Biology Practice Test (Part 1)

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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 468
Questions: 50 | Attempts: 120

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Control variables are the aspects that are held constant during all trials of an experiment

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Control variables are the aspects of an experiment that are kept constant throughout all trials. This means that these variables do not change and remain consistent to ensure that the only factor being tested is the independent variable. By holding control variables constant, researchers can accurately determine the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Therefore, the statement "Control variables are the aspects that are held constant during all trials of an experiment" is true.

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  • 2. 

    A scientific theory

    • A.

      Is a tentative explanation for a natural phenomena

    • B.

      Is a heredity report

    • C.

      Is more reliable than a theory

    • D.

      Will never be changed

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given options do not accurately define a scientific theory. A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a body of evidence and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through experimentation and observation. It is subject to change and revision based on new evidence and discoveries. Therefore, none of the options provided correctly describe a scientific theory.

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  • 3. 

    Alexander Fleming observed a patch of mold that bacteria were not able to grow near.  Which of these was his hypothesis?

    • A.

      The mold used all of the nutrients so that the bacteria couldn’t grow

    • B.

      The mold produced a substance that killed nearby bacteria

    • C.

      The bacteria werer never there to start with

    • D.

      The mold was dead

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. The mold produced a substance that killed nearby bacteria
    Explanation
    Alexander Fleming's hypothesis was that the mold produced a substance that killed nearby bacteria. This hypothesis suggests that the mold's presence inhibited the growth of bacteria by releasing a substance with antibacterial properties. This hypothesis was later confirmed when Fleming discovered the substance to be penicillin, which revolutionized the field of medicine as the first antibiotic.

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  • 4. 

    Controlled variables & control group mean the same thing

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Controlled variables & control group mean the same thing" is false. Controlled variables refer to the factors in an experiment that are kept constant or unchanged in order to isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. On the other hand, a control group is a group in an experiment that does not receive the experimental treatment and is used as a baseline for comparison. While both concepts are related to experimental design, they have different meanings and serve different purposes.

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  • 5. 

    Which correctly indicates the sequence of increasing organization?

    • A.

      Molecule, cell, organelle, organ

    • B.

      Organelle, tissue, cell, organ

    • C.

      Atom, molecule, tissue, cell

    • D.

      Organ, tissue, cell, molecule

    • E.

      Cell, tissue, organ, organ system

    Correct Answer
    E. Cell, tissue, organ, organ system
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cell, tissue, organ, organ system. This sequence represents the increasing organization in biological systems. A cell is the basic unit of life, and tissues are formed by a group of cells working together. Organs are composed of different types of tissues, and organ systems are made up of multiple organs working together to perform specific functions.

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  • 6. 

    What is the total magnification if the ocular is at 10X and the objective lens is at 100X

    • A.

      4X

    • B.

      40X

    • C.

      10X

    • D.

      100X

    • E.

      1000X

    Correct Answer
    E. 1000X
    Explanation
    The total magnification is determined by multiplying the magnification of the ocular lens (10X) by the magnification of the objective lens (100X). Therefore, the total magnification is 1000X.

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  • 7. 

    You drink a glass of lemonade, but your body’s pH does not change.  This is an example of how organisms

    • A.

      Maintain homeostasis

    • B.

      Maintain organization

    • C.

      Adapt to their environment

    • D.

      Are immune to acid

    • E.

      Are what they eat

    Correct Answer
    A. Maintain homeostasis
    Explanation
    When you drink a glass of lemonade, the lemonade is acidic in nature. However, your body maintains homeostasis, which means it regulates its internal environment to keep it stable and balanced. In this case, your body's pH does not change because it has mechanisms in place to neutralize the acidity of the lemonade and maintain the pH level within a narrow range. This is an example of how organisms maintain homeostasis by adjusting their internal conditions to counteract external changes.

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  • 8. 

    A buffer is a substance that resists the pH change

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A buffer is a substance that resists changes in pH by maintaining its own pH level even when an acid or base is added to it. This is achieved through the presence of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid in the buffer solution. These components react with the added acid or base, preventing a significant change in the overall pH of the solution. Therefore, the statement "A buffer is a substance that resists the pH change" is true.

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  • 9. 

    You observe a plant on your windowsill that is growing at an angle toward the outside.  This is an example of a living thing

    • A.

      Maintaining homeostasis

    • B.

      Responding to stimuli

    • C.

      Reproducing

    • D.

