Bioscience 2: Test 3

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Bioscience 2: Test 3 - Quiz

Test 3 in bioscience covering the Endocrine lectures.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not one of the major regulating systems for homestasis?

    • A.

      Cardiovascular system

    • B.

      Nervous System

    • C.

      Endocrine System

    • D.

      All of these are important in regulating homeostasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cardiovascular system
    Explanation
    The cardiovascular system is not one of the major regulating systems for homeostasis. Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment. The major regulating systems for homeostasis are the nervous system and the endocrine system. The nervous system controls and coordinates bodily functions through electrical signals, while the endocrine system releases hormones that regulate various bodily processes. The cardiovascular system, on the other hand, is responsible for transporting blood, oxygen, and nutrients throughout the body, but it does not directly regulate homeostasis.

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  • 2. 

    The endocrine system in important in regulating all of the following except…

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Mobility

    • C.

      Fluid Status

    • D.

      Behavior

    Correct Answer
    B. Mobility
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, fluid status, and behavior. However, it does not directly regulate mobility. Mobility is primarily controlled by the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system, which work together to coordinate movement and maintain balance. Therefore, the endocrine system does not play a direct role in regulating mobility.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not an endocrine gland?

    • A.

      Placenta

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Spleen

    • D.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    C. Spleen
    Explanation
    The spleen is not an endocrine gland because it does not produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream. Instead, it is part of the lymphatic system and functions primarily in filtering blood, storing red blood cells, and supporting the immune system. The placenta, thyroid, and pancreas, on the other hand, are all endocrine glands that produce and release hormones into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions.

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  • 4. 

    Endocrine function is mediated by ____

    • A.

      Neurotransmitters

    • B.

      Peptides

    • C.

      Cortisol

    • D.

      Hormones

    Correct Answer
    D. Hormones
    Explanation
    Endocrine function is mediated by hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that are produced by various glands in the body and are released into the bloodstream. They travel to specific target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and regulate various physiological processes. Hormones play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and many other functions in the body. Unlike neurotransmitters, which are involved in the transmission of signals within the nervous system, hormones act as signaling molecules that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs. Peptides and cortisol are types of hormones, but the most general and inclusive answer is simply "hormones."

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  • 5. 

    Growth hormone is synthesized and secretd by the anterior pituitary but exerts its effects in tissues throughout the body, this is known as a _______ function.

    • A.

      Paracrine

    • B.

      Mesocrine

    • C.

      Autocrine

    • D.

      Somacrine

    Correct Answer
    A. Paracrine
    Explanation
    Paracrine function refers to the ability of a substance to be produced and released by one cell, and then act on nearby cells to exert its effects. In the case of growth hormone, it is synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but it can travel to various tissues in the body to promote growth and development. This fits the definition of paracrine function, where the hormone acts locally on neighboring cells rather than traveling through the bloodstream to distant target cells.

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  • 6. 

    When a secreted hormone acts on the producer cell itself this is known as a ______ function.

    • A.

      Paracrine

    • B.

      Mesocrine

    • C.

      Autocrine

    • D.

      Somacrine

    Correct Answer
    C. Autocrine
    Explanation
    Autocrine function refers to the action of a hormone on the cell that produced it. In this case, when a secreted hormone acts on the producer cell itself, it is considered an autocrine function. This means that the cell is able to regulate its own activity by responding to the hormone it produces.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not one of the major categories of hormones?

    • A.

      Peptides

    • B.

      Esters

    • C.

      Amines

    • D.

      Steroids

    Correct Answer
    B. Esters
    Explanation
    Esters are not one of the major categories of hormones. Hormones can be classified into four major categories: peptides, amines, steroids, and eicosanoids. Peptides are composed of amino acids, amines are derived from amino acids, steroids are derived from cholesterol, and eicosanoids are derived from fatty acids. Esters, on the other hand, are a type of organic compound that is formed from the reaction between an alcohol and an acid, and they are not typically involved in hormone regulation in the body.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following are not Peptide hormones? (multiple answers)

    • A.

