A Quiz On Anthropology For Pros 1102-012 Quiz 7

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A Quiz On Anthropology For Pros 1102-012 Quiz 7 - Quiz

If you are on the lookout for a series quizzes to help you in your anthropology finals look no further. The test below is the seventh in the series of tests and is aimed at keeping your memory fresh and ensuring you pass your finals. Give it a try and keep an eye out for the eighth one.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following was a characteristic shared by recent foraging communities?

    • A.

      They fished a great deal

    • B.

      They relied on welfare supplied by state-level societies

    • C.

      They spoke simplified languages

    • D.

      They lived in marginal environments that were of little interest to food-producing societies

    • E.

      They devolved to foraging from a more advanced level of subsistence

    Correct Answer
    D. They lived in marginal environments that were of little interest to food-producing societies
    Explanation
    Foraging communities in recent times shared the characteristic of living in marginal environments that were of little interest to food-producing societies. This means that they inhabited areas that were not suitable for agriculture or other forms of food production, such as deserts, mountains, or dense forests. These communities relied on hunting, gathering, and fishing for their sustenance, as they did not have access to fertile land for farming. The fact that these environments were of little interest to food-producing societies suggests that these communities were able to survive and thrive in areas that were not as desirable or productive for larger agricultural societies.

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  • 2. 

    In recent times, many hunting-and-gathering groups have been exposed to the idea of food production (i.e., farming) but they have never adopted it. Why not?

    • A.

      They did not have the skills or tools to do so

    • B.

      Their own economies provide a perfectly adequate and nutritious diet, with a lot less work

    • C.

      People naturally resist change, especially foragers

    • D.

      They had to ask for permission from the state to do so

    • E.

      They did not realize the advantages of food production

    Correct Answer
    B. Their own economies provide a perfectly adequate and nutritious diet, with a lot less work
    Explanation
    The hunting-and-gathering groups did not adopt food production because their own economies already provide a sufficient and nutritious diet, requiring less effort.

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  • 3. 

    A horticultural system of cultivation is characterized by

    • A.

      Intensive use of land and human labor

    • B.

      The use of irrigation and terracing

    • C.

      Developing almost exclusively in arid areas

    • D.

      Lack of proper knowledge about plant domestication

    • E.

      Periodic cycles of cultivation and fallowing

    Correct Answer
    E. Periodic cycles of cultivation and fallowing
    Explanation
    A horticultural system of cultivation is characterized by periodic cycles of cultivation and fallowing. This means that the land is cultivated for a certain period of time and then left fallow or unused for a period of time to allow it to recover and regenerate. This practice helps to maintain soil fertility and prevent soil erosion. It also allows for the sustainable use of land and resources in horticultural systems.

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  • 4. 

    What kind of societies are typically associated with slash-and-burn cultivation?

    • A.

      Foraging societies

    • B.

      State-level societies

    • C.

      Hydraulic societies

    • D.

      Nonindustrial societies

    • E.

      Nomadic societies

    Correct Answer
    D. Nonindustrial societies
    Explanation
    Slash-and-burn cultivation is a traditional agricultural practice that involves clearing land by cutting down and burning vegetation before planting crops. This method is commonly used in nonindustrial societies, where advanced technology and machinery are not available. Nonindustrial societies rely on simple tools and techniques for farming and have a close relationship with the land. Slash-and-burn cultivation allows them to clear land and replenish soil fertility without the need for complex irrigation systems or machinery, making it a suitable practice for these societies.

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  • 5. 

    Intensive agriculture

    • A.

      Has a significant impact on the environment but this impact is much localized and can be controlled

    • B.

      Can actually breed greater ecological diversity

    • C.

      Is least ecologically destructive when it is done with fuel-efficient machinery

    • D.

      Has significant environmental effects such as deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity

    • E.

      Is and ecological improvement over sectorial fallowing

    Correct Answer
    D. Has significant environmental effects such as deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity
    Explanation
    Intensive agriculture has significant environmental effects such as deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity. This means that the practice of intensive agriculture has a negative impact on the environment by causing the clearing of forests, polluting water sources, and reducing the diversity of plant and animal species in the affected areas. These environmental effects are a result of the intensive use of land, water, and chemicals in order to maximize crop production.

