APUSH Quarterly Ch 8-11 (2nd Quarter)

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In its depiction of America, the Hudson River School of painting conveyed

    • A.

      A) The martial strength of western expansion

    • B.

      B) A romantic, transcendental view of the nation

    • C.

      C) A criticism of the alienation in urban America

    • D.

      D) The lack of democracy in the Antebellum south

    • E.

      E) A realistic view of frontier farming life

    Correct Answer
    B. B) A romantic, transcendental view of the nation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) A romantic, transcendental view of the nation. The Hudson River School of painting was known for its romanticized and idealized depictions of the American landscape. The artists aimed to convey a sense of awe and wonder in nature, emphasizing its spiritual and transcendental qualities. Their paintings often depicted vast landscapes, untouched by human civilization, and sought to evoke a sense of the sublime. This view of the nation as a pristine and harmonious natural environment reflects the romantic and transcendentalist ideals of the time.

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  • 2. 

    The growth of the market economy between 1815 and 1850, caused farmers to

    • A.

      A)Gear their production to family needs and local markets

    • B.

      B) Depend on government regulation of railroads

    • C.

      C) Barter for goods they could not produce themselves

    • D.

      D) Specialize in only one or two crops to sell

    • E.

      E) Purchase fewer manufactured goods

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Specialize in only one or two crops to sell
    Explanation
    During the period between 1815 and 1850, the growth of the market economy led to increased demand for agricultural products. To meet this demand and maximize their profits, farmers started specializing in the production of only one or two crops that were in high demand in the market. This allowed them to focus their resources and efforts on producing these crops efficiently and at a larger scale, which in turn increased their chances of selling them at higher prices. Therefore, the correct answer is D) Specialize in only one or two crops to sell.

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  • 3. 

    Which issue aroused the strongest sectional feeling during the presidency of Andrew Jackson?

    • A.

      A) the tariff

    • B.

      B) the spoils system

    • C.

      C) the new nomination process

    • D.

      D) relocation of the Cherokee

    • E.

      E) "Eaton malaria"

    Correct Answer
    A. A) the tariff
    Explanation
    During Andrew Jackson's presidency, the issue of the tariff aroused the strongest sectional feeling. The tariff was a tax imposed on imported goods, which disproportionately affected the Southern states that relied heavily on foreign trade. The South believed that the tariff favored Northern industrial interests at their expense and was an unconstitutional abuse of power by the federal government. This led to growing tensions between the North and the South, ultimately contributing to the sectional divide that would culminate in the American Civil War.

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  • 4. 

    During the first half of the 19th century, the central and western areas of New York were known as the "burned-over district" because

    • A.

      A) of intense religious zeal created during the Second Great Awakening

    • B.

      B) terrible fires that followed the clear-cut logging by pioneers in that part of the state

    • C.

      C) the area had not recovered from the devastation of the War of 1812

    • D.

      D) American Indian settlements had been completely destroyed as settlersmoved in and took over teh land

    • E.

      E) The region's economy had never revived after the hardships that followed the Whiskey Rebellion

    Correct Answer
    A. A) of intense religious zeal created during the Second Great Awakening
    Explanation
    During the first half of the 19th century, the central and western areas of New York were known as the "burned-over district" because of intense religious zeal created during the Second Great Awakening. This religious movement led to a wave of religious fervor and revivalism in the region, with many religious groups and sects emerging and spreading their beliefs. The term "burned-over district" reflects the idea that the region was "burned over" by the intense religious activity, with the metaphorical fire of religious zeal spreading throughout the area.

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  • 5. 

    Though he was a self-professed follower of Thomas Jefferson, the development of government under Andrew Jackson represented a trend away from the Jeffersonian ideal in its

    • A.

      A) attitude toward the bank

    • B.

      B) feelings about the worth of the common man

    • C.

      C) an emphasis on the supremacy of the federal government

    • D.

      D) sympathy for agrarian problems

    • E.

      E) dislike of aristocratic custom

    Correct Answer
    C. C) an emphasis on the supremacy of the federal government
    Explanation
    Andrew Jackson's presidency marked a shift towards a stronger federal government. He believed in a strong executive branch and expanded presidential power. Jackson also advocated for the supremacy of the federal government over states' rights, as demonstrated by his opposition to nullification and his use of federal power to enforce laws. This emphasis on federal power goes against the Jeffersonian ideal of limited government and states' rights. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

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  • 6. 

    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were similar in that all involved a defense of

    • A.

      A) freedom of the seas

    • B.

      B) freedom of speech

    • C.

      C) institution of slavery

    • D.

      D) states' rights

    • E.

      E) Presidential power in foreign affairs

    Correct Answer
    D. D) states' rights
    Explanation
    The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were all similar in that they all involved a defense of states' rights. These events were significant moments in American history where states asserted their rights and powers in opposition to perceived encroachments by the federal government. The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, for example, argued that states had the right to nullify unconstitutional federal laws. Similarly, the Hartford Convention was a meeting of New England states that discussed their grievances against the federal government during the War of 1812. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, on the other hand, protested against federal tariffs that the state deemed harmful to its economy. Overall, these events demonstrate the ongoing tension between state and federal authority in the early years of the United States.

