Endocrine System Practice Test Questions And Answers

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Endocrine System Practice Test Questions And Answers - Quiz

How well do you know about the endocrine system and the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands? Just answer these practice test questions given in this quiz and analyze whether you really know about the anatomy of the endocrine system or not. In this scored quiz, you'll be asked questions related to the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and other important endocrine glands. If you think you can score high here in this quiz, play the quiz then.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The level of hormone in the blood is regulated by the homeostasis mechanism is known as?

    • A.

      Negative feedback

    • B.

      Positive feedback

    • C.

      Neutral feedback

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Negative feedback
    Explanation
    The level of hormone in the blood is regulated by the homeostasis mechanism known as negative feedback. In negative feedback, the body detects a change in hormone levels and activates mechanisms to counteract and bring the levels back to the desired range. This helps maintain a stable internal environment and prevents excessive hormone production or suppression. Positive feedback, on the other hand, amplifies the initial change and does not contribute to maintaining homeostasis. Neutral feedback and none of the above are not valid mechanisms of hormone regulation.

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  • 2. 

    What is known as adenohypophysis and is characterized as the glandular tissue?

    • A.

      Thyroid gland

    • B.

      Anterior pituitary

    • C.

      Posterior lobe

    • D.

      Pituitary gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior pituitary
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary is known as adenohypophysis and is characterized as the glandular tissue. It is a part of the pituitary gland, which is often referred to as the "master gland" because it produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions. The anterior pituitary specifically secretes hormones such as growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, among others.

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  • 3. 

    Also known as neurohypophysis, that stores and releases antidiuretic hormone ADH and oxytocin?

    • A.

      Thyroid gland

    • B.

      Anterior pituitary

    • C.

      Posterior lobe

    • D.

      Pituitary gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Posterior lobe
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe, also known as the neurohypophysis, is a part of the pituitary gland. It stores and releases two important hormones, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. ADH helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the reabsorption of water by the kidneys. Oxytocin is involved in various reproductive functions, including the stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth and the release of milk during breastfeeding. Therefore, the posterior lobe is responsible for storing and releasing these hormones.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is known as the master gland?

    • A.

      Thyroid gland

    • B.

      Anterior pituitary

    • C.

      Posterior lobe

    • D.

      Pituitary gland

    Correct Answer
    D. Pituitary gland
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is known as the master gland because it controls and regulates the functions of other endocrine glands in the body. It produces and releases several hormones that stimulate or inhibit the production of hormones in other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and reproductive glands. The pituitary gland also plays a crucial role in growth, metabolism, reproduction, and development. Therefore, it is considered the master gland due to its control over the endocrine system.

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  • 5. 

    What are the hormones that anterior pituitary release or produce?

    • A.

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH)

    • B.

      Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)

    • C.

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

    • D.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • E.

      Oxytocin

    • F.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH)

    • G.

      Growth hormone (GH)

    • H.

      Prolactin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH)
    C. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    D. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    F. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    G. Growth hormone (GH)
    H. Prolactin
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland releases or produces several hormones including Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Growth hormone (GH), and Prolactin. These hormones play important roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones, ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, FSH and LH regulate the reproductive system, GH promotes growth and development, and Prolactin stimulates milk production in the breasts.

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  • 6. 

    What are the hormones that posterior lobe in the pituitary gland release or produce?

    • A.

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH)

    • B.

      Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)

    • C.

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

    • D.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • E.

      Oxytocin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)
    E. Oxytocin
    Explanation
    The hormones that the posterior lobe in the pituitary gland releases or produces are antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin. ADH helps regulate water balance in the body by reducing the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Oxytocin is involved in various reproductive functions, such as stimulating contractions during childbirth and promoting the release of breast milk.

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  • 7. 

    What are the function of Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)?

    • A.

      Regulation of urinary output.

    • B.

      Inducement of labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus.

    • C.

      Role in blood pressure regulation.

    • D.

      Promotion of milk secretion from the mammary glands.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Regulation of urinary output.
    C. Role in blood pressure regulation.
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, plays a crucial role in regulating urinary output. It acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption, reducing urine production and preventing dehydration. Additionally, ADH also has a role in regulating blood pressure. It acts on blood vessels, causing them to constrict, which helps to increase blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer choices, "Regulation of urinary output" and "Role in blood pressure regulation," accurately describe the functions of ADH.

