API 571 Mechanical Fatigue

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Mechanical Quizzes & Trivia

API 571 Clause 4.2. 16
This quiz is generated for API 570 Exam Study Guide


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One of the properties of mechanical fatigue is that it typically happens ___________.

    • A.

      Well below yield strength of the material 

    • B.

      Well above yield strength of the material

    • C.

      At the yield strength of the material

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Well below yield strength of the material 
    Explanation
    Mechanical fatigue refers to the weakening and eventual failure of a material under repeated or fluctuating stresses. One of the properties of mechanical fatigue is that it typically happens well below the yield strength of the material. This means that the material can experience fatigue and fail even when it is not subjected to stresses that would cause permanent deformation or yield. Fatigue failure occurs due to the accumulation of small cracks and damage over time, which eventually leads to catastrophic failure. Therefore, it is important to consider fatigue strength when designing and using materials, especially in applications that involve cyclic loading or vibrations.

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  • 2. 

    Fatigue cracks usually initiate on the surface _______________under cyclic loading.

    • A.

      At openings only

    • B.

      At notches or stress raisers 

    • C.

      Underneath reinforcement pads only

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. At notches or stress raisers 
    Explanation
    Fatigue cracks usually initiate on the surface at notches or stress raisers under cyclic loading. This is because notches and stress raisers create areas of high stress concentration, which makes them more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation. The stress concentration at these locations reduces the material's resistance to cyclic loading, leading to the formation of fatigue cracks.

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  • 3. 

    Heat treatment can have a significant effect on the toughness and hence fatigue resistance of a metal. In general ___________tend to perform better than___________.

    • A.

      Coarse grained microstructures - finer grained

    • B.

      Medium grained microstructures - coarse grained

    • C.

      Finer grained microstructures - coarse grained 

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Finer grained microstructures - coarse grained 
    Explanation
    Finer grained microstructures tend to perform better than coarse grained microstructures in terms of toughness and fatigue resistance. This is because finer grains have a more uniform structure and fewer defects, which results in improved mechanical properties. Coarse grained microstructures, on the other hand, have larger grains with more boundaries and defects, making them more prone to fatigue and reduced toughness. Therefore, heat treatment that promotes the formation of finer grains can enhance the overall performance of the metal.

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  • 4. 

    An example of a component that might exhibit mechanical fatigue due to thermal cycling is a ______.

    • A.

      Large bore piping systems

    • B.

      Coker drum 

    • C.

      High pressure drop control valves

    • D.

      Small bore piping systems

    Correct Answer
    B. Coker drum 
    Explanation
    Affected units are split in to two sub headings in Clause 4.2.16.4 of API 571 Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading

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  • 5. 

    NDE monitoring for mechanical fatigue might include ___________________________.

    • A.

      SWUT, RT and MT

    • B.

      PT, MT and SWUT

    • C.

      RT, PT and MT

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. PT, MT and SWUT
    Explanation
    Fatigue crack initiates from the surface. So surface defect detection NDT methods are to be adopted for detection.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following materials are subject to mechanical fatigue?

    • A.

      Carbon steels

    • B.

      Stainless steels

    • C.

      Low alloy steels

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All engineering alloys are affected by mechanical fatigue.

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  • 7. 

    Mechanical fatigue is caused by:

    • A.

      Higher than average stresses at high temperatures

    • B.

      Constant stresses occurring at low temperatures

    • C.

      Cyclic operating conditions of bird poop then rain, bird poop then rain, etc.

    • D.

      Cyclic stresses occurring over a long period of time.

    Correct Answer
    D. Cyclic stresses occurring over a long period of time.
    Explanation
    Cyclic stress for an extended period causes Mechanical Fatigue

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  • 8. 

    Fatigue will not occur in carbon steel if stresses are below the:

    • A.

      Transition limit.

    • B.

      Endurance limit.

    • C.

      Hardening limit.

    • D.

      Speed limit.

    Correct Answer
    B. Endurance limit.
    Explanation
    The endurance limit is the maximum stress level below which a material can endure an infinite number of stress cycles without experiencing fatigue failure. In the context of carbon steel, if the stresses are below the endurance limit, fatigue will not occur.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following materials are affected by mechanical fatigue cracking?

    • A.

      Only carbon steel

    • B.

      Only carbon steel, and high nickel alloys

    • C.

      Only carbon steel and chromes

    • D.

      All materials

    Correct Answer
    D. All materials
    Explanation
    Mechanical fatigue cracking is a phenomenon that occurs when a material undergoes repeated cyclic loading, leading to the formation and propagation of cracks. This can happen in all materials, regardless of their composition or properties. Therefore, the correct answer is that all materials are affected by mechanical fatigue cracking.

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  • 10. 

    Which condition of temperature contributes to mechanical fatigue

    • A.

      Low temperature

    • B.

      High Temperature

    • C.