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  • 7. 

    A distinguishable feature of American society in the early 19th century was the

    • A.

      A) increasing readership of newspapers

    • B.

      B) lack of enthusiasm for religious reform

    • C.

      C) embrace of an aristocratic hierarchy

    • D.

      D) creation of original forms of art and architecture

    • E.

      E) dislike of voluntary associations

    Correct Answer
    A. A) increasing readership of newspapers
    Explanation
    In the early 19th century, American society saw a significant increase in the readership of newspapers. This can be attributed to several factors such as improved printing technology, the spread of literacy, and the rise of political parties. Newspapers became an important medium for disseminating information, discussing political issues, and shaping public opinion. The increasing readership of newspapers played a crucial role in fostering a more informed and engaged citizenry during this period.

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  • 8. 

    "The infant industries of this country must be protected from foreign competition by a protective tariff, and must be further strengthened by a bold program of internal improvements such as the construction of canals and roads." These words were spoken by

    • A.

      A) William LLoyd Garrison

    • B.

      B) Henry Clay

    • C.

      C) John C Calhoun

    • D.

      D) Stephen A. Douglas

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Henry Clay
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) Henry Clay. Henry Clay was a prominent American politician in the 19th century who advocated for the protection of domestic industries through the use of protective tariffs. He believed that these tariffs would shield infant industries from foreign competition and allow them to grow and become competitive. Additionally, Clay supported internal improvements such as the construction of canals and roads to further strengthen the country's infrastructure and promote economic development.

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  • 9. 

    "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists" is a quotation from

    • A.

      A) The Federalist Papers

    • B.

      B) George Washington's Farewell Address

    • C.

      C) Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address

    • D.

      D) John Adam's Inaugural Address

    • E.

      E) George Washington's First Inaugural Address

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address
    Explanation
    In Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address, he emphasized the unity of the American people by stating, "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." This quote highlights Jefferson's belief that despite political differences, the nation should come together for the greater good and work towards the common goals of the country. By acknowledging both Republicans and Federalists, Jefferson aimed to promote unity and collaboration among the American people.

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  • 10. 

    The American Colonization Society was established in the early 19th century with the goal of

    • A.

      A) encouraging immigration from Ireland to Germany

    • B.

      B) encouraging Chinese contract laborers to emigrate to the United States

    • C.

      C) Settling white Americans on western lands

    • D.

      D) settling American indians on reservations

    • E.

      E) transporting African Americans to Africa

    Correct Answer
    E. E) transporting African Americans to Africa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) transporting African Americans to Africa. The American Colonization Society was established in the early 19th century with the goal of transporting African Americans back to Africa. This was seen as a solution to the issue of slavery in the United States, as some believed that African Americans would never be able to fully integrate into American society. The society aimed to establish a colony in Africa where freed African Americans could live and govern themselves. This colonization effort led to the establishment of Liberia as a destination for African American emigration.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following resulted from the policies of the Andrew Jackson administration?

    • A.

      A) A central bank was established

    • B.

      B) The value of paper currency issued by individual banks became uniform

    • C.

      C) the number of banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased

    • D.

      D) A nationwide banking system was begun

    • E.

      E) Federal fiscal activities became linked to a system of federal banks.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) the number of banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased
    Explanation
    During the Andrew Jackson administration, the policies implemented resulted in an increase in the number of banks, with each bank having the authority to issue its own paper currency. This was a part of Jackson's plan to decentralize the banking system and reduce the power of the central bank. As a result, multiple banks were established across the country, leading to a proliferation of different types of paper currency issued by these individual banks.

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  • 12. 

    As chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall issued significant opinions on all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) judicial review

    • B.

      B) federal versus state power

    • C.

      C) the sanctity of contracts

    • D.

      D) the rights of slaves as persons

    • E.

      E) congressional control of interstate commerce

    Correct Answer
    D. D) the rights of slaves as persons
    Explanation
    As chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall issued significant opinions on judicial review, federal versus state power, the sanctity of contracts, and congressional control of interstate commerce. However, he did not issue significant opinions on the rights of slaves as persons. This may be because during Marshall's tenure as chief justice (1801-1835), the Court generally upheld the institution of slavery and did not prioritize the rights of slaves. Marshall's opinions focused more on issues related to federalism and the powers of the federal government.

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  • 13. 

    Jefferson's purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to

    • A.

      A) remove the French from forts along the Mississippi valley

    • B.

      B) Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops

    • C.

      C) acquire territory for the expansion of slavery

    • D.

      D) oppose New England Federalism

    • E.

      E) demonstrate friendship for the French in the Napoleonic Wars

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops
    Explanation
    Jefferson's purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops. This is because at the time, American farmers in the western territories faced difficulties in exporting their crops due to the lack of a suitable port. By acquiring a port, Jefferson aimed to facilitate the trade of western crops and ensure economic growth and prosperity for the region.

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  • 14. 

    The Supreme Court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland

    • A.

      A) supported the rights of states to control all economic activites within their borders

    • B.