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  • 8. 

    What are the functions of Oxytocin hormone?

    • A.

      Regulation of urinary output.

    • B.

      Inducement of labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus.

    • C.

      Promotion of milk secretion from the mammary glands.

    • D.

      Role in blood pressure regulation.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Inducement of labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus.
    C. Promotion of milk secretion from the mammary glands.
    Explanation
    Oxytocin hormone plays a crucial role in inducing labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus. It also promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands.

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  • 9. 

    What statements about Thyroid Gland is correct?

    • A.

      Anterior to upper part of trachea and inferior to larynx.

    • B.

      Inducement of labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus.

    • C.

      Posterior to lower part of trachea and inferior to larynx.

    • D.

      Maintains metabolic rate, growth and development of all tissues.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anterior to upper part of trachea and inferior to larynx.
    D. Maintains metabolic rate, growth and development of all tissues.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Anterior to upper part of trachea and inferior to larynx" and "Maintains metabolic rate, growth and development of all tissues." The thyroid gland is located in the anterior part of the neck, just below the larynx. It plays a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism and is involved in the growth and development of all tissues in the body.

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  • 10. 

    What are the hormones that Thyroid Gland release or produce?

    • A.

      Thyroid hormone (T4, T3)

    • B.

      Calcitonin

    • C.

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH)

    • D.

      Growth hormone (GH)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Thyroid hormone (T4, T3)
    B. Calcitonin
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland releases or produces thyroid hormone (T4, T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid hormone is responsible for regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Calcitonin helps to regulate calcium levels in the blood by inhibiting the breakdown of bone and promoting calcium excretion by the kidneys. The other hormones listed, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and growth hormone (GH), are not produced by the thyroid gland but rather stimulate the thyroid gland and promote growth, respectively.

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  • 11. 

    What statements about Parathyroid Gland is correct?

    • A.

      Posterior to lower part of trachea and inferior to larynx.

    • B.

      Maintains metabolic rate, growth and development of all tissues.

    • C.

      Posterior surface of lobes of thyroid gland.

    • D.

      Maintains serum calcium levels.

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Posterior surface of lobes of thyroid gland.
    D. Maintains serum calcium levels.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Posterior surface of lobes of thyroid gland." and "Maintains serum calcium levels." The parathyroid glands are located on the posterior surface of the lobes of the thyroid gland. They are responsible for maintaining serum calcium levels in the body.

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  • 12. 

    What hormone does Parathyroid Gland release or produce?

    • A.

      Thyroid hormone (T4, T3)

    • B.

      Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)

    • C.

      Parathormone (PTH)

    • D.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    C. Parathormone (PTH)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Parathormone (PTH). The parathyroid gland releases or produces parathormone, which helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It increases calcium levels in the blood by stimulating the release of calcium from bones, increasing calcium absorption in the intestines, and reducing calcium excretion in the kidneys. PTH also plays a role in vitamin D activation, which is essential for calcium absorption.

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  • 13. 

    What is the outer part of the adrenal gland, that is controlled by hypothalamus & anterior pituitary, and functions under negative feedback system called?

    • A.

      Adrenal medulla

    • B.

      External cortex

    • C.

      External adrenea

    • D.

      Adrenal cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Adrenal cortex
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the adrenal gland that is controlled by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. It functions under a negative feedback system, which means that when the levels of certain hormones produced by the adrenal cortex are high, they inhibit the release of these hormones. The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

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  • 14. 

    Which inner part of the adrenal gland is not controlled by hypothalamus?

    • A.

      Adrenal medulla

    • B.

      External cortex

    • C.

      Adrenal cortex

    • D.

      External adrenea

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenal medulla
    Explanation
    The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland that is not controlled by the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus regulates the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal gland. However, the adrenal medulla is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, not the hypothalamus. It releases hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline in response to stress or danger, helping to prepare the body for a fight-or-flight response.

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  • 15. 

    What are the hormones that Adrenal Cortex release or produce?

    • A.