      Oxytocin

    • B.

      Vasopressin

    • C.

      Thyroxine

    • D.

      Aldosterone

    • E.

      Estrogen

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Thyroxine
    D. Aldosterone
    E. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Thyroxine, aldosterone, and estrogen are not peptide hormones because they are not composed of amino acids. Peptide hormones are made up of chains of amino acids, whereas thyroxine is a thyroid hormone composed of iodine and tyrosine, aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid steroid hormone, and estrogen is a steroid hormone derived from cholesterol. Therefore, these three hormones do not fit the definition of peptide hormones.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following  are Amine hormones? (mult answer)

    • A.

      Thyroxine

    • B.

      Calcitonin

    • C.

      Testosterone

    • D.

      ACTH

    • E.

      Serotonin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Thyroxine
    E. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Thyroxine and serotonin are classified as amine hormones. Thyroxine is produced by the thyroid gland and plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism. Serotonin, on the other hand, is a neurotransmitter that is involved in various physiological processes, including mood regulation and sleep. Both of these substances are derived from the amino acid tryptophan and are considered amine hormones due to their chemical structure.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following are steroid hormones? (mult answer)

    • A.

      Serotonin

    • B.

      Cortisol

    • C.

      Angiotensin

    • D.

      Estrogen

    • E.

      Prolactin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cortisol
    D. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Cortisol and estrogen are both steroid hormones. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that helps regulate metabolism and the response to stress. Estrogen is a sex hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system. Serotonin, angiotensin, and prolactin are not steroid hormones. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, while angiotensin is a peptide hormone that regulates blood pressure. Prolactin is a peptide hormone that stimulates milk production in mammals.

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  • 11. 

    A person with Hypothyroidism most likely has a _________ number of receptors for that hormone.

    • A.

      Amount of circulating hormone has no effect on receptors.

    • B.

      Decreased

    • C.

      Increased

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased
    Explanation
    A person with Hypothyroidism most likely has an increased number of receptors for that hormone because when the body detects low levels of thyroid hormone, it compensates by increasing the number of receptors in order to maximize the response to the available hormone. This helps the body to try and maintain normal thyroid hormone function despite the deficiency.

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  • 12. 

    The “master gland” is also called the….

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Adrenal

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    A. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The "master gland" refers to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland because it plays a crucial role in regulating and controlling the functions of other endocrine glands in the body. It produces and releases hormones that stimulate or inhibit the production of hormones from other glands, thus controlling various bodily processes such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, and stress response.

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  • 13. 

    Secretion of pituitary hormones is regulated by what?

    • A.

      Adenohypophysis

    • B.

      Hypothalamus

    • C.

      Neurohypophysis

    • D.

      Pons

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus regulates the secretion of pituitary hormones. It is a small region of the brain that acts as a control center for many bodily functions, including the release of hormones. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that travel to the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis, and stimulate or inhibit the release of specific hormones. This intricate feedback system ensures that the body maintains a balance of hormones necessary for various physiological processes. The neurohypophysis, a posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus. The pons, on the other hand, is not directly involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following are secreted by the Adenohypophysis? (mult Answers)

    • A.

      ADH

    • B.

      Prolactin

    • C.

      ACTH

    • D.

      Oxytocin

    • E.

      Growth Hormone

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Prolactin
    C. ACTH
    E. Growth Hormone
    Explanation
    The Adenohypophysis, also known as the anterior pituitary gland, secretes several hormones including Prolactin, ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), and Growth Hormone. Prolactin is responsible for stimulating milk production in the mammary glands, ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol from the adrenal glands, and Growth Hormone promotes growth and development in various tissues and organs. Therefore, the correct answer is Prolactin, ACTH, and Growth Hormone.

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  • 15. 