      B) upheld the right of states to create monopolies that served the public interest

    • C.

      C) Endorsed Alexander Hamilton's ideas of implied powers in the Constitution

    • D.

      D) required the federal government to cease its support of financial institutions in Maryland

    • E.

      E) Broadened the power of states to tax federal property

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Endorsed Alexander Hamilton's ideas of implied powers in the Constitution
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland endorsed Alexander Hamilton's ideas of implied powers in the Constitution. This means that the Court ruled that the federal government has powers that are not explicitly stated in the Constitution but are implied in order to carry out its duties. This decision established the principle of broad interpretation of the Constitution's powers, giving more authority to the federal government.

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  • 15. 

    In pre- CIvil War era, the railroad's most important impact on the economy was

    • A.

      A) Creation of a huge new market for railway equipment

    • B.

      B) Creation of the basis for greater cooperation between Southern planters and Northern textile manufacturers

    • C.

      C) generation of new employment oppurtunities for unskilled urban workers

    • D.

      D) participation of the federal government in the financing of a nationwide transportation network

    • E.

      E) Accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers

    Correct Answer
    E. E) Accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) Accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers. The railroad allowed farmers in the Midwest to transport their goods more easily and quickly to urban markets in the East. This increased their access to a larger customer base and allowed them to sell their products at higher prices. It also facilitated the transportation of goods and raw materials between different regions, promoting economic growth and development.

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  • 16. 

    "In 1800 schoolchildren (ages 5-19) spent an average of only 14 days in school each year. BY 1850 this figure had nearly doubled, going to 26 days, and by 1860 it had risen to 40 days per year, almost  triple the figure for 1800. By 1860 the literacy rate at age 20 had attained modern levels, exceeding 90% among Whites."   This passage describes results brough about chiefly through

    • A.

      A) state and local efforts in behalf of public schools

    • B.

      B) the work of private philanthropists

    • C.

      C)the extension of federally supported schools systems

    • D.

      D) The increasing ability of families to afford tutors

    • E.

      E) The establishment of church-supported schools

    Correct Answer
    A. A) state and local efforts in behalf of public schools
    Explanation
    The passage states that the number of days schoolchildren spent in school increased significantly between 1800 and 1860, and by 1860, the literacy rate among Whites had exceeded 90%. This suggests that the increase in education and literacy was primarily a result of state and local efforts in behalf of public schools. These efforts would have included the establishment and expansion of public schools, which allowed more children to access education and improve their literacy skills. Private philanthropists, federally supported school systems, the ability of families to afford tutors, and church-supported schools are not mentioned as the main causes of the described results in the passage.

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  • 17. 

    The American Transcendentalists may best be characterized as which of the following?

    • A.

      A) a group of northern intellectuals who shared a belief in the value of human intuition

    • B.

      B) a religious sect that believed in the concept of sin and the necessity for forgiveness from God and from fellow worshippers

    • C.

      C) A number of loosely organized communitarians who engaged in sexual experiments outside the confines of marraige

    • D.

      D) A sect of former Unitarian ministers who expected christ to descend to earth within their lifetimes

    • E.

      E) A persecuted band who had to lee to the West because of their unpopular ideas about polygamy nad other unconventional practices

    Correct Answer
    A. A) a group of northern intellectuals who shared a belief in the value of human intuition
    Explanation
    The American Transcendentalists can be characterized as a group of northern intellectuals who believed in the value of human intuition. They emphasized the importance of individualism, self-reliance, and the inherent goodness of humanity. They believed that individuals could gain knowledge and understanding through intuition and direct experience with nature. They rejected traditional religious institutions and instead sought a spiritual connection with the universe. This belief in the power of intuition and the inherent goodness of humanity distinguished them from other religious sects or communitarians who held different beliefs or engaged in different practices.

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  • 18. 

    Of the following which was the principal issue on which the United States sought settlement with Great Britain at the outset of the War of 1812?

    • A.

      A) A guarantee of New England fishing rights off Newfoundland

    • B.

      B) Free navigation of the Mississippi River

    • C.

      C) Cancellation of pre-Revolutionary debts

    • D.

      D) Access to trade with the British West Indies

    • E.

      E) An end to impressment

    Correct Answer
    E. E) An end to impressment
    Explanation
    The principal issue on which the United States sought settlement with Great Britain at the outset of the War of 1812 was an end to impressment. Impressment refers to the practice of British naval forces forcibly recruiting American sailors into the British navy. The United States was outraged by this violation of their sovereignty and the rights of their citizens. They sought to negotiate an end to impressment in order to protect American sailors and assert their independence. This issue, along with other grievances, eventually led to the declaration of war against Great Britain in 1812.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following actions did Congress take shortly after the Chesapeak-Leopard affair?

    • A.

      A) It passed the Embargo Act.

    • B.

      B) It authorized privateers to attack British shipping

    • C.

      C) It sought an alliance with Spain

    • D.

      D) It enacted Macon's Bill No. 2

    • E.