      Evolving

    • E.

      Regress

    Correct Answer
    B. Responding to stimuli
    Explanation
    The plant growing at an angle toward the outside is an example of a living thing responding to stimuli. This is because the plant is exhibiting a response to the stimulus of light. Plants have a natural tendency to grow towards light in a process called phototropism. This response allows the plant to optimize its exposure to sunlight for photosynthesis, which is essential for its survival and growth.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following may be found live in the extreme environments, i.e, arctic cold, boiling hot springs, high salt waters

    • A.

      Members of archaebacteria

    • B.

      Members of plants

    • C.

      Members of fungi

    • D.

      Members of animals

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Members of archaebacteria
    Explanation
    Members of archaebacteria may be found living in extreme environments such as arctic cold, boiling hot springs, and high salt waters. Archaebacteria are a group of microorganisms that are known for their ability to thrive in extreme conditions. They have unique adaptations that allow them to survive in environments that are inhospitable to most other organisms. These adaptations include specialized cell membranes, enzymes, and metabolic processes that enable them to withstand extreme temperatures, high salinity, and other harsh conditions. Therefore, it is possible to find members of archaebacteria living in the extreme environments mentioned in the question.

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  • 11. 

    A covalent bond is when an atom can become stable by ---- electrons whith another atom

    • A.

      Transferring

    • B.

      Sharing

    • C.

      Hydrophilic

    • D.

      Hydrophobic

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Sharing
    Explanation
    A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons with each other, allowing both atoms to achieve stability. In this type of bond, neither atom completely transfers its electrons to the other, nor do they repel each other due to their charges. Instead, they share electrons in a way that allows both atoms to fill their outermost electron shells, resulting in a stable configuration.

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  • 12. 

    You have been hired as a chemist.  Your first task at your new job is to examine a newly discovered atom.  The paperwork you are given states that its atomic number is 110.  What does this mean?

    • A.

      The atom contains 55 electrons

    • B.

      The atom contains 50 electrons and 50 neutrons

    • C.

      The atom contain 110 protons

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The atom contain 110 protons
    Explanation
    The atomic number of an atom refers to the number of protons in its nucleus. Therefore, if the atomic number is 110, it means that the atom contains 110 protons.

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  • 13. 

    If the concentration H+ exceeds the concentration of OH-, then the solution is

    • A.

      Acidic

    • B.

      Basic

    • C.

      Neutral

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Acidic
    Explanation
    If the concentration of H+ exceeds the concentration of OH-, it indicates that there are more hydrogen ions present in the solution compared to hydroxide ions. This is a characteristic of an acidic solution. In an acidic solution, the pH value is less than 7. Therefore, the correct answer is "Acidic."

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is an example of hydrogen bonding?

    • A.

      The bond between O and H in a single molecule of water

    • B.

      The bond between O of one water molecule and H of a second water molecule

    • C.

      The bond between O of one water molecule and O of a second water molecule

    • D.

      The bond between H of one water molecule and H of a hydrogen peroxide molecule

    • E.

      The bone between H of one water molecule and H of a second water molecule

    Correct Answer
    B. The bond between O of one water molecule and H of a second water molecule
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the bond between O of one water molecule and H of a second water molecule. This is an example of hydrogen bonding because it involves the attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and a partially negative oxygen atom in different water molecules. Hydrogen bonding is a special type of intermolecular force that occurs when hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen. In water, the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, causing the oxygen to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen to have a partial positive charge. This creates a strong electrostatic attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule, resulting in hydrogen bonding.

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  • 15. 

    Hydrogen usually loses its electron to form a hydrogen ion with a charge of ___.

    • A.

      Neutral

    • B.

      Negative

    • C.

      Fuzzy

    • D.

      Positive

    • E.

      Not possible to determine based on the given information

    Correct Answer
    D. Positive
    Explanation
    Hydrogen usually loses its electron to form a positive hydrogen ion. This is because hydrogen has only one electron in its outer shell, and it is easier for it to lose this electron rather than gain seven more to complete its shell. Therefore, the resulting hydrogen ion has a positive charge.

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  • 16. 

    The second electron shell is considered to be full when it contains ___ electrons

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      10

    • E.

      6

    Correct Answer
    C. 8
    Explanation
    The second electron shell is considered to be full when it contains 8 electrons. This is because the second shell has a maximum capacity of 8 electrons. The first shell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, and the second shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons. Once the second shell is filled with 8 electrons, it is considered stable and full.

