Anatomy And Physiology II Mid-term

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Anatomy And Physiology II Mid-term - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Tremors, increase heart rate, weight loss, and heat intolerance are symptoms of:

    • A.

      Hypothyroidism

    • B.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C.

      Hyperadrenalism

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperthyroidism
    Explanation
    Tremors, increased heart rate, weight loss, and heat intolerance are all symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. These hormones play a vital role in regulating the body's metabolism, so an excess can lead to symptoms such as increased heart rate, weight loss, and heat intolerance. Tremors may also occur due to the overstimulation of the nervous system caused by the excess thyroid hormones. Therefore, hyperthyroidism is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 2. 

    Gigantism is an excess growth hormone that occurs in:

    • A.

      Children

    • B.

      Adults

    • C.

      Any age

    • D.

      Males only

    Correct Answer
    A. Children
    Explanation
    Gigantism is a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production, leading to abnormal growth and development. It typically occurs during childhood when the growth plates in the long bones are still open and can continue growing. In adults, the growth plates have closed, so excess growth hormone production results in acromegaly, a condition characterized by enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features. Therefore, the correct answer is children, as gigantism primarily affects individuals during their growing years.

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  • 3. 

    This gland is divided into anterior and posterior segments:

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Adrenal gland

    • C.

      Pituitary

    • D.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    C. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is divided into anterior and posterior segments. The anterior segment of the pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing various hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism. The posterior segment of the pituitary gland stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, such as oxytocin and vasopressin. Therefore, the pituitary gland is the correct answer as it is the only gland mentioned that is divided into anterior and posterior segments.

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  • 4. 

    The glands that are responsible for the production of milk are called the

    • A.

      Gonads

    • B.

      Adrenals

    • C.

      Mammary glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Mammary glands
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mammary glands. Mammary glands are responsible for the production of milk in female mammals, including humans. These glands develop during puberty and pregnancy, and their main function is to nourish and provide sustenance to offspring. The production and secretion of milk is regulated by hormones, such as prolactin and oxytocin. Mammary glands are unique to female mammals and are not found in males.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the endocrine organs can effectively control the pituitary gland?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Pineal

    • C.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is the correct answer because it is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases hormones that stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. This control is important because the pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" as it regulates the functions of many other endocrine organs in the body. The pineal gland and thyroid gland do not have direct control over the pituitary gland.

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  • 6. 

    Chemical messengers released directly into the bloodstream, with the ability to affect cells for hours or days, are called ________.  

    • A.

      Transmitters

    • B.

      Hormones

    • C.

      Enzymes

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Hormones
    Explanation
    Hormones are chemical messengers that are released directly into the bloodstream and have the ability to affect cells for hours or even days. Unlike transmitters, which are usually involved in the transmission of signals between nerve cells, hormones have a more widespread and long-lasting effect on the body. Enzymes, on the other hand, are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions but do not act as messengers in the bloodstream. Therefore, the correct answer is hormones.

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  • 7. 

    The ________ gland is important in regulating blood glucose.

    • A.

      Thyroid

    • B.

      Adrenals

    • C.

      Pancrease

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Pancrease
    Explanation
    The pancreas gland is important in regulating blood glucose. It produces insulin, a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels. When blood glucose levels are high, the pancreas releases insulin to help lower them. Conversely, when blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon, another hormone that helps raise blood sugar levels. Therefore, the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of blood glucose in the body.

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  • 8. 

    _______  steroids are a class of molecules that cause an increase in muscle mass

    • A.

      NSAIDS

    • B.

      Prednisone

    • C.

      Anabolic

    • D.

      Any of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Anabolic
    Explanation
    Anabolic steroids are a class of molecules that cause an increase in muscle mass. They are synthetic substances that mimic the effects of testosterone in the body, promoting protein synthesis and muscle growth. These steroids are commonly used by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance their performance and build muscle mass. They work by increasing the production of proteins within the cells, leading to an overall increase in muscle size and strength.

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  • 9. 

     Insulin and glucagon are produced by the ________.

    • A.

      Thyroid

    • B.

      Pancrease

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Pineal

    Correct Answer
    B. Pancrease
    Explanation
    Insulin and glucagon are hormones that regulate blood sugar levels in the body. The correct answer is "pancreas" because these hormones are produced by the pancreas. The pancreas contains specialized cells called beta cells that produce insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels, and alpha cells that produce glucagon, which raises blood sugar levels. Therefore, the pancreas is responsible for the production of both insulin and glucagon.

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  • 10. 

    Melatonin is produced by the:

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Pituitary

    • D.

