoA and Oxaloacetate is Citrate, also known as citric acid.

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  • 2. 

    What is the first pathway (cycle) of cellular respiration?

    • A.

      Glycolysis Cycle

    • B.

      Kreb's Cycle

    • C.

      Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycolysis Cycle
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the first pathway in cellular respiration. It is a series of reactions that occur in the cytoplasm of cells and involves the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. This process does not require oxygen and is therefore considered anaerobic. The pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis can then enter the next phase of cellular respiration, which is either aerobic (Kreb's cycle) or anaerobic (lactic acid fermentation), depending on the availability of oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is Glycolysis Cycle.

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  • 3. 

    Glycolysis takes place inside of the mitochdondrion membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Glycolysis actually takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell, not inside the mitochondrion membrane. The process of glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, and it is the first step in cellular respiration. While the mitochondrion is involved in later steps of cellular respiration, glycolysis occurs outside of the mitochondrion in the cytoplasm.

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  • 4. 

    How many ATP molecules are produced as a "net gain"  in glycolysis?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      34

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    In glycolysis, a process that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. During this process, a small amount of ATP is produced through substrate-level phosphorylation. However, in glycolysis, four molecules of ATP are produced, but two molecules are used up in the early steps of the process. Therefore, the net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis is two.

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  • 5. 

    What cellular organelle does glycolysis cycle take place in a cell?

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytosol
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. It occurs in the cytosol, which is the liquid component of the cytoplasm. The cytosol is where most cellular processes take place, including the initial steps of glucose metabolism. The other organelles mentioned, such as the mitochondrion, ribosomes, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are not directly involved in the glycolysis cycle.

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  • 6. 

    Which one of the following is an electron acceptor?

    • A.

      ADP

    • B.

      ATP

    • C.

      GTP

    • D.

      NAD+

    Correct Answer
    D. NAD+
    Explanation
    NAD+ is an electron acceptor because it can accept electrons during cellular respiration. It acts as an oxidizing agent, receiving electrons from other molecules and becoming reduced to NADH. This transfer of electrons is an essential step in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. NAD+ is commonly involved in redox reactions, where it gains electrons and is reduced to NADH, while the molecule donating the electrons is oxidized.

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  • 7. 

    What is the unit of energy used in cellular respiration?

    Correct Answer
    kilocalorie
    Explanation
    The unit of energy used in cellular respiration is kilocalorie. Kilocalorie is a unit of measurement commonly used to quantify the amount of energy stored in food and released during metabolism. It is equivalent to 1000 calories and is often used to measure the energy content of food and the energy expenditure of the body. In cellular respiration, glucose is broken down to produce ATP, the main energy currency of cells. This process releases energy, which is measured in kilocalories.

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  • 8. 

    Aerobic respiration is cellular respiration taking place in the presence of oxygen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because aerobic respiration is a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen. It is the most efficient way for cells to produce energy, as it involves the breakdown of glucose molecules into carbon dioxide and water, releasing a significant amount of ATP. Without oxygen, cells resort to anaerobic respiration, which is less efficient and produces lactic acid or ethanol as byproducts. Therefore, aerobic respiration requires the presence of oxygen to proceed.

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  • 9. 

    Glucose is converted into pyruate during_____.

    • A.

      Carbon fixation

    • B.

      Fermentation

    • C.

      Glycolysis Cycle

    • D.

      Kreb's Cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. Glycolysis Cycle
    Explanation
    During the process of glycolysis, glucose is converted into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the initial step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. It involves the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH in the process. This process does not require oxygen and is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

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  • 10. 

    Yeast cells produce alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process of_____.

    • A.

      Lactic Acid Fermentation

    • B.

      Alcoholic Fermentation

    • C.

      Aerobic Respiration

    • D.

      Cytosol Respiration

    Correct Answer
    B. Alcoholic Fermentation
    Explanation
    Yeast cells produce alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process of alcoholic fermentation. This process occurs in the absence of oxygen and is used by yeast to convert sugars into energy. During alcoholic fermentation, yeast breaks down glucose into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide. This process is commonly used in the production of alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine.