    Hypothalamic hormones may inhibit release of anterior pituitary hormones.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hypothalamic hormones are known to have an inhibitory effect on the release of anterior pituitary hormones. This is because the hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, produces hormones that can regulate the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. These hypothalamic hormones can either stimulate or inhibit the release of anterior pituitary hormones, depending on the specific hormone and its target. Therefore, it is true that hypothalamic hormones may inhibit the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

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  • 16. 

    Sheehan’s syndrome is a  form of postpartum shock that results in a pituitary infract. Thus causing hypopituitarism. Knowing the hormones of the pituitary gland you would expect this pt to require which of the following treatments? (mult answer)

    • A.

      Synthroid, to maintain thyroid function

    • B.

      Demeclocycline, to antagonize effects of ADH on kidneys

    • C.

      Corticosteroid replacement, due to decreased cortisol levels

    • D.

      Smaller ETT due to subglottic narrowing caused by growth hormone

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Synthroid, to maintain thyroid function
    C. Corticosteroid replacement, due to decreased cortisol levels
    Explanation
    Sheehan's syndrome is a condition that occurs after childbirth and leads to pituitary infarction, causing hypopituitarism. Since the pituitary gland is responsible for regulating various hormones, the patient would require hormone replacement therapy. In this case, the patient would need Synthroid to maintain thyroid function because the thyroid hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. Additionally, corticosteroid replacement would be necessary due to decreased cortisol levels, as cortisol is also regulated by the pituitary gland.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not a symptom of acromegaly?

    • A.

      Cardiomyopathy

    • B.

      Hepatomegaly

    • C.

      Hyperglycemia

    • D.

      Decreased Lung volumes

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased Lung volumes
    Explanation
    Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces excessive growth hormone. It leads to the enlargement of bones and tissues in the body. Symptoms of acromegaly include enlarged hands and feet, facial changes, joint pain, and organ enlargement. Cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) are commonly associated with acromegaly due to the excessive growth hormone. However, decreased lung volumes are not typically seen in acromegaly. This can be explained by the fact that acromegaly primarily affects the bones and soft tissues, rather than the lungs.

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  • 18. 

    Hypersecretion of growth hormone is a 21 yr old male is most likely to result in which of the following?

    • A.

      Acromegaly

    • B.

      Dwarfism

    • C.

      Gigantism

    • D.

      Sheehans Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    A. Acromegaly
    Explanation
    Hypersecretion of growth hormone in a 21-year-old male is most likely to result in acromegaly. Acromegaly is a condition caused by an excess of growth hormone in adulthood, leading to the enlargement of bones and tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face. It occurs when the growth plates in the long bones have already closed, preventing further height growth. Dwarfism, gigantism, and Sheehan's syndrome are not associated with hypersecretion of growth hormone in adulthood.

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  • 19. 

    You are caring for Mr. Andrews today who has a PMH of Acromegaly.  Your preceptor asks you  what anesthetic considerations are most important when inducing the for anesthesia. To sound like a really smart SRNA you should say which of the following?

    • A.

      “My pt has decreased lung volumes due to the effects of growth hormone, so may desaturate easily. I need to intubate quickly”

    • B.

      “This pt may be a difficult intubation due to the effects of excessive growth hormone. Perhaps we should consider a fiberoptic intubation.”

    • C.

      “My pt will be hypotensive. Perhaps I should consider giving a small fluid bolus prior to inducing this pt.”

    • D.

      “I will put the tube in, YOU check a blood sugar. I need to focus most of all on the hyperglycemia.”

    Correct Answer
    B. “This pt may be a difficult intubation due to the effects of excessive growth hormone. Perhaps we should consider a fiberoptic intubation.”
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "This pt may be a difficult intubation due to the effects of excessive growth hormone. Perhaps we should consider a fiberoptic intubation." This is the most important consideration because acromegaly can cause anatomical changes in the airway, such as enlarged tongue, mandible, and soft tissues, which can make intubation challenging. Using a fiberoptic intubation allows for better visualization and maneuverability in the presence of difficult airway anatomy. The other options are not as relevant to the specific anesthetic considerations for acromegaly.

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  • 20. 