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  • 17. 

    An atom’s nucleus is composed of

    • A.

      Protons

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Protons and electrons

    • D.

      Protons and neutrons

    • E.

      Neutrons and electrons

    Correct Answer
    D. Protons and neutrons
    Explanation
    An atom's nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Protons are positively charged particles, while neutrons have no charge. These particles are tightly packed in the nucleus, which is located at the center of the atom. Electrons, on the other hand, are negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus in specific energy levels. However, they are not part of the nucleus itself. Therefore, the correct answer is protons and neutrons.

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  • 18. 

    Polar covalent bonds form when

    • A.

      Electrons are shared unequally between atoms

    • B.

      More than one pair of electrons is shared

    • C.

      Ions are formed

    • D.

      An acid and base are combined

    • E.

      Atoms from two molecules are attracted to each other

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrons are shared unequally between atoms
    Explanation
    Polar covalent bonds form when electrons are shared unequally between atoms. In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons to form a stable molecule. However, in a polar covalent bond, the electrons are not shared equally between the atoms. One atom has a stronger pull on the electrons, causing them to spend more time around that atom, creating a partial negative charge. The other atom has a weaker pull, resulting in a partial positive charge. This unequal sharing of electrons creates a polarity in the bond, making it polar.

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  • 19. 

    A single covalent chemical bond represents the sharing of how many electrons?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      6

    Correct Answer
    C. 2
    Explanation
    A single covalent chemical bond represents the sharing of two electrons. In a covalent bond, two atoms share a pair of electrons in order to achieve a stable electron configuration. This sharing of electrons allows both atoms to fill their outermost electron shells and become more stable. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.

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  • 20. 

    Water is important to life because it

    • A.

      Is universal solvent

    • B.

      Floats when freezes

    • C.

      Has high cohesive property

    • D.

      High adhesive property

    • E.

      Has all of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. Has all of the above
    Explanation
    Water is important to life because it is a universal solvent, meaning it can dissolve many substances. This property allows water to transport nutrients and waste throughout living organisms. Additionally, water floats when it freezes, which is crucial for the survival of aquatic organisms as it prevents bodies of water from freezing completely. Water also has high cohesive and adhesive properties, allowing it to stick to and form hydrogen bonds with other molecules, facilitating various biological processes such as capillary action and transport of water in plants.

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  • 21. 

    Keratin and silk are examples of _________ while glucose and sucrose are examples of ________.

    • A.

      Proteins; lipids

    • B.

      Proteins; carbohydrates

    • C.

      Carbohydrates; proteins

    • D.

      Nucleic acids; lipids

    • E.

      Lipids; carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    B. Proteins; carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Keratin and silk are both fibrous structural proteins found in hair, nails, and skin. Proteins are composed of amino acids and have various functions in the body, including providing structure and support. Glucose and sucrose, on the other hand, are both carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body and are composed of sugar molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is proteins; carbohydrates.

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  • 22. 

    Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?

    • A.

      Fats

    • B.

      Embedded protein channel

    • C.

      Phospholipids

    • D.

      Oils

    • E.

      Triglycerides

    Correct Answer
    C. Phospholipids
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are the most important type of lipid in biological membranes because they have a unique structure that allows them to form a bilayer. This bilayer acts as a barrier, separating the internal and external environments of cells. Additionally, phospholipids have a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) tail, which helps them arrange themselves in a way that creates a stable membrane. This structure is crucial for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, as well as regulating the movement of molecules in and out of the cell.

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  • 23. 

    Testosterone & estrogen are examples of

    • A.

      Fatty acids

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Steroids

    • D.

      Hormones

    • E.

      C & D

    Correct Answer
    E. C & D
    Explanation
    Testosterone and estrogen are examples of hormones and steroids. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions, while steroids are a specific type of hormone that play a role in controlling metabolism, inflammation, and sexual characteristics. Testosterone is a male sex hormone, while estrogen is a female sex hormone. Both hormones are important for the development and maintenance of reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics in their respective genders. Therefore, the correct answer is C & D.

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  • 24. 

    Fatty acids with more than one carbon-carbon double bond are called polyunsaturated

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fatty acids with more than one carbon-carbon double bond are called polyunsaturated because the term "poly" means many, indicating that there are multiple double bonds present in the fatty acid molecule. This is in contrast to monounsaturated fatty acids, which have only one double bond, and saturated fatty acids, which have no double bonds. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 25. 