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  • 11. 

    Some of the glucose required for cellular respiration in humans is obtained by eating which one of the following items.

    • A.

      Minerals

    • B.

      Vitamins

    • C.

      Starch and Sucrose

    • D.

      Lipids and Fats

    Correct Answer
    C. Starch and Sucrose
    Explanation
    Starch and sucrose are both types of carbohydrates that can be broken down into glucose molecules during digestion. Glucose is a primary source of energy for cellular respiration in humans. Therefore, consuming starch and sucrose through food provides the necessary glucose for cellular respiration. Minerals and vitamins do not directly provide glucose, and lipids and fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, not glucose.

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  • 12. 

    How many carbon atoms are found in a molecule of glucose?

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 6
    Explanation
    A molecule of glucose, C6H12O6, consists of 6 carbon atoms. Each carbon atom forms a covalent bond with another carbon atom, resulting in a ring structure with 6 carbon atoms. Therefore, the correct answer is 6.

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  • 13. 

    ___  ___  ___ produces ATP during the second stage of cellular respiration. (Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    electron transport chain
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain is responsible for producing ATP during the second stage of cellular respiration. This process occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, where electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred through a series of protein complexes. As the electrons move through these complexes, energy is released and used to pump protons across the membrane. This creates an electrochemical gradient, which drives the synthesis of ATP by the enzyme ATP synthase. Therefore, the electron transport chain is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 14. 

    The process that change light energy to chemical energy is called_____.

    • A.

      Autotrophys

    • B.

      Cellular Respiration

    • C.

      Heterotrophs

    • D.

      Photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the correct answer because it is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose. This process involves the absorption of light by chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of plant cells, which then triggers a series of chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Through photosynthesis, autotrophs (organisms that can produce their own food) are able to convert light energy into chemical energy, which is essential for their survival and the production of oxygen in the atmosphere.

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  • 15. 

    In cellular respiration, more energy is transferred in _____ than in any other step.

    • A.

      Glycolysis Cycle

    • B.

      Lactic Acid Fermentation

    • C.

      Krebs Cycle

    • D.

      Electron Transport Chain

    Correct Answer
    D. Electron Transport Chain
    Explanation
    The Electron Transport Chain is the final step in cellular respiration and is where the majority of energy is transferred. During this step, high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along a series of protein complexes, generating a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This proton gradient is then used to drive the synthesis of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. Therefore, the Electron Transport Chain is the most efficient step in terms of energy transfer in cellular respiration.

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  • 16. 

    How many ATP molecules are produced by the Electron Transport Chain cycle? (Please enter a number from 0 to 50.)

    Correct Answer
    34
    Explanation
    The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a process in cellular respiration that produces ATP molecules. During the ETC cycle, a total of 34 ATP molecules are generated. This process occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane and involves the transfer of electrons from electron carriers to create a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the membrane through ATP synthase leads to the production of ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is 34.

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  • 17. 

    How many molecules of Carbon Dioxide are produced in every turn of the Kreb Cycle?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    In every turn of the Kreb Cycle, two molecules of Carbon Dioxide are produced. This is because during the Kreb Cycle, Acetyl CoA is oxidized and broken down, resulting in the release of two molecules of Carbon Dioxide. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.

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  • 18. 

    The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is known as_____.

    • A.

      Cellular Respiration

    • B.

      Biosynthesis Fermentation

    • C.

      Carbon Fermentation

    • D.

      Acetyl CoA Respiration

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellular Respiration
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the process by which organic compounds are broken down to produce ATP. During cellular respiration, glucose and other organic molecules are oxidized, releasing energy that is used to generate ATP. This process occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and involves several steps, including glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Cellular respiration is essential for the survival and functioning of cells, as ATP is the main energy currency used by cells to carry out various biological processes.

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  • 19. 

    Glycolysis begins with one glucose molecule and _____.

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Lactic Acid

    • C.

      Acetyl CoA

    • D.

      GTP

    • E.

