Anatomy And Physiology I Test I Chapt 1-3

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Anatomy And Physiology I Test I Chapt 1-3 - Quiz


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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Anatomy is the study of:

    • A.

      Functions

    • B.

      Structure

    • C.

      Pathophysiology

    • D.

      Physiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Structure
    Explanation
    Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms. It focuses on examining the different parts of the body and how they are organized and connected to each other. By studying anatomy, one can gain a comprehensive understanding of the body's physical structure, including organs, tissues, and systems. This knowledge is crucial for medical professionals, as it forms the foundation for diagnosing and treating various diseases and conditions.

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  • 2. 

    Physiology is the study of:

    • A.

      Structure

    • B.

      Pathophysiology

    • C.

      Function

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Function
    Explanation
    Physiology is the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. It focuses on understanding how different systems in the body work together to maintain homeostasis and carry out various biological processes. This includes studying the functions of organs, tissues, cells, and molecules. Pathophysiology, on the other hand, is a branch of physiology that deals with the study of abnormal functioning of the body due to disease or injury. Therefore, the correct answer is "function" as it accurately represents the main focus of physiology.

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  • 3. 

    The word part in a medical terminology that provides the main meaning of the term is known as?

    • A.

      Prefix

    • B.

      Suffix

    • C.

      Wood root

    • D.

      Combining vowel

    Correct Answer
    C. Wood root
  • 4. 

    The word part tachy- means:

    • A.

      Slow

    • B.

      Moderate

    • C.

      Rapid

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Rapid
    Explanation
    The word part "tachy-" is derived from the Greek word "tachys," which means fast or rapid. Therefore, when used as a prefix in medical terminology, "tachy-" indicates something that is fast or rapid.

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  • 5. 

    The following is an example of a sign:

    • A.

      Nausea

    • B.

      Pain

    • C.

      Dizziness

    • D.

      Blood pressure

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood pressure
    Explanation
    This question is asking for an example of a sign, and the correct answer is "blood pressure." In the given list, "nausea," "pain," and "dizziness" are symptoms rather than signs. Signs are objective indications of a medical condition that can be observed or measured by healthcare professionals. Blood pressure is a commonly used sign to assess cardiovascular health and is measured using a blood pressure cuff and a sphygmomanometer.

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  • 6. 

    The following is (are) example(s) of a symptom:

    • A.

      Blood pressure

    • B.

      Temperature

    • C.

      Pain

    • D.

      Redness

    Correct Answer
    C. Pain
    Explanation
    Pain is considered a symptom because it is a subjective experience that is often indicative of an underlying health issue or injury. Unlike blood pressure and temperature, which can be measured objectively, pain is a personal sensation that varies from person to person. It serves as a warning sign that something is wrong in the body and helps healthcare professionals diagnose and treat the underlying condition. Redness can also be a symptom, but it is not explicitly mentioned in the question.

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  • 7. 

    The organelles in the cells that produce ATP are known as:

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for producing ATP, which is the main energy source for cells. They have their own DNA and are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell. The other options listed, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes, have different functions within the cell and are not directly involved in ATP production. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondria.

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  • 8. 

    The gel like substance within cells is known as:

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Cyte

    • C.

      Cytoplasma

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytoplasma
    Explanation
    Cytoplasma refers to the gel-like substance found within cells. It is responsible for suspending organelles, providing a medium for cellular reactions, and maintaining the shape of the cell. Cytoplasma contains various molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and ions, which are essential for cell function. Plasma, on the other hand, typically refers to the liquid component of blood, while cyte is a general term for a cell.

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  • 9. 

    The transport of a substance through the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is known as:

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Active transport

    • D.

      Exocytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffusion
    Explanation
    Diffusion is the correct answer because it is the process of substances moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This movement occurs naturally and does not require any energy input from the cell. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane, while active transport requires energy to move substances against their concentration gradient. Exocytosis is the process of releasing substances from the cell.