      Gonadocorticoids

    • B.

      Catecholamines

    • C.

      Mineralocorticoids

    • D.

      Glucocorticoids

    • E.

      Epinephrine

    • F.

      Steroid hormones

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gonadocorticoids
    C. Mineralocorticoids
    D. Glucocorticoids
    F. Steroid hormones
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing several hormones, including gonadocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid hormones. Gonadocorticoids are hormones that have an effect on the development and function of the reproductive organs. Mineralocorticoids regulate the balance of electrolytes and water in the body. Glucocorticoids play a role in regulating metabolism and immune response. Steroid hormones are a broad category of hormones that are derived from cholesterol and have various functions in the body. Therefore, the correct answer includes all of these hormones.

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  • 16. 

    What are the hormones that Adrenal Cortex release or produce?

    • A.

      Gonadocorticoids

    • B.

      Catecholamines

    • C.

      Mineralocorticoids

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    • E.

      Epinephrine

    • F.

      Steroid hormones

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Catecholamines
    D. Norepinephrine
    E. Epinephrine
    Explanation
    The hormones that the Adrenal Cortex releases or produces are Catecholamines, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine.

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  • 17. 

    Gonadocorticoids is what kind of hormone?

    • A.

      Sex hormones

    • B.

      Aldosterone (salt) 

    • C.

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone

    • D.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Correct Answer
    A. Sex hormones
    Explanation
    Gonadocorticoids are a type of hormone that belongs to the category of sex hormones. These hormones are produced by the gonads, which are the reproductive organs such as the testes in males and ovaries in females. Gonadocorticoids play a role in the development and regulation of secondary sexual characteristics, as well as in the reproductive functions of males and females. Therefore, the correct answer is sex hormones.

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  • 18. 

    Mineralocorticoids is what kind of hormone?

    • A.

      Sex hormones

    • B.

      Aldosterone (salt) 

    • C.

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone

    • D.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Correct Answer
    B. Aldosterone (salt) 
    Explanation
    Mineralocorticoids are a type of hormone that regulates the balance of salt and water in the body. Aldosterone, which is mentioned in the answer, is a specific mineralocorticoid hormone that is responsible for maintaining the balance of sodium and potassium ions in the blood and controlling blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is "Aldosterone (salt)".

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  • 19. 

    Glucocorticoids includes which hormones?

    • A.

      Cortisol

    • B.

      Adrenocorticoids

    • C.

      Cortisone (sex)

    • D.

      Corticosteroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cortisol
    C. Cortisone (sex)
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. They have various functions in the body, including regulating metabolism, reducing inflammation, and suppressing the immune system. Cortisol and cortisone (sex) are both examples of glucocorticoids. Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and plays a crucial role in regulating stress responses and maintaining homeostasis. Cortisone (sex) is a less well-known glucocorticoid that is involved in the regulation of sexual development and function. Therefore, the correct answer includes both cortisol and cortisone (sex).

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  • 20. 

    Steroid hormones includes which hormones?

    • A.

      Cortisol

    • B.

      Adrenocorticoids

    • C.

      Cortisone (sex)

    • D.

      Corticosteroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Adrenocorticoids
    D. Corticosteroids
    Explanation
    Steroid hormones include adrenocorticoids and corticosteroids. Adrenocorticoids are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, such as cortisol, which regulates metabolism and immune response. Corticosteroids are synthetic drugs that mimic the effects of natural corticosteroids, and they are commonly used to reduce inflammation and suppress immune response. Cortisone, on the other hand, is a type of corticosteroid that is primarily used for its anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the correct answer includes adrenocorticoids and corticosteroids.

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  • 21. 

    Catecholamines hormone includes which hormones?

    • A.

      Adrenocorticoids

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Norepinephrine

    • D.

      Corticosteroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Epinephrine
    C. Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    Catecholamines are a class of hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands. They include epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones play a crucial role in the body's response to stress, regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. Adrenocorticoids and corticosteroids, on the other hand, are different types of hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex and have different functions. Therefore, the correct answer is epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is both an endocrine and exocrine gland?

