Bentley Ch. 29 Test Industrial Society

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Bentley Ch. 29 Test Industrial Society - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following was NOT an economic advantage enjoyed by Britain in the 18th century?

    • A.

      Abundant and accessible coal deposits

    • B.

      Local sources of raw cotton

    • C.

      Abundant skilled and unskilled labor

    • D.

      Access to water transportation

    Correct Answer
    B. Local sources of raw cotton
    Explanation
    Britain did not have local sources of raw cotton in the 18th century. This was a disadvantage for Britain as it had to import raw cotton from other countries, such as India and the American colonies. However, Britain did have other economic advantages such as abundant and accessible coal deposits, abundant skilled and unskilled labor, and access to water transportation. These advantages contributed to the growth of Britain's textile industry and its overall economic dominance during this time period.

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  • 2. 

    Cotton cloth was valued by European consumers in the 18th century because it

    • A.

      Was rare and considered a luxury

    • B.

      Was comfortable and convenient

    • C.

      Was a British product and so considered patriotic

    • D.

      lasted longer than wool

    Correct Answer
    B. Was comfortable and convenient
    Explanation
    In the 18th century, cotton cloth was valued by European consumers because it was comfortable and convenient. This suggests that cotton cloth was easy to wear and use, making it a preferred choice for consumers during that time.

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  • 3. 

    Improvements in transportation, such as the railroads and steamships, 

    • A.

      Lowered transportation costs and linked industrial centers with overseas resources

    • B.

      Facilitated the movement of people as well as goods

    • C.

      Facilitated delivery of manufactured products to consumers

    • D.

      All of these statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these statements are correct
    Explanation
    The improvements in transportation, such as the railroads and steamships, had multiple effects. They not only lowered transportation costs but also connected industrial centers with overseas resources. This meant that goods could be transported more efficiently and at a lower cost, benefiting both producers and consumers. Additionally, the improved transportation systems facilitated the movement of people, allowing for increased mobility and the growth of cities. Therefore, all of the statements provided are correct in describing the positive impacts of transportation improvements.

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  • 4. 

    It could be said that global economic forces split countries into two dominant patterns. While one was the  manufacturing nations, what was the other form?

    • A.

      Nations whose government received profits for sale of its raw materials

    • B.

      Nations in which private citizens benefited from sale of natural resources

    • C.

      Nations that exported labor to satisfy the demands in manufacturing countries

    • D.

      Nations that became dependent on manufacturing economies rather than controlling their own

    Correct Answer
    D. Nations that became dependent on manufacturing economies rather than controlling their own
    Explanation
    The other form mentioned in the question is "nations that became dependent on manufacturing economies rather than controlling their own". This means that these countries relied on other countries for their economic growth and development, rather than having their own independent and self-sustaining economies. This could be due to factors such as globalization, trade imbalances, or unequal power dynamics between countries.

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  • 5. 

    Of the following aspects of industrialization, which one clearly underpinned the industrialization of Japan and Russia?

    • A.

      Abundant natural resources

    • B.

      A thriving middle class

    • C.

      A large workforce

    • D.

      Government support

    Correct Answer
    D. Government support
    Explanation
    Government support played a crucial role in the industrialization of Japan and Russia. Both countries had governments that actively promoted and supported industrialization through various means such as providing financial incentives, establishing favorable policies and regulations, investing in infrastructure development, and promoting education and research. This support helped create a conducive environment for industrial growth, attracting domestic and foreign investments, fostering technological advancements, and facilitating the development of industries. Without government support, it would have been challenging for these countries to achieve rapid industrialization and catch up with more advanced nations.

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  • 6. 

    What effect did industrialization have on gender roles?

    • A.

      Men could make higher wages than women so most women looked for jobs as domestic servants

    • B.

      Women moved into jobs such as teaching that had been relegated to men

    • C.

      Both men and women found valuable societal roles in separate spheres

    • D.

      Very few jobs were available for women so most women retired to housekeeping

    Correct Answer
    C. Both men and women found valuable societal roles in separate spheres
    Explanation
    During industrialization, traditional gender roles became more defined as men and women found valuable societal roles in separate spheres. Men typically worked in factories and other industrial settings, while women were expected to focus on domestic duties and child-rearing. This division of labor allowed men to make higher wages than women, leading many women to seek employment as domestic servants. However, women also began to move into jobs such as teaching that had previously been dominated by men. Overall, industrialization reinforced gender roles and created separate spheres for men and women in society.

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  • 7. 

    Industrialization led to global changes in population. What was an example of demographic transition? 

    • A.

      People moved from rural regions into urban regions

    • B.

      Global migrations occurred as workers moved to new countries

    • C.

      Declining mortality rates made for a healthier population

    • D.

      Declining birth rates contributed to a slowing in the population increase

    Correct Answer
    D. Declining birth rates contributed to a slowing in the population increase
    Explanation
    An example of demographic transition is declining birth rates contributing to a slowing in the population increase. This means that as industrialization occurred, there was a decrease in the number of births, resulting in a slower growth rate of the population. This could be attributed to factors such as increased access to contraception, changes in societal norms regarding family size, or increased education and economic opportunities for women.