      Pineal

    Correct Answer
    D. Pineal
    Explanation
    Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles and is primarily produced by the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland located in the brain, specifically in the epithalamus region. It receives information about light and dark patterns from the eyes and secretes melatonin accordingly. This hormone helps to regulate the body's internal clock, promoting sleepiness at night and wakefulness during the day. Therefore, the pineal gland is responsible for the production of melatonin.

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  • 11. 

    Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disorder characterized by too little ADH or when the kidneys don't respond to ADH. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is indeed an endocrine disorder characterized by either insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or the kidneys' inability to respond to ADH. ADH plays a crucial role in regulating the body's water balance by controlling the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. In diabetes insipidus, the lack of ADH or its ineffectiveness leads to excessive urination and thirst. Therefore, the statement "Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disorder characterized by too little ADH or when the kidneys don't respond to ADH" is true.

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  • 12. 

    In Graves disease there is an overproduction of thyroid hormone.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to the overstimulation of the thyroid gland, resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones. This condition is characterized by symptoms such as weight loss, rapid heartbeat, anxiety, and bulging eyes. Therefore, it is correct to say that in Graves disease, there is an overproduction of thyroid hormone.

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  • 13. 

    The Thymus sits behind the sternum.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The thymus is a gland located in the chest behind the sternum. It is an important part of the immune system and plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. Therefore, the statement that the thymus sits behind the sternum is true.

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  • 14. 

    The adrenals are located on top of the kidneys.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The adrenals are small glands that are indeed located on top of the kidneys. They are responsible for producing hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone, which are vital for various bodily functions. This positioning allows for easy access to the bloodstream, enabling the hormones to be quickly released when needed. Therefore, the statement "The adrenals are located on top of the kidneys" is true.

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  • 15. 

    The adrenals are divided into 2 layers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The adrenals are indeed divided into two layers. The outer layer is called the adrenal cortex and it produces hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. The inner layer is called the adrenal medulla and it produces hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. This division allows the adrenals to perform different functions and secrete different hormones, contributing to the body's stress response, metabolism, and regulation of blood pressure.

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  • 16. 

    The adrenal cortex produces cortisol as one of its hormones.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing cortisol, which is a hormone involved in various bodily functions. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress levels. It also plays a role in maintaining blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Therefore, it is correct to say that the adrenal cortex produces cortisol.

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  • 17. 

    The adrenal cortex produces epinephrine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex does not produce epinephrine. Epinephrine is produced by the adrenal medulla, which is located in the center of the adrenal glands. The adrenal cortex, on the other hand, produces hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone.

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  • 18. 

    Prolactin is produced in the anterior pituitary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prolactin is a hormone that is primarily produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in the production of breast milk and the regulation of reproductive functions. Therefore, the statement that prolactin is produced in the anterior pituitary is true.

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  • 19. 

    The hypothalamus produces LH and FSH.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus does not directly produce LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). Instead, it produces and releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which then stimulates the pituitary gland to release LH and FSH. Therefore, the statement that the hypothalamus produces LH and FSH is false.

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  • 20. 

    Diabetes type II is an autoimmune disease.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 21. 

    The pituitary gland is located _________to the hypothalamus.

    • A.

      Superior

    • B.

      Inferior

    • C.

      Lateral

    • D.

      Medial

    Correct Answer
    B. Inferior
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is located below or beneath the hypothalamus, which makes it inferior to the hypothalamus. The term "inferior" refers to a position that is lower or below another structure. In this case, it indicates that the pituitary gland is situated in a lower position compared to the hypothalamus.

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  • 22. 

    The thyroid is located in the:

    • A.

      Base of the brain

    • B.

      Mid-neck

    • C.

      Behind the sternum

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Mid-neck
    Explanation
    The thyroid is located in the mid-neck. This is where the thyroid gland is situated in the human body. It is a small, butterfly-shaped gland that is positioned in the lower part of the neck, just above the collarbone. The thyroid plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and producing hormones that control various bodily functions.

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  • 23. 

    A 45 year-old patient with insulin resistance, obesity, using medications for diabetes, and is on a diet and exercise program most likely has:

    • A.

      Diabetes type I

    • B.

      Diabetes insipidus

    • C.

      Diabetes type II

    • D.

      Hyperadrenalism

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetes type II
    Explanation
    A 45-year-old patient with insulin resistance, obesity, using medications for diabetes, and on a diet and exercise program most likely has diabetes type II. Insulin resistance and obesity are common risk factors for type II diabetes. The fact that the patient is using medications for diabetes further supports this diagnosis. Diabetes type I is unlikely since it typically presents at a younger age and is characterized by a lack of insulin production. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that affects the kidneys and causes excessive thirst and urination, which is not mentioned in the scenario. Hyperadrenalism is a condition related to excessive adrenal gland activity and is not directly related to the symptoms described in the scenario.