    Aweeee! You’re having a Baby! (If you are a male consider it a divine miracle). It sounds nice but you are currently experiencing horrible uterine contractions while cursing God and the stupid &*#% man that put you here. In this moment of exquisite pain you think back to bioscience and realize what gland and hormone are responsible for your current predicament?

    • A.

      Anterior Pituitary and Prolactin

    • B.

      Anterior Pituitary and Oxytocin

    • C.

      Posterior Pituitary and Oxytocin

    • D.

      Posterior Pituitary and Prolactin

    • E.

      Wait... If I'm a guy where the heck is that thing going to come out of?!?!?!?!

    Correct Answer
    C. Posterior Pituitary and Oxytocin
    Explanation
    During childbirth, uterine contractions are necessary for the process of labor. The hormone responsible for stimulating these contractions is oxytocin, which is produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Therefore, the correct answer is "Posterior Pituitary and Oxytocin." This hormone helps in the progression of labor by causing the muscles of the uterus to contract, leading to the eventual birth of the baby.

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  • 21. 

    ADH is synthesized and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, is not synthesized and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. Instead, it is produced by the hypothalamus and then transported to the posterior pituitary gland where it is stored and released when necessary. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 22. 

    A decrease in ADH secretion will result in a ______ in urine osmolarity and a _____ decrease in serum osmolarity.

    • A.

      Decrease, Decrease

    • B.

      Increase, Increase

    • C.

      Increase, Decrease

    • D.

      Decrease, Increase

    Correct Answer
    D. Decrease, Increase
    Explanation
    A decrease in ADH secretion will result in a decrease in urine osmolarity because ADH (antidiuretic hormone) helps in the reabsorption of water in the kidneys, so a decrease in its secretion will lead to less water being reabsorbed, resulting in more diluted urine. On the other hand, a decrease in ADH secretion will cause an increase in serum osmolarity because less water is being reabsorbed, leading to a higher concentration of solutes in the blood.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following will not trigger release of ADH from the posterior pituitary?

    • A.

      Decrease in plasma sodium ion concentration

    • B.

      Increase in plasma osmolarity

    • C.

      Decrease in blood volume

    • D.

      Decrease in BP

    Correct Answer
    A. Decrease in plasma sodium ion concentration
    Explanation
    A decrease in plasma sodium ion concentration will not trigger the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary. ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, is released in response to an increase in plasma osmolarity, which indicates a high concentration of solutes in the blood. This release of ADH helps to retain water in the body and decrease urine production. However, a decrease in plasma sodium ion concentration does not directly affect osmolarity and therefore does not stimulate the release of ADH.

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  • 24. 

    Diabetes Insipidus is caused by excessive secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary lobe.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Diabetes Insipidus is actually caused by a deficiency or ineffective response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. This hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary gland. In Diabetes Insipidus, there is either a lack of ADH production or the kidneys do not respond properly to the hormone, leading to excessive urination and thirst. Therefore, the given statement is incorrect.

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  • 25. 

    You are caring for Ms. Mourtain who is in the hospital due to AMS related to a brain tumor. She was recently diagnosed with Diabetes Insipidus, and needs to be treated. Which of the following would be the best choice to treat this pt?

    • A.

      Democlocycline 150 mg PO every 6 hours

    • B.

      Administer D5NS IV first to correct hypovolemic shock and hyponatremia

    • C.

      Give Desmopressin 2mcg SC every 6 hours as needed

    • D.

      Fluid restriction is sufficient to treat mild cases

    Correct Answer
    C. Give Desmopressin 2mcg SC every 6 hours as needed
    Explanation
    The best choice to treat Ms. Mourtain's Diabetes Insipidus would be to give Desmopressin 2mcg SC every 6 hours as needed. Desmopressin is a synthetic form of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that helps to reduce excessive urination and increase water reabsorption in the kidneys. This medication is commonly used to treat Diabetes Insipidus and would be the most appropriate option for this patient.

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  • 26. 