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Gonads

    Correct Answer
    C. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It functions as an exocrine gland by producing and releasing digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid in the digestion of food. Additionally, it acts as an endocrine gland by producing and secreting hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar levels. This dual function makes the pancreas unique among the options provided, as the pituitary, thyroid, and gonads primarily function as endocrine glands.

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  • 23. 

    What cell types does pancreas have?

    • A.

      Gamma cells

    • B.

      P cells

    • C.

      Pancreastatin

    • D.

      Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)

    Correct Answer
    D. Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
    Explanation
    The pancreas has various cell types, including pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). These islets are responsible for producing and releasing important hormones such as insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels. The other cell types mentioned, such as gamma cells, P cells, and pancreastatin, are not specific cell types found in the pancreas. Therefore, the correct answer is pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans).

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  • 24. 

    Pancreatic islets includes which cells?

    • A.

      Gamma cells

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Beta cells

    • D.

      P cells

    • E.

      Delta cells

    • F.

      F cells

    • G.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Alpha cells
    C. Beta cells
    E. Delta cells
    F. F cells
    G. Somatostatin
    Explanation
    Pancreatic islets, also known as islets of Langerhans, are clusters of cells located in the pancreas. These islets contain different types of cells that play important roles in regulating blood sugar levels. The correct answer includes Alpha cells, Beta cells, Delta cells, F cells, and Somatostatin. Alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon, which increases blood sugar levels. Beta cells produce the hormone insulin, which decreases blood sugar levels. Delta cells produce somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon. F cells produce pancreatic polypeptide, a hormone that helps regulate digestion and nutrient absorption.

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  • 25. 

    This produces the steroid sex hormones?

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Gonads

    Correct Answer
    D. Gonads
    Explanation
    The gonads, which include the testes in males and ovaries in females, are responsible for producing the steroid sex hormones. These hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, play a crucial role in the development and regulation of secondary sexual characteristics, as well as the reproductive system. The pituitary gland, thyroid, and pancreas are involved in hormone production but not specifically the steroid sex hormones.

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  • 26. 

    Gonads in males?

    • A.

      Testes

    • B.

      Ovaries

    • C.

      Penis

    • D.

      Fallopian tube

    Correct Answer
    A. Testes
    Explanation
    The gonads in males are called testes. The testes are responsible for producing sperm and testosterone, the male sex hormone. They are located in the scrotum, outside the body, to maintain a lower temperature necessary for sperm production. The testes play a crucial role in the reproductive system and are essential for male fertility and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

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  • 27. 

    Gonads in females?

    • A.

      Testes

    • B.

      Ovaries

    • C.

      Penis

    • D.

      Fallopian tube

    Correct Answer
    B. Ovaries
    Explanation
    The question asks about the gonads in females. The correct answer is ovaries. Gonads are reproductive organs that produce gametes (eggs or sperm) and hormones. In females, the ovaries are the primary gonads responsible for producing eggs (ova) and female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. Testes are the male gonads responsible for producing sperm and male sex hormones. Penis is a male external reproductive organ, and the fallopian tube is a part of the female reproductive system but not a gonad.

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  • 28. 

    Which statements about Hypothalamus is correct? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Regulates water excretion by kidneys.

    • B.

      Signals thyroid gland if conditions need to be corrected.

    • C.

      Monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions.

    • D.

      Signals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected.

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions.
    D. Signals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected.
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain that plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the body. It monitors various conditions such as temperature, pH, and other physiological parameters to ensure they are within the normal range. If any abnormalities are detected, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to release appropriate hormones to correct the imbalances. Therefore, the statements "Monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions" and "Signals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected" are both correct.

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  • 29. 

    What are the hormones that Hypothalamus release or produce? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH) 

    • B.

      Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

    • C.

      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

    • D.

      Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin (ADH)

    • E.

      Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
    C. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
    E. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
    Explanation
    The hormones that the Hypothalamus releases or produces are Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). These hormones play important roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body. CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands. TRH stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland, which regulates the function of the thyroid gland. GHRH stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland, which is involved in growth, metabolism, and other functions in the body.

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  • 30. 

    Which statements about Hyperfunction related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Excess production, secretion of one or more trophic hormones.

    • B.

      Deficiency in one or more hormones.

    • C.