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  • 8. 

    Industrialization made profound changes in work responsibilities. Which of the following groups protested the changes first? 

    • A.

      Socialists

    • B.

      Workers

    • C.

      Agricultural landlords

    • D.

      City governments

    Correct Answer
    B. Workers
    Explanation
    Workers were the first group to protest the changes brought about by industrialization. As industrialization led to the mechanization of work and the establishment of factories, workers experienced harsh working conditions, long hours, low wages, and lack of job security. These changes disrupted traditional forms of work and social structures, leading workers to organize and protest for better working conditions, fair wages, and workers' rights. The labor movement emerged as a response to these grievances, with workers demanding improved working conditions and advocating for their rights.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following conditions was LEAST important in the process of industrialization?

    • A.

      A healthy agricultural economy

    • B.

      A navigable system of waterways

    • C.

      A convenient power source

    • D.

      An available labor source

    Correct Answer
    A. A healthy agricultural economy
    Explanation
    A healthy agricultural economy was the least important condition in the process of industrialization because industrialization focuses on the development of manufacturing and the use of machinery, rather than relying heavily on agricultural production. While a healthy agricultural economy may have provided some stability and resources, it was not essential for the growth and success of industrialization. Other factors such as a navigable system of waterways, a convenient power source, and an available labor source were more crucial in facilitating the movement of goods, powering machinery, and providing a workforce for industrialization.

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  • 10. 

    When comparing the industrialization process of Russian and Japan, which of the following would be most similar in the role of government?

    • A.

      The Dutch government during the commercial boom of the 16th and 17th centuries

    • B.

      The Inca's participation in the economic production of the high Andes

    • C.

      The laissez-faire practices of 19th century American politics

    • D.

      The role of the French government in a mercantilist economy

    Correct Answer
    D. The role of the French government in a mercantilist economy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the role of the French government in a mercantilist economy. This is because both the industrialization process of Russia and Japan and the mercantilist economy of France involved significant government intervention and control. In both cases, the government played a central role in promoting and regulating economic activities, such as providing financial support to industries, implementing protectionist policies, and establishing monopolies. This is similar to the role of the French government in a mercantilist economy, where the government actively controlled and regulated trade to promote national economic interests.

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  • 11. 

    When comparing the roles of urban and rural women in the middle ages with those in the industrial age, which of the following is the most accurate description?   

    • A.

      Rural women maintained the same roles while urban women became increasingly independent entrepreneurs

    • B.

      Rural women gained more authority as men left for cities while urban women lost their autonomy and became completely dependent on men

    • C.

      Rural women maintained their same roles while urban women continued with a diversity of roles, but there was less opportunity for independent initiative

    • D.

      Rural women began to form cooperatives to market agricultural goods while urban women increasingly depended on industrial work as the foundation of their economic well-being

    Correct Answer
    C. Rural women maintained their same roles while urban women continued with a diversity of roles, but there was less opportunity for independent initiative
    Explanation
    In the middle ages, rural women continued to have the same roles as before, while urban women had a variety of roles. However, urban women had less opportunity for independent initiative. This means that although urban women had more diverse roles, they were still limited in their ability to act independently.

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  • 12. 

    All of the following are examples of vertical organization EXCEPT   

    • A.

      Standard Oil's control of all phases of petroleum production and distribution

    • B.

      The Krupp firm's integration of mines, steel mills, and munitions plants

    • C.

      The British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade

    • D.

      U.S. Steel's control of mines, mills, and railroad manufacture

    Correct Answer
    C. The British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade. This is because a vertical organization refers to a company that controls all stages of production and distribution within a single industry. While the other options provided (Standard Oil, Krupp firm, U.S. Steel) demonstrate vertical organization by controlling multiple stages of production in their respective industries, the British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade does not involve control over all phases of production and distribution.

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  • 13. 

    From the perspective of the consumer, the factory system meant 

    • A.

      Cheaper manufactured goods

    • B.

      Lower-quality manufactured goods

    • C.

      Fewer choices in manufactured goods

    • D.

      Acute shortages of many manufactured items

    Correct Answer
    A. Cheaper manufactured goods
    Explanation
    The factory system allowed for mass production of goods, which increased efficiency and lowered production costs. As a result, consumers were able to purchase manufactured goods at lower prices compared to goods produced through other methods. This made goods more affordable and accessible to a wider range of consumers, leading to cheaper manufactured goods.

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  • 14. 

    From the perspective of the worker, the factory system meant 

    • A.

      Better working conditions than piecework done at home

    • B.

      Better pay for skilled work

    • C.

      Greater opportunities for advancement within a free market system

    • D.

      Harsh discipline and close supervision

    Correct Answer
    D. Harsh discipline and close supervision
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "harsh discipline and close supervision." The factory system during the Industrial Revolution was characterized by strict rules, long hours, and tight control over workers. Workers were subjected to harsh discipline and closely supervised to ensure maximum productivity and prevent any disruptions or inefficiencies. This system prioritized efficiency and profit over the well-being and autonomy of workers.

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