      E) It declared war on England

    Correct Answer
    A. A) It passed the Embargo Act.
    Explanation
    Shortly after the Chesapeake-Leopard affair, Congress passed the Embargo Act. This act was a response to the attack on the USS Chesapeake by the British ship Leopard. The act prohibited American ships from trading with foreign nations, in an attempt to protect American interests and avoid further conflicts. However, the Embargo Act had negative effects on the American economy, leading to widespread smuggling and economic hardships, and it was eventually repealed in 1809.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following transportation developments opened the West to settlement and trade between 1790 and 1830?

    • A.

      A) Turnpikes and canals

    • B.

      B) Railroads and steamships

    • C.

      C) Turnpikes and railroads

    • D.

      D) Clipper ships and turnpikes

    • E.

      E) Canals and railroads

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Turnpikes and canals
    Explanation
    Turnpikes and canals were the transportation developments that opened the West to settlement and trade between 1790 and 1830. Turnpikes were toll roads that allowed for easier travel and transportation of goods, while canals provided a reliable and efficient means of transportation by connecting rivers and lakes. These developments improved accessibility and allowed for the movement of people and goods to and from the Western territories, facilitating settlement and trade in the region.

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  • 21. 

    President Jackson's Native American (Indian) Policy resulted in which of the following?

    • A.

      A) Jackson's loss of popularity in the country

    • B.

      B) The first efforts to grant citizenship to Native Americans

    • C.

      C) The division of tribal lands into small units and their allotment to heads of families in each tribe

    • D.

      D) Widespread uprisings among the Sioux in the Dakota Territory

    • E.

      E) The removal of the Cherokee from the Southeast to settlements across the Mississippi

    Correct Answer
    E. E) The removal of the Cherokee from the Southeast to settlements across the Mississippi
    Explanation
    President Jackson's Native American (Indian) Policy resulted in the removal of the Cherokee from the Southeast to settlements across the Mississippi. This policy, known as the Indian Removal Act of 1830, authorized the forced removal of Native American tribes from their ancestral lands in the Southeastern United States to make way for white settlement. This resulted in the forced relocation of thousands of Cherokee people, known as the Trail of Tears, which caused immense suffering and loss of life.

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  • 22. 

    All of the following were contributing factors to the decline of the Federalist Party after the War of 1812 EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) the Party's association with the Hartford Convention

    • B.

      B) the rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall

    • C.

      C) The Party's unpatriotic behavior during the war

    • D.

      D) Monroe's good-will tour of New England

    • E.

      E) The Republican party's adoptions of many Federalist policies

    Correct Answer
    B. B) the rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall
    Explanation
    The decline of the Federalist Party after the War of 1812 can be attributed to several factors. The party's association with the Hartford Convention, where they discussed secession from the Union, damaged their reputation and popularity. The Party's unpatriotic behavior during the war, such as opposing the war effort and engaging in anti-war activities, further alienated them from the public. Monroe's good-will tour of New England helped to promote national unity and reconciliation, which undermined the Federalist Party's divisive rhetoric. Additionally, the Republican party's adoption of many Federalist policies made the Federalists less distinct and relevant. However, the rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall cannot be considered a contributing factor to the decline of the Federalist Party.

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  • 23. 

    In the nullification dispute from 188 to 1833, John C. Calhoun supported which of the following ideas?

    • A.

      A) the federal government was superior to the state government and should preserve the Union at all cost.

    • B.

      B) The tariff was unconsitutional because it taxed those people who were least able to pay

    • C.

      C) The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of the 1790s did not apply to the crisis of the 1830s

    • D.

      D) Although the federal government had a right to enforce the tariff, it was morally wrong to do so

    • E.

      E) The states were the final arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws

    Correct Answer
    E. E) The states were the final arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws
    Explanation
    In the nullification dispute from 1830 to 1833, John C. Calhoun supported the idea that the states were the final arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws. This means that Calhoun believed that individual states had the power to determine whether or not a federal law was constitutional and could choose to nullify or reject it if they deemed it unconstitutional. This position was in line with Calhoun's belief in states' rights and the idea that the federal government should not have unchecked power over the states.

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  • 24. 

    A central theme of Alexander de Tocqueville's Democracy in America is

    • A.

      A) American equality is a product of the nation's social mobility and geographic restlessness

    • B.

      B) American democracy cannot be maintained because the masses are turbulent and unreliable

    • C.

      C) Americans are not ambitious enough to make the capitalist system work

    • D.

      D) Americans measure social class by inherited wealth and family background

    • E.

      E)American society is superior to all European cultures

    Correct Answer
    A. A) American equality is a product of the nation's social mobility and geographic restlessness
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A) American equality is a product of the nation's social mobility and geographic restlessness. In Democracy in America, Tocqueville argues that the unique social conditions in America, such as the ability for individuals to move up in social class and the constant movement and expansion of the population, contribute to a sense of equality among Americans. He believes that this mobility and restlessness prevent the formation of rigid social hierarchies and allow for greater social equality.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the followign is true of the presidency of Andrew Jackson?

    • A.

      A) Jackson was the first president to have impeachment charges brough against him.

    • B.

      B) Jackson limited the use of the veto just as his predecessors had done.

    • C.

      C) Jackson joined with the Whigs to reform the government.