    Hydrogen bonds are critical for the maintenance of the secondary structure of a protein?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hydrogen bonds play a crucial role in maintaining the secondary structure of a protein. The secondary structure refers to the folding patterns of the protein, including alpha helices and beta sheets. Hydrogen bonds form between the amino acid residues within the protein chain, stabilizing the structure. These bonds occur between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of different amino acids, creating a strong attraction that helps hold the protein in its folded shape. Without hydrogen bonds, the protein would lose its secondary structure and may not function properly. Therefore, it is true that hydrogen bonds are critical for maintaining the secondary structure of a protein.

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  • 26. 

    The linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is referred to as the _______ structure of the protein

    • A.

      Tertiary

    • B.

      Quarternary

    • C.

      Secondary

    • D.

      Primary

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Primary
    Explanation
    The primary structure of a protein refers to the linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. It is the most basic level of protein structure and is determined by the sequence of amino acids. The primary structure plays a crucial role in determining the folding and function of the protein. The tertiary structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of the polypeptide chain, while the quaternary structure refers to the arrangement of multiple polypeptide chains in a protein complex. The secondary structure refers to local folding patterns, such as alpha helices and beta sheets.

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  • 27. 

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an example of a(n)

    • A.

      Carbohydrate

    • B.

      Nucleic acid

    • C.

      Lipid

    • D.

      Protein

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleic acid
    Explanation
    ATP is a molecule that serves as the primary energy source for cellular processes. It is composed of adenosine, a nucleotide, and three phosphate groups. Nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotide monomers, and ATP is a nucleotide. Therefore, ATP is an example of a nucleic acid.

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  • 28. 

    If you examined the universe, the Earth, and the human body, which of the following combinations of elements would you find most common?

    • A.

      C, O, Na, He, P, S

    • B.

      C, Na, O, N, H, Mg

    • C.

      C, Na, O, N, H, Mg

    • D.

      K, H, C, S, O, P

    • E.

      S, P, O, N, H, C

    Correct Answer
    E. S, P, O, N, H, C
    Explanation
    The combination of elements S, P, O, N, H, C would be the most common in the examined universe, Earth, and human body. These elements are essential for life and are found in various compounds and molecules that make up living organisms. Sulfur (S) is present in proteins and certain vitamins, phosphorus (P) is a key component of DNA and energy molecules like ATP, oxygen (O) is necessary for respiration, nitrogen (N) is found in proteins and nucleic acids, hydrogen (H) is a component of water and many organic compounds, and carbon (C) is the backbone of organic molecules.

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  • 29. 

    An isotope is atoms of the same element that have different numbers of _______.

    • A.

      Protons

    • B.

      Electrons

    • C.

      Neutrons

    • D.

      H bonds

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Neutrons
    Explanation
    Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Protons and electrons are always the same in atoms of the same element, but the number of neutrons can vary. This results in isotopes having different atomic masses. H bonds are not related to isotopes, and therefore, the correct answer is neutrons.

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  • 30. 

    A nucleotide is

    • A.

      Phospholipid, sugar, base

    • B.

      Phosphate, protein, base

    • C.

      Phosphate, sugar, base

    • D.

      Phospholipid, sugar, protein

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosphate, sugar, base
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is composed of three components: a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogenous base. The phosphate group provides a negative charge to the nucleotide, the sugar molecule forms the backbone of the nucleotide, and the nitrogenous base determines the specific nucleotide. Therefore, the correct answer is "Phosphate, sugar, base."

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  • 31. 

    Secreted proteins would be synthesized on ribosomes

    • A.

      On the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      On the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      On the Golgi complexes

    • D.

      Found in the cytoplasm

    • E.

      Found in the nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. On the rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    Secreted proteins are synthesized on ribosomes that are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The RER is studded with ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis. These ribosomes synthesize proteins that are destined to be secreted out of the cell or transported to other organelles. The rough appearance of the RER is due to the presence of ribosomes on its surface. Therefore, the correct answer is on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

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  • 32. 

    A nucleolus is

    • A.

      An extra nucleus in the cell

    • B.

      A darkly staining area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made

    • C.

      An area where the nucleus is synthesized

    • D.

      A membrane-bond organelle

    • E.