      Pyruvic Acid

    Correct Answer
    A. ATP
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the initial step in cellular respiration, where one glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid. During this process, ATP is required as an energy source to activate the glucose molecule and facilitate its breakdown. Therefore, ATP is necessary for the initiation of glycolysis.

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  • 20. 

    Excited electrons go down this series of molecules into a thylakoid membrane, which are called a(n)_____?

    • A.

      Calvin Cycle

    • B.

      Electron Transport Chain

    • C.

      Krebs Cycle

    Correct Answer
    B. Electron Transport Chain
    Explanation
    Excited electrons go down this series of molecules into a thylakoid membrane, which are called the Electron Transport Chain. The Electron Transport Chain is a series of proteins and molecules embedded in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. It plays a crucial role in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by transferring electrons from excited chlorophyll molecules to generate energy-rich molecules like ATP. This process ultimately leads to the production of NADPH, which is used in the Calvin Cycle for the synthesis of glucose. The Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle are not directly involved in the transfer of excited electrons in the thylakoid membrane.

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  • 21. 

    Where is the location of a Electron Transport Chain in prokaryotes?

    • A.

      Cell Wall

    • B.

      Nuclear Membrane

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    • E.

      Lysosome

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mitochondrion. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, do not have mitochondria. Instead, they have a plasma membrane where the electron transport chain takes place. The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes embedded in the plasma membrane that transfer electrons and generate ATP, the cell's energy currency. Therefore, the location of the electron transport chain in prokaryotes is the plasma membrane.

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  • 22. 

    Maleate is a ______ carbon molecule is found in the Kreb's Cycle.

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      6

    • E.

      8

    Correct Answer
    B. 4
    Explanation
    Maleate is a 4 carbon molecule found in the Kreb's Cycle.

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  • 23. 

    Isocitrate is a ______ carbon molecule is found in the Kreb's Cycle.

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      6

    • E.

      8

    Correct Answer
    D. 6
    Explanation
    Isocitrate is a 6-carbon molecule found in the Kreb's Cycle.

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  • 24. 

    What are the chemical substances found in red called?

    • A.

      Reactive chemicals

    • B.

      Enzymes

    • C.

      Carbohydrates

    • D.

      Lipids

    • E.

      Fatty Oils

    Correct Answer
    B. Enzymes
  • 25. 

    There are 38 ATP molecules are made in cellular respiration?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is a process that occurs in the mitochondria of cells and involves the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main energy currency of cells. Through a series of chemical reactions, a total of 38 ATP molecules are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose. Therefore, the statement that 38 ATP molecules are made in cellular respiration is true.

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  • 26. 

    How many ATP's are formed in glycolysis?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      12

    • E.

      18

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    During glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. This process generates a net gain of two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.

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  • 27. 

    How many ATP molecules are produced by Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      12

    • E.

      18

    • F.

      34

    Correct Answer
    F. 34
    Explanation
    The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis produce a total of 34 ATP molecules. These processes occur during cellular respiration, specifically in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The Electron Transport Chain transfers electrons from molecules like NADH and FADH2 to proteins in the membrane, creating a proton gradient. This gradient is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP through chemiosmosis. Each NADH molecule can produce 3 ATP, while each FADH2 molecule can produce 2 ATP. Therefore, the total ATP production is 34.

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  • 28. 

    How many ATP molecules are produced by Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      12

    • E.

      18

    • F.

      34

    Correct Answer
    B. 4
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 4 because both the Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis produce 2 ATP molecules each. Therefore, when we add the ATP molecules produced by both processes, we get a total of 4 ATP molecules.

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  • 29. 

    How many ATP molecules can be formed from this cellular respiration cycle shown in the image attached to this question?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      18

    • E.

      34

    • F.

      38

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
  • 30. 

    How many ATP molecules can be formed from this cellular respiration cycle shown in the image attached to this question?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      18

    • E.

      34

    • F.

      38

    Correct Answer
    E. 34
    Explanation
    In cellular respiration, one molecule of glucose produces a maximum of 38 ATP molecules. However, during the process, two ATP molecules are used up, leaving a net gain of 36 ATP molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is 34 ATP molecules because two ATP molecules are used up in this cycle.

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