      Benign adenoma most common.

    • D.

      Deficient production, secretion of one or more trophic hormones.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Excess production, secretion of one or more trophic hormones.
    C. Benign adenoma most common.
    Explanation
    Hyperfunction related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland can lead to excess production and secretion of one or more trophic hormones. This means that the gland is producing and releasing these hormones in abnormally high amounts. Additionally, a benign adenoma is the most common type of tumor associated with disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland. This tumor can cause hyperfunction by disrupting the normal function of the gland and leading to excessive hormone production.

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  • 31. 

    Which statement about Hypofunction related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland?

    • A.

      Excess production, secretion of one or more trophic hormones.

    • B.

      Deficiency in one or more hormones.

    • C.

      Benign adenoma most common.

    • D.

      Deficient production, secretion of one or more trophic hormones.

    Correct Answer
    B. Deficiency in one or more hormones.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Deficiency in one or more hormones." This statement accurately describes hypofunction related to disorders of the anterior pituitary gland. Hypofunction refers to a decreased or insufficient production and secretion of hormones. In the case of the anterior pituitary gland, this can result in a deficiency of one or more hormones.

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  • 32. 

    What are the manifestations related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Hypopituitarism

    • B.

      Gigantism

    • C.

      Pituitary Dwarfism

    • D.

      Acromegaly

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Gigantism
    D. Acromegaly
    Explanation
    The manifestations related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland include Gigantism and Acromegaly. Gigantism is a condition that occurs when there is excessive growth hormone production during childhood, leading to abnormal growth and an individual becoming abnormally tall. Acromegaly, on the other hand, is a condition that occurs when there is excessive growth hormone production during adulthood, leading to enlargement of bones, tissues, and organs. Both conditions are caused by an overactive anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 33. 

    What are the S/S of Giantism, where growth hormone (somatotropin) is overactive that occurs before puberty? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Difficulty with peripheral vision

    • B.

      Symmetric growth

    • C.

      Height up to 7 feet

    • D.

      Asymmetric growth

    • E.

      Cardiac hypertrophy (heart failure)

    • F.

      Cardiac arrhythmias

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Difficulty with peripheral vision
    B. Symmetric growth
    C. Height up to 7 feet
    E. Cardiac hypertrophy (heart failure)
    Explanation
    This question is asking for the signs and symptoms of Giantism, which is caused by overactive growth hormone before puberty. The correct answers are: Difficulty with peripheral vision, Symmetric growth, Height up to 7 feet, and Cardiac hypertrophy (heart failure). Giantism can lead to an enlargement of body parts, including the heart, which can cause cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Difficulty with peripheral vision and symmetric growth are also characteristic features of Giantism. Height up to 7 feet is also a possible outcome due to the excessive growth hormone.

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  • 34. 

    What are the treatment of Giantism, where growth hormone (somatotropin) is overactive that occurs before puberty? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      GH (Somatropin~$100,000/yr)

    • B.

      Surgery

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Indomethacin

    • E.

      Dostinex

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Surgery
    C. Radiation
    E. Dostinex
    Explanation
    Giantism, also known as gigantism, is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height due to overactive growth hormone (somatotropin) before puberty. The correct answer includes surgery, radiation, and Dostinex. Surgery may be performed to remove tumors or abnormal growths that are causing the overproduction of growth hormone. Radiation therapy may be used to shrink or destroy tumors that cannot be surgically removed. Dostinex, also known as cabergoline, is a medication that can help regulate the production of growth hormone. Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is not typically used in the treatment of giantism and is therefore not included in the correct answer.

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  • 35. 

    What are the S/S of Acromegaly, where symptoms are irreversible even with treatment? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Difficulty with peripheral vision

    • B.

      Enlarged hands and feet

    • C.

      Coarsened, enlarged facial features

    • D.

      Headache

    • E.

      Symmetric growth

    • F.

      CHF

    • G.

      HTN

    • H.

      DM

    • I.

      Oily thickened skin

    • J.