      Not a factor

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Not a factor
    Explanation
    Mechanical fatigue is the weakening and eventual failure of a material due to repeated loading and unloading. Temperature does not directly contribute to mechanical fatigue because it does not affect the cyclic loading and unloading of the material. Mechanical fatigue is primarily influenced by factors such as stress levels, load frequency, and material properties. Therefore, temperature is not a factor in mechanical fatigue.

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  • 11. 

    Which condition of steel contributes to mechanical fatigue

    • A.

      Dirty Steel

    • B.

      Clean Steel

    • C.

      Not a factor

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Dirty Steel
    Explanation
    Dirty steel refers to steel that contains impurities or contaminants such as sulfur, phosphorus, and non-metallic inclusions. These impurities can significantly reduce the fatigue strength of the steel, making it more susceptible to mechanical fatigue. The impurities act as stress concentration points, leading to the initiation and propagation of cracks, which ultimately result in failure under cyclic loading. Therefore, the presence of impurities in steel, or dirty steel, is a contributing factor to mechanical fatigue.

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  • 12. 

    Which surface condition contributes to mechanical fatigue

    • A.

      Smooth surface

    • B.

      Notches

    • C.

      Not a factor

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Notches
    Explanation
    Notches contribute to mechanical fatigue because they create stress concentration points where the stress is amplified. This leads to the formation and propagation of cracks, ultimately causing failure under repeated loading. Smooth surfaces distribute the stress more evenly, reducing the likelihood of fatigue failure. Therefore, notches are a significant factor in mechanical fatigue.

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  • 13. 

    Which material does not have an endurance limit?

    • A.

      Non-normalized carbon steel

    • B.

      Normalized carbon steel

    • C.

      Stainless Steel

    • D.

      Titanium

    Correct Answer
    C. Stainless Steel
    Explanation
    Stainless steel does not have an endurance limit. Endurance limit refers to the maximum stress that a material can withstand without experiencing fatigue failure, meaning that the material can endure an infinite number of stress cycles without breaking. While some materials like carbon steel and titanium have an endurance limit, stainless steel does not. This means that stainless steel will eventually fail under cyclic loading, even at relatively low stress levels.

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  • 14. 

    The endurance limit is usually about:

    • A.

      10-20% of a material’s ultimate tensile strength

    • B.

      10-20% of a material’s yield strength

    • C.

      40-50% of a material’s yield strength

    • D.

      40-50% of a material’s ultimate tensile strength

    Correct Answer
    D. 40-50% of a material’s ultimate tensile strength
    Explanation
    The endurance limit refers to the maximum stress level that a material can withstand without experiencing fatigue failure. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the material's ultimate tensile strength. The correct answer states that the endurance limit is typically about 40-50% of a material's ultimate tensile strength. This means that a material can endure stress levels up to 40-50% of its ultimate tensile strength without experiencing fatigue failure.

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  • 15. 

    Inspecting for high-cycle fatigue can be difficult since:

    • A.

      The cracks are extremely tight

    • B.

      Predicting the location of cracking is difficult

    • C.

      Once the crack begins, only a few cycles are needed for the crack to lead to failure

    • D.

      Often the equipment is vibrating making non-destructive evaluations difficult

    Correct Answer
    C. Once the crack begins, only a few cycles are needed for the crack to lead to failure
    Explanation
    In high cycle fatigue, crack initiation can be a majority of the fatigue life making detection difficult.

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  • 16. 

    Mechanical fatigue can cause cracks that initiate from the surface and often form a:

    • A.

      Clam shell appearance

    • B.

      Snail shell appearance

    • C.

      Turtle shell appearance

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Clam shell appearance
    Explanation
    Mechanical fatigue refers to the weakening of a material due to repeated stress or strain. In this context, it can cause cracks that start from the surface. The term "clam shell appearance" suggests that these cracks resemble the shape and pattern of a clam shell, which typically has two halves that open and close. Therefore, the correct answer is "clam shell appearance" as it accurately describes the appearance of the cracks caused by mechanical fatigue.

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  • 17. 

    Prevention of mechanical fatigue is best accomplished by good design. Which of the following would be the design preventive measure?

    • A.

      Minimize grinding marks, nicks and gouges on the surface of components

    • B.

      Insure good fit up and smooth transitions for welds

    • C.

      Remove any burrs or lips caused by machining

    • D.

      Avoid placement of welds in areas of high stress or locations with known cyclic stresses.

    • E.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Avoid placement of welds in areas of high stress or locations with known cyclic stresses.
    Explanation
    At first look it might feel that all the above are correct. But the options 1 to 3 are caused on the manufacturing stage and not in design stage. The only option which relates to a design decision is option 4 only

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not a critical factor for mechanical fatigue?

    • A.

      Material properties (Strength, Hardness, microstructure)

    • B.

      Shear wave frequency

    • C.

      Stress level

    • D.

      Geometry

    Correct Answer
    B. Shear wave frequency
  • 19. 

    Which is a "Related Mechanism" to mechanical fatigue?

    • A.

      Corrosion fatigue

    • B.

      Vibration Induced Fatigue

    • C.

      Thermal Fatigue

    • D.