    • D.

      D) Jackson increased the power of the executive branch of government

    • E.

      E) Jackson was the first president to support the abolition of slavery

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Jackson increased the power of the executive branch of government
    Explanation
    During his presidency, Andrew Jackson significantly increased the power of the executive branch of government. He expanded the use of the veto, utilizing it more frequently than any of his predecessors. He also strengthened the power of the presidency by asserting his authority over the states and advocating for a stronger centralized government. Jackson's presidency is often associated with the concept of "Jacksonian Democracy," which emphasized a strong executive branch and the expansion of presidential powers.

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  • 26. 

    The immediate effect of Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the U.S in 1834 was

    • A.

      A) the creation of the "independent treasury"

    • B.

      B) an expansion of credit and speculation

    • C.

      C) the failure of state banks

    • D.

      D) the establishment of modern banking regulations

    • E.

      E)) the creation of a federal deficit

    Correct Answer
    B. B) an expansion of credit and speculation
    Explanation
    Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the U.S in 1834 led to an expansion of credit and speculation. By removing federal deposits from the bank and distributing them among state banks, Jackson effectively weakened the central authority of the Second Bank. This resulted in an increase in the availability of credit and a surge in speculative activities. Without the oversight and regulation provided by the Second Bank, state banks were able to issue more loans and engage in risky financial practices, leading to an expansion of credit and speculation in the economy.

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  • 27. 

    President Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine i his 1823 address to Congress primarily in order to

    • A.

      A) respond positively to the recent Latin American revolutions

    • B.

      B) Rule out United States involvment in South America

    • C.

      C) provide a rationale for United States interventio in the Isthmus of Panama

    • D.

      D) warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere

    • E.

      E) encourage Britain to help the fledgling Latin American states

    Correct Answer
    D. D) warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere
    Explanation
    In his 1823 address to Congress, President Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine primarily to warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere. This was a response to the growing influence of European powers in the Americas and a desire to protect the sovereignty and independence of newly formed Latin American countries. The doctrine stated that any further colonization or intervention by European powers would be seen as a threat to the United States and would be met with opposition. This was a significant statement of American foreign policy and helped establish the United States as a dominant power in the Western Hemisphere.

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  • 28. 

    The goal of the American Colonization Society was to

    • A.

      A)return freed slaves to Africa

    • B.

      B) recruit immigrant labor for American factories

    • C.

      C) assimilate recent immigrants into American society

    • D.

      D) extend United States influence to overseas colonies

    • E.

      E) promote westen expanision by funding internal improvements

    Correct Answer
    A. A)return freed slaves to Africa
    Explanation
    The goal of the American Colonization Society was to return freed slaves to Africa. This organization believed that former slaves would have better opportunities in Africa and that it would also help to solve the issue of slavery in the United States. They established a colony in Liberia, which became a place where freed slaves could go and start a new life. This goal was aimed at addressing the social and political issues surrounding slavery and providing a solution for the newly freed slaves.

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  • 29. 

    The Hartford Convention was a manifesttion of

    • A.

      A) New England Federalist opposition to the War of 1812

    • B.

      B) New England's desire to end U.S trade with Great Britain

    • C.

      C) northern gratitude to General Jackson for his victory at New orleans

    • D.

      D) the War Hawks' impatience with president madison's conduct of foreign policy

    • E.

      E) western resentment against british-backed American Indian attacks

    Correct Answer
    A. A) New England Federalist opposition to the War of 1812
    Explanation
    The Hartford Convention was a manifestation of New England Federalist opposition to the War of 1812. The Federalists in New England were strongly against the war and believed it was detrimental to their economic interests. They held the convention to discuss their grievances and consider possible secession from the United States. The convention ultimately did not result in any significant action, but it highlighted the deep divisions and discontent within the country during this time.

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  • 30. 

    The Jefferson administraton advocated which of the following changes as a means of restoring Republican ideals

    • A.

      A) ABolishing the Bank of the US

    • B.

      B) Reducing the scope of acitivies of the federal government

    • C.

      C) DIscontinueing the funding of state debts

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Reducing the scope of acitivies of the federal government
    Explanation
    The Jefferson administration advocated for reducing the scope of activities of the federal government as a means of restoring Republican ideals. This means that they believed in limiting the power and reach of the federal government, allowing for more power to be held by the states and individuals. This aligns with the principles of Jeffersonian Republicanism, which emphasized a smaller and less intrusive government in order to protect individual liberties and promote states' rights.

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  • 31. 

    A proposal for the uncompensated emancipation of American slaves was advanced by

    • A.

      A) Thomas Jefferson in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    • B.

      B) James Madison in The Federalist in 1788

    • C.

      C) The American Colonization society in 1817

    • D.

      D) William LLoyd Garrison in The Liberator in 1831

    • E.

      E) the Republican party platform of 1860

    Correct Answer
    D. D) William LLoyd Garrison in The Liberator in 1831
    Explanation
    William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent abolitionist and the founder of the newspaper "The Liberator" in 1831. Through his newspaper, Garrison advocated for the immediate and uncompensated emancipation of American slaves. He believed that slavery was a moral evil and that it should be abolished without any form of compensation to slaveholders. Garrison's writings and activism played a significant role in shaping public opinion and advancing the cause of abolitionism in the United States.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following was an element of the Missouri Compromise of 1820

    • A.