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  • 10. 

    The transport of fluid from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration is known as:

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Active transport

    • D.

      Exocytosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Osmosis
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the correct answer because it is the process of fluid transport from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This occurs across a semipermeable membrane, which allows the solvent (usually water) to pass through but not the solute. Osmosis is driven by the concentration gradient and does not require energy input from the cell. Diffusion, on the other hand, refers to the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Active transport and exocytosis involve the movement of substances against the concentration gradient and require energy expenditure by the cell.

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  • 11. 

    Laying face upward, on your back is referred to as:

    • A.

      Prone

    • B.

      Supine

    • C.

      Lateral

    Correct Answer
    B. Supine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is supine. Laying face upward, on your back is referred to as supine. This position is commonly used in medical settings for procedures or examinations. It allows for easy access to the front of the body and provides a comfortable position for the patient.

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  • 12. 

    Sitting in bed with head of bed elevated 45–60 degrees is called?

    • A.

      Prone position

    • B.

      Fowler's Position

    • C.

      Supine

    Correct Answer
    B. Fowler's Position
    Explanation
    Fowler's Position refers to sitting in bed with the head of the bed elevated at an angle of 45-60 degrees. This position is commonly used in healthcare settings to promote comfort and facilitate breathing. It helps to reduce the risk of aspiration, improve lung expansion, and alleviate symptoms of certain medical conditions such as respiratory distress or congestive heart failure.

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  • 13. 

    When would you use lithotomy position?

    • A.

      In a pelvic exam, labor

    • B.

      Breathing difficulty (facilitates breathing)

    • C.

      Orthostatic hypotension

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. In a pelvic exam, labor
    Explanation
    The lithotomy position is commonly used during a pelvic exam and labor. In a pelvic exam, this position allows for better access and visualization of the pelvic area. During labor, the lithotomy position helps to facilitate the delivery process by providing an optimal angle for the baby to descend through the birth canal. It is not used for breathing difficulty or orthostatic hypotension.

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  • 14. 

    This plane divides body into front and back sections is known as:

    • A.

      Midsaggital

    • B.

      Transverse or horizontal plane

    • C.

      Frontal or Coronal Plane

    Correct Answer
    C. Frontal or Coronal Plane
    Explanation
    The frontal or coronal plane is a plane that divides the body into front and back sections. It is named after the coronal suture of the skull, which lies in this plane. This plane is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and the transverse plane. It is commonly used in anatomical and medical studies to describe the position and orientation of structures in the body.

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  • 15. 

    Liver or gallbladder problems are mostly to present with symptoms in this quadrant:

    • A.

      LLQ

    • B.

      RUQ

    • C.

      RLQ

    • D.

      LUQ

    Correct Answer
    B. RUQ
    Explanation
    Liver or gallbladder problems are mostly likely to present with symptoms in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). The liver is located in the RUQ of the abdomen, and gallbladder issues such as gallstones or inflammation can cause pain or discomfort in this area. Therefore, if a person is experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, tenderness, or jaundice, it is more likely to be related to liver or gallbladder problems, which are commonly seen in the RUQ.

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  • 16. 

    Areas of body allow X-rays to pass through to film easily; produce dark areas on film called:

    • A.

      Radiolucent

    • B.

      Radiopaque

    • C.

      Dense

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiolucent
    Explanation
    Radiolucent refers to areas of the body that allow X-rays to pass through easily, resulting in dark areas on the film. This term is used to describe tissues or structures that have low density and are transparent to X-rays. In radiology, radiolucent areas appear black on X-ray images, indicating that X-rays have passed through them without much attenuation.

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  • 17. 

    X-ray beam passes from patient’s back to patient’s front and then onto film(Standard view for chest X-ray) this type of x-ray is called?

    • A.

      Lateral

    • B.

      AP

    • C.