    You are evaluating Mr. Massadure who was admitted to the hospital one week ago with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the past few days this pt has become hypertensive and edematous. His labs reveal hyponatremia, low BUN, low creatinine, and hypoalbuminemia. The nurse reports the output from his foley has also been low. What is wrong with Mr. Massadure?

    • A.

      Hypopituitarism

    • B.

      Diabetes Insipidus

    • C.

      Renal insufficiency related to hypertension

    • D.

      SIADH

    Correct Answer
    D. SIADH
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, Mr. Massadure is experiencing symptoms that are consistent with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH). SIADH is characterized by a high release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which leads to water retention, dilutional hyponatremia, low BUN and creatinine levels, and hypoalbuminemia. The low output from his foley also suggests decreased urine production, which is a common symptom of SIADH. Hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and renal insufficiency related to hypertension do not explain the specific symptoms mentioned in the question.

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  • 27. 

    Democlocycline is an effective treatment for moderate to severe SIADH.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Democlocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been found to be effective in treating moderate to severe cases of SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion). SIADH is a condition where the body produces too much antidiuretic hormone, leading to water retention and dilutional hyponatremia. Democlocycline works by inhibiting the action of antidiuretic hormone, thereby reducing water retention and correcting the imbalance of sodium levels in the body. Therefore, the statement that Democlocycline is an effective treatment for moderate to severe SIADH is true.

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  • 28. 

    All of the following are important in regulating the plasma concentration of calcium except:

    • A.

      Parathyroid Hormone

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Calcitonin

    • D.

      Vit D

    Correct Answer
    B. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Serotonin is not involved in regulating the plasma concentration of calcium. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D are all important in regulating calcium levels. Parathyroid hormone increases calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones and increasing calcium absorption in the intestines. Calcitonin decreases calcium levels by inhibiting bone resorption and promoting calcium excretion in the kidneys. Vitamin D helps regulate calcium levels by promoting calcium absorption in the intestines and enhancing the effects of parathyroid hormone. Serotonin, on the other hand, is primarily known for its role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

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  • 29. 

    The most important regulator of plasma calcium is…

    • A.

      Serotonin

    • B.

      Vit D

    • C.

      Parathyroid Hormone

    • D.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    C. Parathyroid Hormone
    Explanation
    Parathyroid hormone is the most important regulator of plasma calcium because it acts to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. When the calcium levels are low, the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone, which stimulates the release of calcium from the bones, enhances the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and reduces the excretion of calcium by the kidneys. This helps to maintain the balance of calcium in the blood, which is essential for various physiological processes including muscle contraction, nerve function, and bone health.

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  • 30. 

    Which hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland in response to hypercalcemia?

    • A.

      Serotonin

    • B.

      Vit D

    • C.

      Parathyroid Hormone

    • D.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    D. Calcitonin
    Explanation
    Calcitonin is the hormone secreted by the thyroid gland in response to hypercalcemia. It helps to regulate calcium levels in the blood by inhibiting the release of calcium from the bones and promoting its excretion by the kidneys. This hormone works in opposition to parathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium levels. Therefore, when calcium levels are high, the thyroid gland releases calcitonin to lower them back to normal.

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  • 31. 

    Parathyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by which of the following chronic electrolyte imbalances?

    • A.

      Hypomagnesemia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hyperphosphatemia

    • D.

      Hyperkalemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypomagnesemia
    Explanation
    Hypomagnesemia is the correct answer because low levels of magnesium in the blood can lead to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are responsible for regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the body, and they release parathyroid hormone to increase calcium levels when they are low. However, when magnesium levels are low, the parathyroid glands are unable to properly sense low calcium levels and therefore do not secrete parathyroid hormone effectively. This can result in further imbalances in calcium and phosphorus levels in the body.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is not a clinical manifestation of hypocalcemia?

    • A.

      Confusion

    • B.

      Polyuria

    • C.

      Laryngeal Stridor

    • D.