      A) The future of slavery in Missouri would be determined by the residents living there.

    • B.

      B) Slavery would be allowed in illinois, but not in Missouri

    • C.

      C) the northern section of Louisiana would be open to slavery

    • D.

      D) Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state

    • E.

      E) The southern section of Louisiana was open to slavery for 20 years

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state
    Explanation
    The Missouri Compromise of 1820 included the provision that Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state. This compromise was reached in order to maintain the balance between free and slave states in the United States. By allowing Maine to enter as a free state, it offset the admission of Missouri as a slave state, thus preserving the delicate equilibrium between the North and the South.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following statements about the "American System" is correct?

    • A.

      A) It was set up by the Treaty of Ghent at the end of the War of 1812.

    • B.

      B) It was strongly promoted by Andrew Jackson

    • C.

      C) It permitted immigrants to be naturalized after living in the United States for 5 years.

    • D.

      D) It was designed to meet the nation's need for economic progress and self-sufficiency

    • E.

      E) It called for an end to the European presence in South America

    Correct Answer
    D. D) It was designed to meet the nation's need for economic progress and self-sufficiency
    Explanation
    The American System was a set of economic policies that aimed to promote economic progress and self-sufficiency in the United States. It was not established by the Treaty of Ghent, as stated in option A. Andrew Jackson, as mentioned in option B, was not a strong promoter of the American System. Option C is unrelated to the American System, as it refers to naturalization of immigrants. Option E is also unrelated, as the American System did not call for an end to the European presence in South America. Therefore, option D is the correct statement about the American System.

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  • 34. 

    The most significant result of the American victory at the Battle of New Orleans is that it

    • A.

      A) forced the british to yield concessions to the United States in the Treaty of Ghent

    • B.

      B) led directly to the Louisiana purchase

    • C.

      C) led to the celebration of Andrew Jackson and his soldiers in American legend and folklore

    • D.

      D) made Andrew Jackson a contender for the presidency in the next election

    • E.

      E) forced the British to recognize American dominance in North America

    Correct Answer
    C. C) led to the celebration of Andrew Jackson and his soldiers in American legend and folklore
    Explanation
    The Battle of New Orleans was a significant victory for the American forces led by Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812. This victory boosted American morale and created a sense of national pride. The celebration of Jackson and his soldiers in American legend and folklore refers to the lasting impact and recognition they received for their triumph in this battle. It solidified Jackson's reputation as a military hero and contributed to his eventual rise to the presidency.

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  • 35. 

    "The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, fixes the sentence which is to restrain her forever within her low-water makr. It seals the union of two nations, who, in conjunction, can maintain exclusive possession of the oceasn. From that moment, we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation." This quotation is from the writings of

    • A.

      A) John Quincy Adams

    • B.

      B) John Adams

    • C.

      C) George Washington

    • D.

      D) thomas jefferson

    • E.

      E) alexander hamilton

    Correct Answer
    D. D) thomas jefferson
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D) Thomas Jefferson. This quotation reflects Jefferson's belief in the importance of New Orleans and the Mississippi River to the United States. He saw the acquisition of New Orleans as crucial for securing American access to the ocean and believed that a strong alliance with the British fleet and nation was necessary to maintain this possession. Jefferson served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809 and was known for his expansionist policies, including the Louisiana Purchase which included New Orleans.

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  • 36. 

    The Independent Treasury system established under Martin van Buren's presidency

    • A.

      A)placed all federal funds in "pet" banks controlled by Democrats

    • B.

      B) placed all federal funds in private banks

    • C.

      C) placed all federal funds in a revised version of the Banke of the US

    • D.

      D) was instituted to soften the impact of the Panic of 1837

    • E.

      E) established government subtreasuries for the deposit of federal funds

    Correct Answer
    E. E) established government subtreasuries for the deposit of federal funds
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) established government subtreasuries for the deposit of federal funds. This means that under Martin van Buren's presidency, the Independent Treasury system was implemented to create government subtreasuries where federal funds could be deposited. This system aimed to separate the government's finances from private banks and prevent the potential influence of political parties on the management of federal funds.

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  • 37. 

    The Embargo Act of 1807 had which of the following effects on the United States

    • A.

      A) It severely damaged American manufacturing

    • B.

      B) It enriched many cotton plantation owners

    • C.

      C) It disrupted American shipping

    • D.

      D) It was ruinous to subsistence farmers

    • E.

      E) It had little economic impact

    Correct Answer
    C. C) It disrupted American shipping
    Explanation
    The Embargo Act of 1807 had the effect of disrupting American shipping. This act, which was passed in an attempt to protect American interests and avoid war, prohibited American ships from trading with foreign nations. As a result, American merchants and shipowners suffered significant financial losses and many ships were left idle. The act also led to a decline in American exports and caused widespread economic hardship for those involved in the shipping industry.

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  • 38. 