      The area in a prokaryote where DNA is concentrated

    Correct Answer
    B. A darkly staining area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a darkly staining area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made." The nucleolus is a distinct region within the nucleus of a cell. It appears as a darkly staining area because it contains high concentrations of RNA and proteins. The main function of the nucleolus is to assemble ribosomes, which are essential for protein synthesis. Therefore, this answer accurately describes the role and location of the nucleolus within the cell.

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  • 33. 

    If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, what could occur?

    • A.

      The macromolecules in the cell cytosol would begin to degrade

    • B.

      The number of proteins in the cytosol would begin in increase

    • C.

      The DNA within the mitochondria would begin to degrade

    • D.

      The mitochondria and chloroplasts would begin to divide

    • E.

      There would be no change in the normal function of the cell

    Correct Answer
    A. The macromolecules in the cell cytosol would begin to degrade
    Explanation
    If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, the macromolecules in the cell cytosol would begin to degrade. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down waste materials, cellular debris, and macromolecules. When lysosomes rupture, these enzymes are released into the cytosol, leading to the degradation of macromolecules present in the cytosol. This can disrupt cellular processes and potentially cause cell death if not properly regulated.

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  • 34. 

    Ribosomes are the site of synthesis of

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Nucleoli

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    B. RNA
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are responsible for the synthesis of proteins. They are small, complex structures found in the cytoplasm of cells. Ribosomes read the genetic information stored in RNA molecules and use it to assemble amino acids into proteins. This process is known as translation. Therefore, the correct answer is RNA, as ribosomes use RNA to synthesize proteins.

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  • 35. 

    Sugar molecule is added to the protein portion in the Golgi

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the Golgi apparatus, sugar molecules are added to the protein portion through a process called glycosylation. This modification is crucial for protein function and stability. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for processing, sorting, and modifying proteins before they are transported to their final destination within the cell or secreted outside of the cell. Therefore, the statement "Sugar molecule is added to the protein portion in the Golgi" is true.

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  • 36. 

    Intermediate filaments are known as “power houses” of the cell

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Intermediate filaments are not known as "powerhouses" of the cell. This term is typically used to describe mitochondria, which are responsible for generating energy in the form of ATP. Intermediate filaments, on the other hand, provide structural support and help maintain the shape of the cell. They are not directly involved in energy production. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 37. 

    DNA resides in the nucleus

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    DNA resides in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. This is because the nucleus contains the genetic material of the cell, including the DNA. The DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes, which are located within the nucleus. The nucleus provides a protected environment for the DNA, allowing for proper replication, transcription, and regulation of gene expression. In prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, the DNA is found in the cytoplasm.

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  • 38. 

    All the following are important functions of the cytoskeleton EXCEPT

    • A.

      Storage of food molecules

    • B.

      Support of organelles

    • C.

      Movement of organelles

    • D.

      Maintenance of shape

    • E.

      Maintenance of organization in the cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Storage of food molecules
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that provides structural support to the cell, helps in maintaining its shape, and aids in the movement of organelles within the cell. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining the organization and spatial arrangement of various cellular components. However, the cytoskeleton is not involved in the storage of food molecules. This function is typically carried out by other organelles such as vacuoles or lipid droplets.

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  • 39. 

    In metabolically active cells, you would expect to find a large number of

    • A.

      Golgi bodies

    • B.

      Flagella

    • C.

      Vesicles

    • D.

      Microtubules

    • E.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    E. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    In metabolically active cells, such as muscle cells or liver cells, a large number of mitochondria would be expected. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, responsible for producing the majority of the cell's energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. These organelles are abundant in cells that require a lot of energy, as they are involved in various metabolic processes. Therefore, the presence of a large number of mitochondria in metabolically active cells is crucial for meeting the energy demands of the cell.

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  • 40. 

    In general, eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure and contain membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. These organelles contribute to the larger size of eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotic cells, which lack these organelles and have a simpler structure.

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  • 41. 

    The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Dissolved nutrients

    • C.

      Organelles

    • D.

      Enzymes

    • E.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these
    Explanation
    The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains water, dissolved nutrients, organelles, and enzymes. Water is essential for various cellular processes and acts as a medium for chemical reactions. Dissolved nutrients provide the necessary energy and building blocks for cellular functions. Organelles are specialized structures within the cytoplasm that perform specific functions, such as the nucleus for genetic material and mitochondria for energy production. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions in the cell. Therefore, all of these components are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

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  • 42. 

    Cell membranes

    • A.