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  • 24. 

    In homeostasis, the process that opposes or shuts down a stimulus is known as____________

    • A.

      Positive feedback

    • B.

      Negative feedback

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      Set point

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative feedback
    Explanation
    Negative feedback is the correct answer because it refers to the process in homeostasis that opposes or shuts down a stimulus. This mechanism helps maintain stability and balance in the body by counteracting any changes that deviate from the desired set point. It works by detecting deviations from the set point and triggering responses that bring the system back to its normal state. Positive feedback, on the other hand, amplifies or enhances the stimulus, leading to further deviation from the set point.

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  • 25. 

    Chemical messengers released by the endocrine glands are called hormones.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hormones are indeed chemical messengers released by the endocrine glands. They are secreted into the bloodstream and travel to target cells or organs, where they regulate various physiological processes and maintain homeostasis. Hormones play a crucial role in controlling growth, metabolism, reproduction, and many other bodily functions. Therefore, the statement "Chemical messengers released by the endocrine glands are called hormones" is true.

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  • 26. 

    The posterior pituitary produces the hormone(s) __________

    • A.

      ADH

    • B.

      Oxytocin

    • C.

      Melanin

    • D.

      ACTH

    • E.

      ADH and OXT

    • F.

      ACTH and OXT

    • G.

      MSH and OXT

    Correct Answer
    E. ADH and OXT
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ADH and OXT. The posterior pituitary gland produces two hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OXT). ADH helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. OXT is involved in various reproductive functions, such as stimulating uterine contractions during childbirth and promoting the release of breast milk.

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  • 27. 

    The following substance(s) can shut down ADH

    • A.

      Citric juice

    • B.

      Soda

    • C.

      NSAIDs

    • D.

      Caffeine

    • E.

      Alcohol

    • F.

      NSAIDs and Alcohol

    • G.

      Caffeine and Alcohol

    Correct Answer
    G. Caffeine and Alcohol
    Explanation
    Caffeine and alcohol are substances that can shut down ADH. ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is responsible for regulating the body's water balance by controlling the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. Caffeine is a diuretic that increases urine production, while alcohol inhibits the release of ADH, leading to increased urine output. Therefore, the combination of caffeine and alcohol can have a synergistic effect in shutting down ADH and causing increased urine production.

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  • 28. 

    In a patient with diabetes insipidus, if they stop the intake of fluids you would expect__________

    • A.

      The urine production to continue

    • B.

      Urine becomes very concentrated due to lack of fluid intake

    • C.

      The blood sugar to rise rapidly

    • D.

      The urine becomes very yellow

    Correct Answer
    A. The urine production to continue
    Explanation
    In a patient with diabetes insipidus, the condition is characterized by the inability of the kidneys to properly regulate the water balance in the body. This leads to excessive urine production. Therefore, even if the patient stops the intake of fluids, the urine production would still continue due to the dysfunction in the kidneys.

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  • 29. 

    The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is ____________

    • A.

      A tumor in the adrenals

    • B.

      Pituitary mass

    • C.

      Steroid medications

    • D.

      Inherited

    Correct Answer
    C. Steroid medications
    Explanation
    Steroid medications are the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome. Cushing's syndrome occurs when the body is exposed to high levels of cortisol over a prolonged period. Steroid medications, such as prednisone or dexamethasone, can cause this condition when taken in high doses or for a long time. These medications can suppress the body's natural production of cortisol, leading to an imbalance. This imbalance can result in symptoms like weight gain, high blood pressure, and increased risk of infections. Other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as adrenal tumors or pituitary masses, are less common than steroid medication use.

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  • 30. 

    A 45 year-old male presents with complaints of fatigue, depressiion and weight gain. Vital signs are within normal limits except the blood pressure which is elevated. On physical exam you note truncal obesity, blue to purplish striations, and a moon face. What is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?

    • A.

      GH increase

    • B.

      PRL increase

    • C.

      Anabolic steroids only

    • D.

      Steroid medication use

    • E.

      Heart disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Steroid medication use
    Explanation
    The most likely cause of this patient's condition is steroid medication use. The patient's symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, weight gain, elevated blood pressure, truncal obesity, blue to purplish striations, and a moon face, are consistent with Cushing's syndrome, which can be caused by long-term use of steroid medications. Steroid medications can lead to an increase in cortisol levels in the body, resulting in the symptoms described.

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  • 31. 