    The charge of a "corrupt bargain" in the presidential election of 1824 refers to an alleged deal between

    • A.

      A) John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay

    • B.

      B) Andrew Jackson and John Calhoun

    • C.

      C) John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson

    • D.

      D) John Calhoun and John Quincy Adams

    • E.

      E) Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay

    Correct Answer
    A. A) John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay
    Explanation
    In the presidential election of 1824, a "corrupt bargain" refers to an alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. This alleged deal involved Clay, who was the Speaker of the House at the time, using his influence to secure Adams' victory in the House of Representatives. In return, Adams appointed Clay as his Secretary of State. This deal was seen as corrupt because it bypassed the popular vote and the candidate who won the most electoral votes, Andrew Jackson, was not chosen as president.

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  • 39. 

    The map above shows the United States immediately following the

    • A.

      A) passage of the Northwest ordinance

    • B.

      B) negotiation of the Adams-Onis Treaty

    • C.

      C) Passage of the Missouri Compromise

    • D.

      D) Settlement of the Mexican war

    • E.

      E) Passage of the Compromise of 1850

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Passage of the Missouri Compromise
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C) Passage of the Missouri Compromise. This can be inferred from the map because it shows the division of the United States into free and slave states, which was a key provision of the Missouri Compromise. The map shows a clear line separating the free states in the north from the slave states in the south, indicating the impact of the Missouri Compromise on the country's territorial expansion and the issue of slavery.

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  • 40. 

    The Second Great Awakening

    • A.

      A) an evangelical religious revival in the US during the first third of the 19th century

    • B.

      B) an evangelical religious revival in the colonies during the 1740s

    • C.

      C) a revival of intereest in the ideas of the Enlightenment in America during the 19th century

    • D.

      D) A Puritan reform movement of the early 1800s

    Correct Answer
    A. A) an evangelical religious revival in the US during the first third of the 19th century
    Explanation
    The Second Great Awakening refers to an evangelical religious revival that took place in the US during the first third of the 19th century. This period saw a surge in religious fervor and a renewed interest in spiritual matters, leading to the establishment of new religious denominations and the spread of evangelicalism. The movement emphasized personal conversion, emotional worship, and social reform, and had a profound impact on American society, shaping various aspects such as abolitionism, temperance, and women's rights.

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  • 41. 

    The central point in John Marshall's decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison concerned the power of

    • A.

      A) the federal government to regulate interstate commerce

    • B.

      B) the Supreme Court to declare federal laws unconsitutional

    • C.

      C) the states to tax the bank of the US

    • D.

      D) the states to change private contracts

    • E.

      E) Congress to charter the Bank of the United States

    Correct Answer
    B. B) the Supreme Court to declare federal laws unconsitutional
    Explanation
    John Marshall's decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review, which gives the Supreme Court the power to declare federal laws unconstitutional. This landmark decision solidified the Court's authority as a coequal branch of government and set the precedent for future cases involving the interpretation of the Constitution. By asserting the Court's power to invalidate laws that are inconsistent with the Constitution, Marshall ensured that the judiciary would play a crucial role in safeguarding individual rights and upholding the principles of the Constitution.

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  • 42. 

    The Gag Rule was adopted by

    • A.

      A) southern states to ban abolitionist petitions from the federal postal service in the south

    • B.

      B)northern legislatures to limit debate on abolitionist petitions

    • C.

      C) congress to limit protests against the mexican war

    • D.

      D) congress to automatically table antislavery petitions without a reason

    • E.

      E) abolitionist societies to ban women from public speaking

    Correct Answer
    D. D) congress to automatically table antislavery petitions without a reason
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D) congress to automatically table antislavery petitions without a reason. The Gag Rule was adopted by Congress in 1836 and it prohibited the discussion or debate of any antislavery petitions. Instead of allowing these petitions to be read and considered, the Gag Rule automatically tabled them without any reason or explanation. This was a deliberate attempt to silence the growing abolitionist movement and prevent any discussion of the issue of slavery in Congress. The Gag Rule was highly controversial and eventually repealed in 1844.

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  • 43. 

    The period between 1816 and 1825 is notable in the political history of the United States because

    • A.

      A) there were no closely contested political elections

    • B.

      B) there was an "era of good feelings" throughout the period

    • C.

      C) there was an absence of hotly contested issues at the national level

    • D.

      D) there was no well organized two party system in the nation

    • E.

      E) statesmen generally agreed to subordinate the power of the federal government to states rights

    Correct Answer
    D. D) there was no well organized two party system in the nation
    Explanation
    During the period between 1816 and 1825, there was no well-organized two-party system in the United States. This is significant because a two-party system is a fundamental aspect of American politics, and its absence during this time period had implications for the political landscape. Without a well-organized two-party system, there was less competition and opposition between political parties, which could have influenced the decision-making process and the development of policies. It also suggests that there may have been a lack of clear ideological divisions and debates within the political sphere during this period.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following social reform crusafes was most closely related to the women's rights movement of the late 1840s and 1850s

    • A.

      A) temperance

    • B.

      B) female education

    • C.

      C) moral purity

    • D.

      D) reformation of prisons

    • E.

