Biology Quiz: Antigens And B Cells

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Biology Quiz: Antigens And B Cells - Quiz

The B cells produce antibodies that are used to attack invading bacteria, viruses, and toxins. B cells can recognize soluble antigen for which their B cell receptor is specific. They can then process the antigen and present peptides using MHC class II molecules. See what more you know about them by taking this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Antibodies have the following properties:

    • A.

      Are glycoproteins

    • B.

      Composed to two heavy chains and two light chains

    • C.

      Can be cleaved into different fragments using papain and pepsin

    • D.

      B and C only

    • E.

      A, B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C
    Explanation
    Antibodies are glycoproteins, meaning they have carbohydrate molecules attached to them. They are composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are different types of protein subunits. Antibodies can also be cleaved into different fragments using enzymes such as papain and pepsin. Therefore, all of the given properties (A, B, and C) are true for antibodies.

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  • 2. 

    There are _____________ isotypes or classes of antibodies.

    Correct Answer
    5
    five
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 5 or five. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances called antigens. These antibodies are classified into different isotypes or classes based on their structure and function. The five main classes of antibodies are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE. Each class has unique properties and functions that contribute to the overall immune response against pathogens.

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  • 3. 

    There are __________ isotypes of light chain.

    Correct Answer
    2
    two
    Explanation
    There are two isotypes of light chain. This means that there are two different types of light chains that can be found in antibodies - kappa and lambda. These light chains combine with heavy chains to form the structure of an antibody molecule. The presence of two different light chain isotypes allows for diversity and specificity in the immune response.

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  • 4. 

    True or False: Immunoglobulin genes are expressed in germline configuration.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Immunoglobulin genes are not expressed in germline configuration. They undergo a process called V(D)J recombination, where different gene segments are rearranged to generate a diverse repertoire of antibodies. This recombination occurs during the development of B cells in the bone marrow, leading to the expression of unique immunoglobulin genes in each individual B cell. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 5. 

    Enzymes involved in somatic recombination are:

    • A.

      Rh1 and Rh2

    • B.

      Rag-1 and Rag-2

    • C.

      Papain and pepsin

    • D.

      CD4 and CD8

    • E.

      Kappa and lambda

    Correct Answer
    B. Rag-1 and Rag-2
    Explanation
    Rag-1 and Rag-2 are enzymes involved in somatic recombination. Somatic recombination is a process that occurs during the development of immune cells, where segments of DNA are rearranged to create a diverse repertoire of antibodies and T-cell receptors. Rag-1 and Rag-2 proteins are responsible for recognizing and cleaving DNA at specific sites, allowing for the rearrangement of gene segments. This process plays a crucial role in generating a diverse and functional immune system.

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  • 6. 

    The first immunoglobulins that a B cell expresses are:

    • A.

      IgG and IgM

    • B.

      IgM and IgA

    • C.

      IgM and IgD

    • D.

      IgG and IgD

    • E.

      IgE and IgA

    Correct Answer
    C. IgM and IgD
    Explanation
    B cells are a type of white blood cell that produce antibodies. The first immunoglobulins, or antibodies, that a B cell expresses are IgM and IgD. IgM is the first antibody produced during an immune response and is responsible for activating the complement system. IgD is also expressed on the surface of B cells and functions in the activation and differentiation of B cells. IgG, IgA, and IgE are produced later in the immune response.

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  • 7. 

    A naive B cell:

    • A.

      Has not yet encountered antigen

    • B.

      Only produces IgM and IgD

    • C.

      Can express multiple light chains

    • D.

      A and B only

    • E.

      B and C only

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B only
    Explanation
    A naive B cell refers to a B cell that has not yet encountered an antigen. It produces two types of antibodies, IgM and IgD. This means that it can produce both IgM and IgD antibodies in response to an antigen. However, it cannot express multiple light chains. Therefore, the correct answers are A and B only.

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  • 8. 

    Somatic hypermutation:

    • A.

      Happens after a B cell has encountered antigen

    • B.

      Is part of affinity maturation

    • C.

      Involves a high rate of mutation to produce many different antibodies

    • D.

      Involves CDR1 and CDR2

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Somatic hypermutation is a process that occurs after a B cell has encountered an antigen. It is part of affinity maturation, which is the process by which B cells produce antibodies with higher affinity for the antigen. Somatic hypermutation involves a high rate of mutation in the variable regions of the antibody genes, resulting in the production of many different antibodies. This process also involves the complementarity-determining regions (CDR1 and CDR2) of the antibody, which are responsible for binding to the antigen. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct.

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  • 9. 

    The transient presence of this antibody can be helpful in diagnosing recent infections:

    • A.

      IgG

    • B.

      IgA

    • C.

      IgE

    • D.

      IgD

    • E.

      IgM

    Correct Answer
    E. IgM
    Explanation
    The presence of IgM antibodies indicates a recent infection. IgM is the first antibody produced by the immune system in response to an infection, and its levels rise rapidly during the early stages of an infection. It is typically present in the bloodstream for a short period of time before being replaced by other antibodies such as IgG. Therefore, the transient presence of IgM can be helpful in diagnosing recent infections.

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