    A 47 year-old male presents with complaints of headache and hearing loss.  He has been a patient of your for 20 years. You notice that over the years his voice is become deeper and his hands have been getting larger. He also tells you that he shoe size has increased over the years. All physical exam findings are normal including weight and height. A picture is shown below. What is the most likely cause of his condiiton?

    • A.

      Smoking

    • B.

      Anabolic steroids

    • C.

      Anterior pituitary tumor producing excess growth hormone

    • D.

      Cortisol levels

    • E.

      Posterior pituitary tumor producing excess ADH and OXT

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior pituitary tumor producing excess growth hormone
    Explanation
    The most likely cause of the patient's condition is an anterior pituitary tumor producing excess growth hormone. This is indicated by the patient's symptoms of deepening voice, enlarged hands, and increased shoe size, which are consistent with acromegaly. Acromegaly is caused by excessive production of growth hormone, typically due to a pituitary adenoma. The normal physical exam findings, including weight and height, suggest that the patient's condition is localized to the pituitary gland rather than a systemic issue such as smoking or anabolic steroid use.

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  • 32. 

    The sign shown below is characteristic of____________

    • A.

      Hashimotos thyroiditis

    • B.

      Goiter

    • C.

      Graves disease

    • D.

      Iodine therapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Graves disease
    Explanation
    The sign shown in the image is known as exophthalmos, which is the protrusion of the eyeballs. This condition is a characteristic feature of Graves disease, an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. In Graves disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. This hormonal imbalance can lead to various symptoms, including the bulging of the eyes. Therefore, the correct answer is Graves disease.

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  • 33. 

    If serum calcium levels fall, this hormone is likely to increase:

    • A.

      Calcitonin

    • B.

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C.

      Thyroid hormone

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Parathyroid hormone
    Explanation
    When serum calcium levels fall, the body needs to increase calcium levels in the blood. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body. It does this by increasing the release of calcium from bones, increasing the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and reducing the excretion of calcium by the kidneys. Therefore, when serum calcium levels fall, the body will release more parathyroid hormone to help restore calcium levels.

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  • 34. 

    Normal levels of fasting blood sugar are_____________

    • A.

      50 - 100 mg/dL

    • B.

      70-90 mg/dL

    • C.

      70 - 110 mg/dL

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. 70 - 110 mg/dL
    Explanation
    Normal levels of fasting blood sugar are typically between 70 - 110 mg/dL. This range is considered optimal for maintaining stable blood sugar levels and is commonly used as a reference point in diagnosing conditions such as diabetes. Blood sugar levels below or above this range may indicate abnormal glucose metabolism and may require further medical evaluation.

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  • 35. 

    Diabetes type 2 is considered a multifactoral disease

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Diabetes type 2 is considered a multifactorial disease because it is influenced by multiple factors such as genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. These factors interact with each other and contribute to the development of the disease. Genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, obesity, and age are some of the factors that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is correct to say that diabetes type 2 is a multifactorial disease.

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  • 36. 

    Diabetes type 2 may be autoimmune in most cases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that diabetes type 2 is autoimmune in most cases. However, this is not true. Diabetes type 2 is primarily caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors such as obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poor diet. While there may be some cases where autoimmune factors play a role, it is not the predominant cause of diabetes type 2. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 37. 

    The prolonged use of Anabolic steroids may shutdown the hypothalamus and cause the body not to make its own testosterone leading to testicular atrophy (shrinkage). 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prolonged use of anabolic steroids can have negative effects on the body, including shutting down the hypothalamus and inhibiting the production of testosterone. This can lead to testicular atrophy, or shrinkage of the testicles. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 38. 

    High cortisol levels are associated with stroke in overweight patients

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    High cortisol levels, which can be caused by chronic stress, have been linked to various health issues including stroke. Overweight patients are particularly at risk for stroke due to the additional strain on their cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that high cortisol levels are associated with stroke in overweight patients.

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  • 39. 

    Loss of bone density is a common side effect of steroids

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Steroids are known to cause a loss of bone density, making the statement true. This is because steroids can interfere with the normal process of bone remodeling, leading to a decrease in bone mineral density. This can increase the risk of fractures and osteoporosis.

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  • 40. 

    What are the vessels that lead from the renal cortex to the glomeruli

    • A.

      Efferent

    • B.

      Afferent

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      None

    Correct Answer
    B. Afferent
    Explanation
    The vessels that lead from the renal cortex to the glomeruli are called afferent arterioles. These arterioles supply blood to the glomeruli, which are responsible for filtering waste products and excess fluid from the blood. The afferent arterioles bring blood into the glomerulus, where filtration takes place. The efferent arterioles, on the other hand, carry blood away from the glomerulus. Therefore, the correct answer is "afferent."