      Excessive sweating and body odor

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Enlarged hands and feet
    C. Coarsened, enlarged facial features
    D. Headache
    F. CHF
    G. HTN
    H. DM
    I. Oily thickened skin
    J. Excessive sweating and body odor
    Explanation
    Acromegaly is a condition caused by the excess production of growth hormone, usually due to a pituitary tumor. The symptoms of acromegaly include enlarged hands and feet, coarsened and enlarged facial features, headache, congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), oily thickened skin, and excessive sweating and body odor. These symptoms are irreversible even with treatment because the underlying cause, the pituitary tumor, cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, even with treatment to manage the symptoms, the physical changes caused by the excess growth hormone production cannot be reversed.

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  • 36. 

    What are the treatment of Acromegaly, where symptoms are irreversible even with treatment? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Surgical removal or irradiation of pituitary tumor (transsphenoidal surgery)

    • B.

      Indomethacin

    • C.

      Dostinex

    • D.

      Growth hormone receptor antagonists: (somatostatin receptor binding drugs: Sandostatin)

    • E.

      Radiation therapy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Surgical removal or irradiation of pituitary tumor (transsphenoidal surgery)
    D. Growth hormone receptor antagonists: (somatostatin receptor binding drugs: Sandostatin)
    E. Radiation therapy
    Explanation
    The treatment options for Acromegaly, where symptoms are irreversible even with treatment, include surgical removal or irradiation of the pituitary tumor (transsphenoidal surgery), growth hormone receptor antagonists (such as somatostatin receptor binding drugs like Sandostatin), and radiation therapy. These interventions aim to either remove or reduce the size of the tumor, inhibit the production or action of growth hormone, or target the tumor cells with radiation to control the symptoms of Acromegaly. These treatments can help manage the condition and alleviate some of the symptoms, even in cases where the symptoms are irreversible.

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  • 37. 

    What are common nursing diagnosis related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Deficient Fluid Volume

    • B.

      Disturbed body image

    • C.

      Activity Intolerance

    • D.

      Impaired Skin Integrity (Risk)

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Disturbed body image
    C. Activity Intolerance
    Explanation
    Common nursing diagnoses related to disorders of the anterior pituitary gland include disturbed body image and activity intolerance. Disturbed body image may be present due to changes in physical appearance caused by hormonal imbalances. Activity intolerance may occur as a result of decreased energy levels and physical limitations associated with the disorder. Deficient fluid volume and impaired skin integrity are not directly related to disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 38. 

    What are interventions related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Help in coping with physical, emotional changes.

    • B.

      Monitor BP, intake and output, limit Na intake, and skin turgor.

    • C.

      Help in coping with physical changes only.

    • D.

      Prevent complications involving other organs and functions of the endocrine system.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Help in coping with physical, emotional changes.
    D. Prevent complications involving other organs and functions of the endocrine system.
    Explanation
    The interventions related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland include helping the patient cope with physical and emotional changes, as well as preventing complications involving other organs and functions of the endocrine system. By providing support and assistance in managing physical and emotional changes, healthcare professionals can help improve the patient's overall well-being. Additionally, preventing complications in other organs and functions of the endocrine system is crucial for maintaining the patient's health and preventing further complications.

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  • 39. 

    What are the S/S of Hypopituitarism, where there is a deficiency in one or more hormones? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Fatigue and weakness

    • B.

      Immature facial features

    • C.

      Decreased appetite

    • D.

      Sensitivity to cold 

    • E.

      Slow growth

    • F.

      Osteoporosis

    • G.

      Decrease muscle mass

    • H.

      Increase LDL

    • I.

      Difficulty with peripheral vision

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fatigue and weakness
    C. Decreased appetite
    D. Sensitivity to cold 
    E. Slow growth
    F. Osteoporosis
    G. Decrease muscle mass
    H. Increase LDL
    Explanation
    The symptoms of Hypopituitarism, where there is a deficiency in one or more hormones, include fatigue and weakness, decreased appetite, sensitivity to cold, slow growth, osteoporosis, decrease muscle mass, and increase LDL. Immature facial features and difficulty with peripheral vision are not specific symptoms of Hypopituitarism.

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  • 40. 

    What are the S/S of Pituitary Dwarfism, where growth is delayed or is very slow and occurs before ossification of bone cartilages? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Decrease muscle mass

    • B.

      Slow rate of growth, puberty is late

    • C.