      Isolate the cell’s contents from the external environment

    • B.

      Communicate with other cells

    • C.

      Regulate movement of substances between the cell and the extracellular fluid

    • D.

      Provide attachments between cells

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Cell membranes perform multiple functions that are mentioned in the options. They isolate the cell's contents from the external environment, which helps in maintaining the internal environment of the cell. They also communicate with other cells, allowing for cell signaling and coordination. Additionally, cell membranes regulate the movement of substances between the cell and the extracellular fluid, controlling the exchange of nutrients and waste products. Lastly, cell membranes provide attachments between cells, enabling the formation of tissues and organs. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 43. 

    The urinary bladder is protected from leaking due to cell-to-cell junctions called

    • A.

      Desmosomes

    • B.

      Stretch receptors

    • C.

      Gap junctions

    • D.

      Tight junctions

    • E.

      Has nothing to do with the cell-cell junctions

    Correct Answer
    D. Tight junctions
    Explanation
    Tight junctions are the correct answer because they are specialized cell-to-cell junctions that form a barrier between cells, preventing the leakage of substances between them. They create a tight seal by fusing the outer layers of adjacent cells together, forming a continuous barrier. This barrier is crucial in the urinary bladder to prevent the leakage of urine into surrounding tissues. Desmosomes, stretch receptors, gap junctions, and other options mentioned do not provide the same level of sealing and protection as tight junctions.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following can be used as energy source

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Fats

    • D.

      A & B & C

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & B & C
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats can all be used as energy sources in the human body. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is the primary source of energy for the body. Proteins can also be broken down into glucose when carbohydrates are not available. Fats are a concentrated source of energy and can be broken down into fatty acids for energy production. Therefore, all three options, A & B & C, can be used as energy sources.

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  • 45. 

    In reference to diffusion, “passive” really means

    • A.

      Without a membrane

    • B.

      In the air

    • C.

      No gradient

    • D.

      Very slowly

    • E.

      No energy required

    Correct Answer
    E. No energy required
    Explanation
    In the context of diffusion, the term "passive" refers to the process occurring without the need for energy input. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, and it happens spontaneously due to the random motion of molecules. Unlike active transport, which requires energy to move molecules against their concentration gradient, passive diffusion occurs naturally and does not require any additional energy.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not a cell-cell junctional type

    • A.

      Gap

    • B.

      ATP

    • C.

      Desmosome

    • D.

      Tight

    • E.

      A & C

    Correct Answer
    B. ATP
    Explanation
    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is not a cell-cell junctional type. Cell-cell junctions are specialized structures that allow cells to connect and communicate with each other. Gap junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions are examples of cell-cell junctions. Gap junctions allow the direct exchange of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells, desmosomes provide mechanical strength and stability to tissues, and tight junctions create a barrier that prevents the leakage of substances between cells. However, ATP is a molecule that serves as a cellular energy source and is not involved in cell-cell junctions.

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  • 47. 

    Endocytosis is an energy-requiring mode where as facilitated diffusion is a passive mode of transport across a semi-permeable membrane

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in substances from the outside environment by engulfing them in a vesicle. This process requires energy in the form of ATP to power the movement of the vesicle. On the other hand, facilitated diffusion is a passive mode of transport where molecules move across a membrane with the help of transport proteins, without the need for energy input. Therefore, the statement that endocytosis is an energy-requiring mode while facilitated diffusion is a passive mode is true.

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  • 48. 

    Osmosis is a form of active transport

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 49. 

    Resolution of a microscope is defined as the ability of a lens to tell 2 points apart

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the resolution of a microscope refers to its ability to distinguish or separate two closely spaced points or objects. It is a measure of the lens' ability to provide clear and detailed images by minimizing blur and increasing sharpness. In other words, the higher the resolution of a microscope, the smaller the distance between two points that can be distinguished.

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  • 50. 

    Dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) is a form of making

    • A.

      A larger molecule by releasing water

    • B.

      A larger molecule by absorbing water

    • C.

      Both A & B

    • D.

      Neither A nor B nor C

    • E.

      Individual amino acids

    Correct Answer
    A. A larger molecule by releasing water
    Explanation
    Dehydration synthesis, also known as condensation reaction, is a chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule by releasing a water molecule. This reaction occurs when the functional groups of two molecules react with each other, resulting in the formation of a covalent bond and the release of a water molecule as a byproduct. This process is commonly observed in the formation of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.

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