      Frequency stress fatigue

    Correct Answer
    B. Vibration Induced Fatigue
    Explanation
    Thermal cycling is the caused well below the yield strength of the material but not in the case of thermal fatigue. Mechanical fatigue discuss only thermal cycling and not thermal fatigue.
    The thermal fatigue mechanism is totally different.
    If interested in further reading
    1. Clause 4.2.9 of API 571
    2. https://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_thermal_fatigue_and_mechanical_fatigue_really_equivalent

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  • 20. 

    Regarding the appearance or morphology of Mechanical Fatigue, the signature mark of fatigue failure will typically appear as:

    • A.

      Single clam shell fingerprint with vertical straight lines directly below the crack initiation site

    • B.

      Single clam shell fingerprint with rings called beach marks coming from a crack initiation site

    • C.

      Concentric lines throughout the entire cross-sectional area

    • D.

      None of these are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Single clam shell fingerprint with rings called beach marks coming from a crack initiation site
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Single clam shell fingerprint with rings called beach marks coming from a crack initiation site." This is because beach marks are a characteristic feature of fatigue failure. They appear as concentric rings around the crack initiation site, resembling the shape of a clam shell. These rings are formed due to the repeated cyclic loading and unloading of the material, causing the crack to propagate gradually over time. Therefore, this is the most accurate description of the appearance of mechanical fatigue.

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  • 21. 

    Most important factor in determining component’s resistance to mechanical Fatigue is:

    • A.

      Material

    • B.

      Design

    • C.

      Operation

    • D.

      Time

    Correct Answer
    B. Design
    Explanation
    The most important factor in determining a component's resistance to mechanical fatigue is its design. The design of a component includes factors such as its shape, size, and the way it is constructed. A well-designed component will be able to withstand repeated stress and loading without experiencing fatigue failure. On the other hand, a poorly designed component may have weak points or stress concentrations that can lead to fatigue cracks and failure over time. Therefore, the design of a component plays a crucial role in its resistance to mechanical fatigue.

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  • 22. 

    The stresses that cause mechanical fatigue are typically

    • A.

      Within the elastic limit of the material

    • B.

      Above the elastic limit of a material

    • C.

      Well below the yield strength of the material

    • D.

      Stress is not a factor

    Correct Answer
    C. Well below the yield strength of the material
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Well below the yield strength of the material." Mechanical fatigue occurs when a material undergoes repeated loading and unloading, leading to the development of cracks and eventual failure. These stresses are typically kept well below the yield strength of the material to prevent permanent deformation or plasticity. By staying within this range, the material can endure a larger number of stress cycles before failure occurs.

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  • 23. 

    Heat treatments such as quenching and tempering, can improve fatigue resistance of carbon and low alloy steels.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    These heat treatments improve grain structure. Finer grains tend to perform better than coarse grains.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following materials exhibit endurance limit?

    • A.

      Aluminium

    • B.

      300 series SS

    • C.

      400 series SS

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    Most of the non-ferrous alloys also not exhibits endurance limit

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  • 25. 

    Maximum cyclical stress amplitude is determined by relating the stress necessary to cause fracture to the desired number of cycles necessary in a components lifetime. This is typically

    • A.

      50-100 cycles

    • B.

      100-105 cycles

    • C.

      106 to 107 cycles

    • D.

      104-105 cycles

    Correct Answer
    C. 106 to 107 cycles
    Explanation
    The maximum cyclical stress amplitude is determined by relating the stress necessary to cause fracture to the desired number of cycles necessary in a component's lifetime. This means that the stress amplitude required to cause fracture should be divided by the desired number of cycles, which should fall within the range of 10^6 to 10^7 cycles. This range ensures that the component can withstand the applied stress for the desired number of cycles without experiencing fracture.

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  • 26. 

    Single "clam shell" finger print results from

    • A.

      Cracks nucleating from a surface stress concentration

    • B.

      Microstructure of a material

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Cracks nucleating from a surface stress concentration
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Cracks nucleating from a surface stress concentration." This means that a single "clam shell" fingerprint is the result of cracks originating from a surface stress concentration. This suggests that when there is a high concentration of stress on a material's surface, it can lead to the formation of cracks that resemble a clam shell pattern. This explanation implies that the other options, such as the microstructure of a material or all of the above, are not the specific cause for the formation of this type of fingerprint.

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  • 27. 

    Cracks resulting from cyclical overstress of a component without significant stress concentration is best identified by

    • A.

      Single "calm shell" fingerprints

    • B.

      Multiple "calm shell" fingerprints

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiple "calm shell" fingerprints
    Explanation
    Multiple "calm shell" fingerprints are the best way to identify cracks resulting from cyclical overstress of a component without significant stress concentration. This is because "calm shell" fingerprints are a visual indication of the crack pattern, which can occur when a component is subjected to repeated stress without any localized stress concentration. Therefore, multiple "calm shell" fingerprints would suggest that the cracks are a result of cyclical overstress rather than any other factor.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 03, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 15, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Hareesh13h
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