      Proportionate but small height (less than 3rd%)

    • D.

      Sensitivity to cold

    • E.

      Immature facial features

    • F.

      Osteoporosis

    • G.

      Normal mentality

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Slow rate of growth, puberty is late
    C. Proportionate but small height (less than 3rd%)
    E. Immature facial features
    G. Normal mentality
    Explanation
    Pituitary dwarfism is a condition characterized by delayed or slow growth, which occurs before the ossification of bone cartilages. The S/S (signs and symptoms) of this condition include a slow rate of growth, late puberty, proportionate but small height (less than 3rd%), immature facial features, and normal mentality. Decrease in muscle mass, sensitivity to cold, and osteoporosis are not specific to pituitary dwarfism and are not mentioned in the question stem. Therefore, the correct answer options are slow rate of growth, late puberty, proportionate but small height (less than 3rd%), immature facial features, and normal mentality.

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  • 41. 

    What are the treatment of Pituitary Dwarfism, where growth is delayed or is very slow and occurs before ossification of bone cartilages?

    • A.

      Surgery

    • B.

      Radiation

    • C.

      Dostinex

    • D.

      GH (Somatropin~$100,000/yr)

    Correct Answer
    D. GH (Somatropin~$100,000/yr)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is GH (Somatropin~$100,000/yr). Pituitary Dwarfism is a condition characterized by delayed or slow growth, which occurs before the ossification of bone cartilages. GH (Growth Hormone) therapy with Somatropin is commonly used to treat this condition. Somatropin is a synthetic form of the growth hormone that stimulates growth and development in children with growth hormone deficiency. However, it is an expensive treatment, costing around $100,000 per year. Surgery and radiation may be used in certain cases, but GH therapy is the primary treatment for Pituitary Dwarfism.

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  • 42. 

    What are the medical management related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Surgery

    • B.

      Hormone replacement

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Dostinex

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Surgery
    B. Hormone replacement
    Explanation
    The medical management options for disorders of the anterior pituitary gland include surgery and hormone replacement therapy. Surgery may be performed to remove a tumor or lesion causing the disorder. Hormone replacement therapy is used to replace deficient hormones that are normally produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases to shrink or destroy tumors. Dostinex is a medication used to treat certain conditions caused by excess prolactin production from the pituitary gland and is not directly related to the medical management of disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 43. 

    What are the nursing care related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Vital signs

    • B.

      Monitor intake and output

    • C.

      Assess heart and lungs

    • D.

      Daily weight

    • E.

      Education

    • F.

      Assess skin turgor

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Vital signs
    C. Assess heart and lungs
    D. Daily weight
    E. Education
    Explanation
    The nursing care related to disorders of the Anterior pituitary gland includes monitoring vital signs to assess any changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature. Assessing the heart and lungs is important to identify any cardiovascular or respiratory complications. Daily weight monitoring is necessary to track fluid balance and detect any abnormal weight gain or loss. Education is crucial to provide information about the disorder, its management, and potential complications. Assessing skin turgor helps evaluate hydration status and overall fluid balance.

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  • 44. 

    What are the disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland, that includes ADH (vasopressin) which regulates water excretion by kidneys? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

    • B.

      CHF

    • C.

      Diabetes insipidus 

    • D.

      Diabetes mellitus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
    C. Diabetes insipidus 
    Explanation
    The disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland that include ADH (vasopressin) which regulates water excretion by kidneys are Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Diabetes insipidus. SIADH is a condition where the body releases too much ADH, leading to excessive water retention and dilution of sodium levels in the blood. Diabetes insipidus, on the other hand, is a condition where the body doesn't produce enough ADH or the kidneys don't respond properly to it, resulting in excessive thirst and urination. CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) and Diabetes mellitus are not disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland.

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  • 45. 

    What are the S/S of Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), that has high levels of ADH with water retention, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Decrease urine output

    • B.

      Weakness

    • C.

      Muscle cramping

    • D.

      Sensitivity to cold

    • E.

      Increase body weight

    • F.

      Cerebral edema

    • G.

      Decreased appetite

    • H.