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  • 41. 

    Endometrial tissue located outside of the uterus is known as:

    • A.

      Fibroids

    • B.

      Endometrial hyperplasia

    • C.

      Endometritis

    • D.

      Endometriosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Endometriosis
    Explanation
    Endometriosis refers to the condition where endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, is found outside of the uterus. This can occur in various locations within the pelvic region, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the lining of the pelvic cavity. Endometriosis can cause symptoms like pelvic pain, painful periods, and infertility. It is a chronic condition that affects many women of reproductive age. Fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometritis are different conditions that do not involve the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus.

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  • 42. 

    A patient with multiple births and urination with sneezing or lauging most likely has:

    • A.

      Pyuria

    • B.

      Urge incontinence

    • C.

      Stress incontinence

    • D.

      Cystitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Stress incontinence
    Explanation
    Stress incontinence is the most likely explanation for a patient with multiple births and urination with sneezing or laughing. Stress incontinence is a type of urinary incontinence that occurs when there is increased pressure on the bladder, such as during sneezing or laughing. This can be more common in women who have had multiple births, as the muscles and tissues that support the bladder may have been weakened. Pyuria refers to the presence of pus in the urine, urge incontinence is the sudden and intense urge to urinate, and cystitis is inflammation of the bladder.

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  • 43. 

    This is the most common type of stone: 

    • A.

      Uric acid

    • B.

      Cholesterol

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is the most common type of stone because it is a key component of many types of stones that form in the body, such as kidney stones and gallstones. These stones often contain calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate, which are formed when there is an excess of calcium in the urine or bile. Therefore, calcium is the correct answer as it is commonly associated with the formation of stones in the body.

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  • 44. 

    A knot or network of capillaries found within the corpuscle is known as:

    • A.

      Nephron

    • B.

      Afferent arteriole

    • C.

      Efferent arteriole

    • D.

      Glomerulus

    Correct Answer
    D. Glomerulus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is glomerulus. The glomerulus is a knot or network of capillaries found within the corpuscle. It is an important part of the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. The glomerulus plays a crucial role in the filtration process by allowing small molecules like water, salts, and waste products to pass through while preventing larger molecules like proteins and blood cells from entering the urine.

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  • 45. 

    The nephron is divided into two major parts:  

    • A.

      Minor calyx and major calyx

    • B.

      Major calyx and capillaries

    • C.

      Filter and tubules

    • D.

      Collecting duct and capillaries

    Correct Answer
    C. Filter and tubules
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "filter and tubules". The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. The filter part of the nephron, known as the glomerulus, filters blood and separates waste products from useful substances. The tubules then reabsorb needed substances back into the bloodstream and allow waste products to be excreted as urine. Therefore, the nephron consists of both the filter (glomerulus) and the tubules.

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  • 46. 

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BpH) can cause urinary obstruction and lead to urinary frequency and decreased urinary stream.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition characterized by the enlargement of the prostate gland, which can cause urinary obstruction. This obstruction can lead to symptoms such as urinary frequency (the need to urinate often) and a decreased urinary stream (a weaker flow of urine). Therefore, it is true that BPH can cause urinary obstruction and lead to these specific urinary symptoms.

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  • 47. 

     The 3 layers of the kidneys are the renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla  Renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla Renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The kidneys have three layers: the renal capsule, cortex, and renal medulla. The renal capsule is the outermost layer that surrounds and protects the kidney. The cortex is the middle layer that contains the glomeruli and convoluted tubules involved in filtration and reabsorption. The renal medulla is the innermost layer that contains the renal pyramids and loops of Henle involved in urine concentration. Therefore, the statement that the 3 layers of the kidneys are the renal capsule, cortex, and renal medulla is true.

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  • 48. 

    Examination of the hymen is still an acceptable way to check for virginity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Examination of the hymen is not an acceptable way to check for virginity. The hymen can be stretched or torn for various reasons other than sexual intercourse, such as physical activity or using tampons. Additionally, some individuals may not have a hymen at all. Therefore, the presence or absence of a hymen cannot determine a person's virginity. This belief is outdated and perpetuates harmful and inaccurate ideas about sexuality.

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  • 49. 

    Diabetes type II is an autoimmune disease.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Diabetes type II is not an autoimmune disease. It is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues, which is not the case in type II diabetes.

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  • 50. 

     Type II diabetes is characterized by  insulin resistance, obesity, age greater than 30 years-old,.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Type II diabetes is indeed characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, and age greater than 30 years-old. Insulin resistance means that the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing type II diabetes, and the risk increases with age. Therefore, the statement is true.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 10, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Bismarkf
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