      Masseter spasm

    Correct Answer
    B. Polyuria
    Explanation
    Polyuria is not a clinical manifestation of hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is a condition characterized by low levels of calcium in the blood. Clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia include confusion, laryngeal stridor (a high-pitched sound during breathing), and masseter spasm (spasms of the jaw muscles). Polyuria, which refers to excessive urination, is not typically associated with hypocalcemia.

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  • 33. 

    The average adult secretes approximately ____ units of insulin per day.

    • A.

      100

    • B.

      85

    • C.

      60

    • D.

      35

    Correct Answer
    C. 60
    Explanation
    The average adult secretes approximately 60 units of insulin per day. This is the correct answer because insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar levels. The average adult's pancreas secretes around 60 units of insulin per day to help control glucose metabolism and maintain stable blood sugar levels. Insulin plays a crucial role in the body's ability to use and store glucose for energy, making it an essential hormone for overall health and wellbeing.

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  • 34. 

    Due to the first pass effect, approximately ___ units of insulin is delivered to tissues daily.

    • A.

      40

    • B.

      85

    • C.

      60

    • D.

      30

    Correct Answer
    D. 30
    Explanation
    Due to the first pass effect, approximately 30 units of insulin is delivered to tissues daily. This is because the first pass effect refers to the metabolism of a drug or substance in the liver before it reaches systemic circulation. In the case of insulin, a significant portion is metabolized and inactivated by the liver, resulting in a lower amount reaching the tissues. Therefore, only around 30 units of insulin are delivered to the tissues daily.

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  • 35. 

    Thanksgiving dinner was very good, and very big. After feasting with friends and family you beach yourself on a sofa and commence an immediate fat nap. While dreaming you can’t help but think about all of the wonderous things the anesthesia program has taught you. You know that right after eating a large meal you have stimulated the _____ cells of pancreas to release insulin, and inhibited the _____ cells from releasing glucagon.

    • A.

      Alpha, Beta

    • B.

      Beta, Acinar

    • C.

      Acinar, Alpha

    • D.

      Beta, Alpha

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta, Alpha
    Explanation
    After eating a large meal, the body needs to regulate blood sugar levels. The release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas helps to lower blood sugar by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells. On the other hand, the release of glucagon from the alpha cells of the pancreas is inhibited. Glucagon helps to increase blood sugar levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Therefore, the correct answer is "Beta, Alpha" as the beta cells release insulin and the alpha cells are inhibited from releasing glucagon.

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  • 36. 

    Approximately 10% of diabetics have type 2, or IDDM characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement in the question is incorrect. Approximately 90% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance or relative insulin deficiency, rather than an absolute deficiency of insulin. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 37. 

    What is the most common endocrine disorder encountered in surgical patients?

    • A.

      Diabetes Mellitus

    • B.

      Hypothyroidism

    • C.

      SIADH

    • D.

      Addison’s Disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Diabetes Mellitus
    Explanation
    Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder encountered in surgical patients. This condition is characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body's inability to produce or effectively use insulin. Surgical patients are at an increased risk of developing diabetes due to factors such as stress, inflammation, and the use of certain medications. Diabetes Mellitus can have significant implications for surgical outcomes, including delayed wound healing, increased risk of infection, and poor glycemic control. Therefore, it is crucial for healthcare providers to closely monitor and manage blood sugar levels in surgical patients with diabetes.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following is not true regarding diabetic patients in the OR?

    • A.

      Patients with diabetes should be scheduled for early in the morning when possible.

    • B.

      Patients under anesthesia should be maintained with mild hypoglycemia.

    • C.

      No specific anesthetic technique has been proven superior for diabetics.

    • D.

      Blood glucose should be checked frequently during surgery and post-op.

    Correct Answer
    B. Patients under anesthesia should be maintained with mild hypoglycemia.
    Explanation
    Maintaining patients under anesthesia with mild hypoglycemia is not true regarding diabetic patients in the OR. Hypoglycemia can be dangerous for diabetic patients as it can lead to various complications. Therefore, it is important to maintain their blood glucose levels within a normal range during surgery.