      Changes in mental status

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decrease urine output
    B. Weakness
    C. Muscle cramping
    E. Increase body weight
    F. Cerebral edema
    H. Changes in mental status
    Explanation
    Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is characterized by high levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) which leads to water retention in the body. This causes a decrease in urine output, as the body is holding onto more water. The excess water can lead to an increase in body weight and can also cause cerebral edema, which is swelling in the brain. The high levels of ADH can affect the electrolyte balance in the body, leading to weakness and muscle cramping. Changes in mental status can also occur due to the imbalances caused by SIADH.

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  • 46. 

    What are the diagnosis procedures done for Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), that has high levels of ADH with water retention, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Urine culture

    • B.

      Urine osmolality

    • C.

      Urine specific gravity

    • D.

      Serum osmolality

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Urine osmolality
    D. Serum osmolality
    Explanation
    The diagnosis procedures done for Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), which is characterized by high levels of ADH and water retention, and is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland, include measuring urine osmolality and serum osmolality. Urine osmolality is used to assess the concentration of solutes in the urine, while serum osmolality measures the concentration of solutes in the blood. Both of these tests can help determine if there is an imbalance in ADH secretion and water retention.

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  • 47. 

    What are the treatment of Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), that has high levels of ADH with water retention, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Address low serum sodium

    • B.

      Address cerebral edema

    • C.

      Address fluid restriction (1 L/day)

    • D.

      Address high serum sodium

    • E.

      Address fluid increase (2 L/day)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Address low serum sodium
    B. Address cerebral edema
    C. Address fluid restriction (1 L/day)
    Explanation
    The treatment for Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), which is characterized by high levels of ADH and water retention related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland, includes addressing low serum sodium levels, addressing cerebral edema, and implementing fluid restriction of 1 L/day. These measures help to restore electrolyte balance, reduce brain swelling, and prevent further fluid overload. Addressing high serum sodium and increasing fluid intake would be contraindicated in this condition as it can exacerbate the water retention and worsen the symptoms.

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  • 48. 

    This is used to decrease fluid volume, demeclocycline, vasopressin antagonists, intravenous hypertonic solution of sodium chloride. This is to treatment of Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), that has high levels of ADH with water retention, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland?

    • A.

      Antihypertensive

    • B.

      Antibiotics

    • C.

      Antiviral

    • D.

      Diuretics

    Correct Answer
    D. Diuretics
    Explanation
    Diuretics are medications used to decrease fluid volume in the body. In the context of the given information about Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), diuretics can help to reduce water retention caused by high levels of ADH. By increasing urine production, diuretics promote the excretion of excess water from the body, thereby helping to restore fluid balance. Therefore, diuretics are an appropriate treatment option for SIADH.

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  • 49. 

    What are the S/S of Diabetes insipidus, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Muscle cramping

    • B.

      Decrease urine output

    • C.

      Neurogenic

    • D.

      Nephrogenic

    • E.

      Extreme thirst (polydipsia)

    • F.

      May be caused by cerebral injury

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Neurogenic
    D. Nephrogenic
    E. Extreme thirst (polydipsia)
    F. May be caused by cerebral injury
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is a condition associated with disorders of the posterior pituitary gland. The symptoms/signs of diabetes insipidus related to these disorders include neurogenic and nephrogenic symptoms. Neurogenic refers to symptoms caused by a dysfunction in the hypothalamus or posterior pituitary gland, while nephrogenic refers to symptoms caused by a dysfunction in the kidneys. Additionally, extreme thirst (polydipsia) is a common symptom of diabetes insipidus, as the body tries to compensate for excessive urine output. Lastly, diabetes insipidus may also be caused by cerebral injury.

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  • 50. 

    Idiopathic or disruption of hypothalamus and pituitary gland, that is related to disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland?

    • A.

      Neurogenic

    • B.

      Nephrogenic

    • C.

      Hepagenic

    • D.

      Acrogenic

    Correct Answer
    A. Neurogenic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Neurogenic." Neurogenic refers to a condition or disorder that originates in the nervous system. In the context of the question, it suggests that the disruption or idiopathic condition affecting the hypothalamus and pituitary gland is neurologically based. This could imply that there is a problem with the nerve signals or function in these areas, leading to disorders of the posterior pituitary gland.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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