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  • 6. 

    What is the term that refers to the type of pastoral economy in which part of the population moves with the herds while the rest stays in the village?

    • A.

      Balanced subsistence

    • B.

      Discretionary pastoralism

    • C.

      Pastoral transhumance

    • D.

      Foraging

    • E.

      Transhumant nomadism

    Correct Answer
    C. Pastoral transhumance
    Explanation
    Pastoral transhumance refers to the type of pastoral economy in which part of the population moves with the herds while the rest stays in the village. This means that some individuals within the community are responsible for taking care of the herds and moving them to different grazing areas, while others remain in the village to tend to other tasks. This division of labor allows for the efficient management of the herds and ensures that the village has a stable source of food and resources.

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  • 7. 

    What are the means, or factors, of production?

    • A.

      They are all synonyms of a society's mode of production

    • B.

      A society's institutional mechanisms for making sure that everyone is productive

    • C.

      The ways a society organizes production

    • D.

      Labor forces organized by kinship ties

    • E.

      A society's major productive resources, such as land, labor, technology, and capital

    Correct Answer
    E. A society's major productive resources, such as land, labor, technology, and capital
    Explanation
    The means, or factors, of production refer to the resources that are necessary for the production of goods and services in a society. These resources include land, labor, technology, and capital. They are the essential components that enable the organization and functioning of production processes.

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  • 8. 

    Economic anthropologists have been concerned with two main questions, one focusing on systems of human behavior and the other on the individuals who participate in those systems: The first question: How are production, distribution and consumption organized in different societies? The second question is:

    • A.

      Why has the myth of the profit-maximizing individual been so pervasive, despite evidence to the contrary?

    • B.

      What are the best ways to convince individuals in funding agencies of the value of ethnographic knowledge in the realm of economics?

    • C.

      What encourages overconsumption in western economies?

    • D.

      What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and consume?

    • E.

      What has been the impact globalization at the level of individuals?

    Correct Answer
    D. What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and consume?
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "what motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and consume?" This answer aligns with the first question posed by economic anthropologists, which is about how production, distribution, and consumption are organized in different societies. It also reflects the focus on individuals and their motivations within these systems, which is the second question mentioned. By exploring what motivates people in different cultures to engage in economic activities, economic anthropologists can gain insights into the diverse factors that influence human behavior and contribute to the organization of economic systems.

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  • 9. 

    Generalized reciprocity

    • A.

      Is characterized by the immediate return of the object exchanged

    • B.

      Is the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies

    • C.

      Usually develops after redistribution but before the market principle

    • D.

      Disappears with the origin of the state

    • E.

      Is exemplified by silent trade

    Correct Answer
    B. Is the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies
    Explanation
    Generalized reciprocity is the characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies. In these societies, there is a sense of equality and mutual trust among individuals, leading to the immediate return of the object exchanged. This form of reciprocity is based on the principle of giving without the expectation of an immediate or equal return. It is a way for individuals to support and help each other within the community, without keeping track of debts or obligations. As societies become more complex and stratified, with the development of redistribution and market principles, generalized reciprocity tends to disappear.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following kinds of exchange is characteristic among members of a family?

    • A.

      Generalized reciprocity

    • B.

      Balanced reciprocity

    • C.

      Negative reciprocity

    • D.

      Redistribution

    • E.

      None of these exchanges are characteristic among members of a family

    Correct Answer
    A. Generalized reciprocity
    Explanation
    Generalized reciprocity is the kind of exchange that is characteristic among members of a family. This type of exchange involves giving without the expectation of an immediate or equal return. In a family, members often provide support, care, and resources to one another without keeping track of who owes what to whom. This type of exchange is based on trust, love, and a sense of mutual obligation within the family unit. It is different from balanced reciprocity, which involves an expectation of a roughly equal return, and negative reciprocity, which involves a more calculated exchange for personal gain. Redistribution is a form of exchange where goods or resources are collected and then distributed by a central authority, which is not typically characteristic of family exchanges.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 03, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    RedFireCo1
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