Bases, pentoses, and phosphates all contribute
Only bases and pentoses
Only pentoses and phosphates
Composed of ribonucleotides
Contains a 3' phosphate
Composed of deoxyribonucleotides
Contains three phosphodiester bonds
Contains intron sequences not found in the final mature mRNA.
Contains exon sequences which are removed prior to translation.
Encodes more than one protein.
Can be found in the cytoplasm.
TRNAs contain numerous intramolecular hydrogen bonds between bases.
There are more distinct tRNA molecules than there are rRNA molecules.
RRNAs are complexed to proteins in the ribosome.
The most abundant RNA molecule in the cell is mRNA.
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides in a 5'--> 3' direction
A primer strand of DNA must contain a free 3'-OH end
The primer strand of DNA determines which nucleotides are added next
The correct complementary hydrogen bonding between base pairs is the primary check on the fidelity of the newly synthesized DNA
Decreasing the concentration of DNA.
Increasing the concentration of NaCl in the solution.
Adding 1% urea (an organic denaturant).
All of the above.
A left-handed helix
It has 12 bases per turn
It is found in vivo
All of the above
Changing the temperature
Increasing salt concentration
The action of topoisomerase
The action of a nuclease such as pancreatic DNase
ATGCATGCATGCATGC / TACGTACGTACGTACG
CATTAAGCAGTGCTTAAGA / GTAATTCGTCACGAATTCT
ATATATATGCGCGCGCGC / TATATATACGCGCGCGCG
AAAAAAAAACCCCCCCCC / TTTTTTTTTGGGGGGGG
The DNA is primarily in the B-helix.
The DNA is circular and supercoiled
The DNA exists as a right-handed double helix.
The DNA is one large linear piece about 4000 kb in length.
A 5'-3' exonuclease activity on a second subunit in the polymerase
A 3'-5' exonuclease activity
A 5'-3' DNA polymerase activity
Modest processivity (ca. 20 nucleotides)
It recognizes the abnormality in the duplex DNA structure.
It nicks the DNA to provide a 3'-OH.
It removes the damaged section of DNA with its 5'-3' exonuclease activity.
It ligates the DNA after the repair synthesis.
Are recessed with 5'-phosphates
Are recessed with 3'-OHs
Are extended with 5'-phosphates
Are extended with 3'-OHs
Replication is bidirectional.
It initiates at a unique position called oriC.
Torsional stress introduced in the duplex DNA is relieved by DNA gyrase.
The unwinding of the duplex DNA is driven by the translocation of the DNA polymerase.
Is primarily carried out by DNA polymerase I
Is synthesized continuously
This DNA strand is synthesized in a 3'-5'direction of synthesis
Is initially synthesized as Okazaki fragments
It synthesizes the RNA primer in DNA replication.
It is a specific RNA polymerase.
It is essential for DNA replication.
It is also a gyrase
DNA polymerase alpha
DNA polymerase delta
DNA polymerase gamma
DNA polymerase kappa
It is responsible for incorporating most of the nucleotides in the lagging strand.
It synthesizes most of the leading strand prior to aiding in the synthesis of the lagging strand.
It contains a 3¨ to 5¨ exonuclease activity.
It synthesizes the leading strand and the lagging strand at the same time
The cell contains more molecules of DNA pol I than DNA pol III.
DNA pol I is a single polypeptide with three domains.
DNA pol I is involved in the repair of UV damaged DNA.
DNA pol I has a larger turnover number than DNA pol III.
DNA polymerase I
DNA polymerase III
Klenow fragment from DNA polymerase I
A 5'-3' hnRNA transcript as the RNA polymerase moves in the 3'-5' direction on the DNA template
A mature RNA transcript as the RNA polymerase moves in the 5'-3' direction
An RNA transcript, with the sigma subunit of polymerase dissociating after the initiation event
An RNA transcript, which is complementary to the sense strand of the DNA, except for the replacement of uridines for the thymidines
Smaller DNA fragments
Higher G-C contents in DNA
Higher A-T contents in DNA
A and c are correct
None are correct
They must be packed around the cell membrane.
They can exist as unwrapped DNA.
Genetic information is not located in these structures.
As part of their structure, chromatin contains histones wrapped by DNA.
None of the above.
TRNA can self-base pair forming loops and base pair with non-canonical bases
TRNA can carry at least one amino acid and contain an anticodon.
RRNA is used for ribosome assembly as large and small units that are exported to the cytosol.
RRNA can self-base pair with its complementary strand in a double stranded structure.
Ribosomes contain rRNA as well as proteins except that the former is greater in number.
It creates a complementary strand relying upon base-stacking interactions.
Usually, one replication fork must move 360o around the entire chromosome in E.coli.
DNA Pol I adds a new nucleotide to the 5’-end of an existing DNA molecule.
DNA Pol I adds a new nucleotide to the 3’-end of the template strand.
An antiparallel DNA strand is produced and a pyrophosphate is released.
Synthesizes Okazaki fragments.
Functions mainly in DNA repair.
Polymerizes DNA in a 5’--> 3’ direction
A and c are correct.
None of the above.
Replication occurs during the S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Helicase is an ATP-dependant protein that unwinds DNA during replication.
DNA Pol I uses its 3’--> 5’ exonuclease activity to remove primers.
Ligase seals nicks in DNA by covalently linking Okazaki fragments.
DNA Pol I has two types of exonuclease activities.
Can be a telomerase that uses its own RNA as template.
Is contained in all RNA tumor viruses.
Allows the transcription of cDNA from an RNA template to form a DNA:RNA hybrid.
Can be inhibited by HIV therapy.
All of the above