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  • 39. 

    You are caring for Ms. Flajorm today and have been asked by your preceptor to look at her labs and determine her diagnosis. You notice an elevated BUN, Severe hyperglycemia, ketonemia, hyponatremia, hyperosmolarity, and metabolic acidosis.  What does this pt have?

    • A.

      Diabetes Mellitus

    • B.

      Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome

    • C.

      Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    • D.

      Hyperparathyroidism

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    Explanation
    Based on the given lab results of elevated BUN, severe hyperglycemia, ketonemia, hyponatremia, hyperosmolarity, and metabolic acidosis, the patient is most likely experiencing Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a serious complication of Diabetes Mellitus, characterized by high blood sugar levels, the presence of ketones in the blood, electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis. It occurs when there is a lack of insulin in the body, leading to the breakdown of fat for energy and the production of ketones. Prompt medical intervention is necessary to treat DKA.

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  • 40. 

    Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is more likely to occur in type 2 diabetics.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when blood sugar levels are extremely high. This condition is more commonly seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes, as they tend to have higher blood sugar levels for longer periods of time compared to individuals with type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetics often have insulin resistance, meaning their bodies have difficulty using insulin effectively, leading to higher blood sugar levels. Therefore, it is true that HHNS is more likely to occur in type 2 diabetics.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following does the Thyroid gland secrete the most of?

    • A.

      TSH

    • B.

      Triiodothyronine

    • C.

      Calcitonin

    • D.

      Thyroxine

    Correct Answer
    D. Thyroxine
    Explanation
    The Thyroid gland secretes the most Thyroxine. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a hormone produced by the Thyroid gland that plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and growth. It helps control the body's energy production and influences various bodily functions. Triiodothyronine (T3) is another hormone produced by the Thyroid gland, but in lesser amounts compared to Thyroxine. TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) is produced by the pituitary gland and stimulates the Thyroid gland to produce Thyroxine. Calcitonin is also produced by the Thyroid gland, but in much smaller quantities compared to Thyroxine.

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  • 42. 

    You are caring for Ms. Rodern today who has a PMH of: HTN, DM, Graves disease, Bronchitis, GERD, and arthritis. She is coming in today for a total thyroidectomy. About 30 minutes after inducing the pt you notice the pt is becoming tachycardic. You look around and also notice hypotension, and a high fever. What is most likely happening?

    • A.

      Thyroid Storm

    • B.

      Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    • C.

      Hypoparathyroidism

    • D.

      Malignant Hyperthermia

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroid Storm
    Explanation
    The patient's medical history includes Graves disease, which is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. A total thyroidectomy involves removing the entire thyroid gland, which can potentially trigger a release of excessive thyroid hormones into the bloodstream, leading to a condition known as thyroid storm. The symptoms described, including tachycardia, hypotension, and a high fever, are consistent with thyroid storm, making it the most likely explanation for the patient's current condition.

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  • 43. 

    Post-op for a thryoidectomy it is most important to measure what electrolyte?

    • A.

      Potassium

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Iodine

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium
    Explanation
    After a thyroidectomy, the most important electrolyte to measure is calcium. This is because the parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium levels in the body, are located near the thyroid gland and can be affected during the surgery. Damage to these glands can lead to a decrease in calcium levels, causing symptoms like muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling. Therefore, monitoring calcium levels post-op is crucial to ensure proper functioning of the parathyroid glands and prevent complications.

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  • 44. 

    Weight gain, lethargy, and cold intolerance are most commonly associated with which of the following disorders?

    • A.

      Grave’s Disease

    • B.

      Cushing’s Disease

    • C.

      Hypothyroidism

    • D.