      E) abolitionism

    Correct Answer
    A. A) temperance
    Explanation
    The temperance movement was closely related to the women's rights movement of the late 1840s and 1850s because it provided women with a platform to advocate for social change and assert their rights. Women played a significant role in the temperance movement, as they saw alcohol as a threat to their families and believed that it contributed to domestic violence and poverty. By campaigning for temperance, women gained experience in organizing and public speaking, which helped them to later advocate for women's suffrage and other women's rights issues.

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  • 45. 

    In the Adams-Onis treaty the United States obtained

    • A.

      A) a boundary settlement with Great Britain on the oregon territory

    • B.

      B) California, New Mexico, and Utah from Mexico

    • C.

      C) the Floridas and set the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase with Spain

    • D.

      D) the Floridas and set the boundary of the Louisiana Purchas with France

    • E.

      E) the trans- Appalachian west from Great Britain

    Correct Answer
    C. C) the Floridas and set the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase with Spain
    Explanation
    In the Adams-Onis treaty, the United States obtained the Floridas and set the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase with Spain. This means that the United States acquired the territory of Florida from Spain and also negotiated the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, which was a significant land acquisition from France. The treaty helped to establish clear borders and expand the territorial holdings of the United States.

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  • 46. 

    All of the following factors contributed to South carolina's support for nullification in 1832 except

    • A.

      A) opposition to the tariff of 1828

    • B.

      B) Andrew jackson's refusal to support lowering of tariff rates

    • C.

      C) economic distress over falling cotton prices

    • D.

      D) a very high ratio of blacks to whites

    • E.

      E) anxiety over the future of slavery

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Andrew jackson's refusal to support lowering of tariff rates
    Explanation
    South Carolina's support for nullification in 1832 can be attributed to several factors. First, there was opposition to the tariff of 1828, which was seen as detrimental to the state's economy. Additionally, economic distress over falling cotton prices played a role in their support for nullification. The high ratio of blacks to whites in South Carolina also contributed to their concerns over the future of slavery. However, Andrew Jackson's refusal to support lowering of tariff rates did not directly contribute to South Carolina's support for nullification.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following was precipitated by President Jackson's issuing of the Specie Circular

    • A.

      A) a reduction in the tariff rate

    • B.

      B) the chartering of the Second bank of the US

    • C.

      C) a renewed interestin the spoils system

    • D.

      D) the eviction of the cherokee from Georgia

    • E.

      E) the panic of 1837

    Correct Answer
    E. E) the panic of 1837
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) the panic of 1837. The Specie Circular was an executive order issued by President Jackson in 1836, which required payment for government land to be made in gold or silver rather than paper currency. This led to a reduction in the amount of paper money in circulation and caused a shortage of specie (gold and silver coins). As a result, banks and businesses began to fail, leading to a financial crisis known as the panic of 1837.

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  • 48. 

    President Jackson resisted the admission of TX into the Union in 1836 primarily because he

    • A.

      A) acknowledged the legitimacy of the Mexican gov'ts claim to TX

    • B.

      B) feared that debate over the admission of TX would ignite controversy about slavery

    • C.

      C) was ideologically opposed to territorial expansion

    • D.

      D) could find no support within his own party for admitting TX

    • E.

      E) believed that admitting TX would violate international law

    Correct Answer
    B. B) feared that debate over the admission of TX would ignite controversy about slavery
    Explanation
    President Jackson resisted the admission of TX into the Union in 1836 primarily because he feared that debate over the admission of TX would ignite controversy about slavery. This suggests that President Jackson was concerned about the potential conflict that would arise between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the country if Texas, a territory that allowed slavery, were to be admitted as a state. By resisting the admission of Texas, Jackson aimed to avoid exacerbating the already contentious issue of slavery in the United States.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following provided sources of revenue for the federal government in the period from 1800 to 1860 1) Income tax 11) Sales tax 111) customs duties 1V) Land sales V) Real estate taxes

    • A.

      A) 1 and 11 only

    • B.

      B) 1 and 111 only

    • C.

      C) 11 and V only

    • D.

      D) 111 and 1V only.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) 111 and 1V only.
    Explanation
    During the period from 1800 to 1860, the federal government relied on customs duties and land sales as sources of revenue. Income tax, sales tax, and real estate taxes were not mentioned as sources of revenue during this time period. Therefore, the correct answer is D) 111 and 1V only.

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  • 50. 

    Which group did not include supporters of the new Whig Party in the 1830's

    • A.

      A) National republicans

    • B.

      B) advocates of nullification

    • C.

      C) northern industrialists

    • D.

      D) people with a personal dislike of Andrew jackson

    • E.

      E) advocates of a system of state banks

    Correct Answer
    E. E) advocates of a system of state banks
    Explanation
    During the 1830s, the new Whig Party emerged as a political force in the United States. This party was composed of various groups that shared common interests and goals. Option E states that advocates of a system of state banks did not include supporters of the new Whig Party. This is because the Whig Party favored a strong central bank and a national banking system, rather than a system of state banks. Therefore, those who supported state banks would not align with the Whig Party's stance on banking and economic policies.

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