      Diabetes Mellitus

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothyroidism
    Explanation
    Weight gain, lethargy, and cold intolerance are most commonly associated with hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder characterized by an underactive thyroid gland, which leads to a decrease in the production of thyroid hormones. This decrease in hormone production can cause a decrease in metabolism, leading to weight gain. Lethargy and cold intolerance are also common symptoms of hypothyroidism, as the lack of thyroid hormones can slow down bodily functions and affect the body's ability to regulate temperature.

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  • 45. 

    Exocrine glands secrete their hormones…

    • A.

      Directly onto neighboring cells

    • B.

      Into extracellular fluid

    • C.

      Into the synaptic junction

    • D.

      Through ducts

    Correct Answer
    D. Through ducts
    Explanation
    Exocrine glands secrete their hormones through ducts. Unlike endocrine glands, which release hormones directly into the bloodstream, exocrine glands have ducts that carry their secretions to specific locations. This allows for a targeted delivery of the hormones to the desired area. By secreting their hormones through ducts, exocrine glands can ensure that their secretions reach their intended destination and have a localized effect.

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  • 46. 

    Hormones are degraded and eliminated through the _____ and _______.  (Mult Answer)

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Plasma Cholinesterases

    • C.

      Lungs

    • D.

      Kidneys

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Liver
    D. Kidneys
    Explanation
    Hormones are degraded and eliminated through the liver and kidneys. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolizing hormones by breaking them down into smaller molecules that can be easily eliminated from the body. The kidneys, on the other hand, filter out these metabolized hormones from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine. Together, the liver and kidneys ensure the efficient elimination of hormones from the body, maintaining hormonal balance.

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  • 47. 

    Hormones with receptors on the outside of the cell generally have an immediate response.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hormones with receptors on the outside of the cell generally have an immediate response because these receptors are located on the cell membrane, allowing for rapid signal transduction. When a hormone binds to its receptor on the cell surface, it triggers a cascade of events inside the cell that lead to a quick response. This is in contrast to hormones with receptors inside the cell, which require the hormone to enter the cell and bind to its receptor in the nucleus or cytoplasm, resulting in a slower response.

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  • 48. 

    How long does it take for a hormone to exert its effect on the target cells?

    • A.

      Depends upon the hormone, every hormone has different onset.

    • B.

      Several seconds

    • C.

      Several Hours

    • D.

      Several days

    Correct Answer
    A. Depends upon the hormone, every hormone has different onset.
    Explanation
    The time it takes for a hormone to exert its effect on target cells can vary depending on the specific hormone. Each hormone has a different onset, meaning that some hormones may take only several seconds to have an effect, while others may take several hours or even several days. Therefore, the duration can vary depending on the hormone in question.

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  • 49. 

    Hurray! You have finally hit puberty! You can finally develop some *real* teen angst (along with some other things….). Hormones surge through your body giving you acne and a bad attitude. As you fondly recall your awkward moments in life you realize the hormones were secreted in response to what form hormone regulation?

    • A.

      Neural Control

    • B.

      Biorhythms

    • C.

      Positive Feedback

    • D.

      Negative Feedback

    Correct Answer
    B. Biorhythms
    Explanation
    Biorhythms are natural cycles that regulate various physiological processes in the body, including hormone secretion. During puberty, the surge of hormones in the body is a result of the biorhythms that control the development and maturation of the reproductive system. These biorhythms play a crucial role in triggering the physical changes associated with puberty, such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the onset of menstruation or sperm production. Therefore, the correct answer is Biorhythms.

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  • 50. 

    The most common form of feedback is what?

    • A.

      Positive feedback

    • B.

      Biocircadian feedback

    • C.

      Negative Feedback

    • D.

      Psychothalamic feedback

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative Feedback
    Explanation
    Negative feedback is the most common form of feedback because it helps to maintain homeostasis in various biological systems. It involves the body's response to counteract any changes or disturbances from the normal state. For example, when body temperature rises, negative feedback mechanisms are activated to bring it back to the normal range. Similarly, negative feedback is involved in regulating hormone levels, blood pressure, and many other physiological processes. It plays a crucial role in maintaining stability and balance in the body.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 10, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 05, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Scottishduffy
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