      PA

    Correct Answer
    C. PA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is PA. PA stands for Posterior Anterior, which refers to the direction in which the X-ray beam passes through the patient's body. In a PA X-ray, the X-ray beam enters the patient's back and exits through the front, before reaching the film. This is the standard view for a chest X-ray, allowing for clear visualization of the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.

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  • 18. 

    The body works to make things function smoothly and maintain balance known as:

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Pathology

    • C.

      Pathophysiology

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. It involves various physiological processes that work together to regulate temperature, pH levels, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The body constantly adjusts and adapts to ensure that these variables remain within a narrow range, allowing cells and organs to function optimally. Pathology and pathophysiology, on the other hand, deal with the study of diseases and their underlying mechanisms, which are not related to the body's normal balance and functioning. Therefore, the correct answer is homeostasis.

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  • 19. 

    A specific grouping of signs and symptoms related to a specific disease:

    • A.

      Etiology

    • B.

      Pathology

    • C.

      Pathophysiology

    • D.

      Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    D. Syndrome
    Explanation
    A syndrome refers to a specific grouping of signs and symptoms that are associated with a particular disease. It is a collection of symptoms that commonly occur together and are characteristic of a specific condition. Unlike etiology, which focuses on the cause of a disease, or pathology, which refers to the study of disease processes, syndrome specifically emphasizes the clinical presentation of a disease.

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  • 20. 

    Identification of disease determined by studying patient’s signs, symptoms, history, and results of diagnostic tests is known as:

    • A.

      Prognosis

    • B.

      Etiology

    • C.

      Diagnosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Diagnosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is diagnosis. Diagnosis refers to the process of identifying a disease or condition by studying the patient's signs, symptoms, medical history, and the results of diagnostic tests. It involves analyzing all available information to determine the specific disease or condition that the patient is experiencing. Prognosis refers to the predicted outcome or course of a disease, while etiology refers to the study of the causes or origins of diseases.

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  • 21. 

    Prediction about outcome of a disease is known as:

    • A.

      Prognosis

    • B.

      Diagnosis

    • C.

      Etiology

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Prognosis
    Explanation
    Prognosis refers to the prediction or forecast of the outcome of a disease. It is an assessment made by medical professionals based on various factors such as the patient's medical history, symptoms, and test results. Prognosis helps in determining the expected course of the disease, the likelihood of recovery, and the potential complications or risks involved. Diagnosis, on the other hand, refers to the identification or recognition of a disease or condition through examination and analysis of symptoms and medical tests. Etiology refers to the study of the causes or origins of diseases.

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  • 22. 

    Infected insect spreads infection to person (example: malaria), this is known as?

    • A.

      Common Vechicle

    • B.

      Biological Vector

    • C.

      Idiopathic disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Biological Vector
    Explanation
    A biological vector refers to an organism, such as an infected insect, that can transmit a disease-causing pathogen from one host to another. In the case of malaria, for example, mosquitoes act as biological vectors by carrying and transmitting the Plasmodium parasite to humans when they bite. Therefore, the correct answer is Biological Vector.

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  • 23. 

    A disease that exists permanently in a particular region or population is known as:

    • A.

      Plague

    • B.

      Epidemic

    • C.

      Pandemic

    • D.

      Endemic

    Correct Answer
    D. Endemic
    Explanation
    Endemic refers to a disease that exists permanently in a specific region or population. Unlike an epidemic or pandemic, which are temporary and widespread, an endemic disease is consistently present in a particular area or group. This term is often used to describe diseases that are prevalent in a specific geographic location or among a specific population due to factors such as environmental conditions, cultural practices, or genetic predisposition.

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  • 24. 

    Units of measurements all based on units that relate to each other by powers of 10 is known as:

    • A.

      Metric units

    • B.

      US system

    • C.

      Pounds

    • D.

      Inches

    Correct Answer
    A. Metric units
    Explanation
    The correct answer is metric units because the metric system is a decimal-based system of measurement where units are related to each other by powers of 10. This system is used globally and is based on the International System of Units (SI), which includes units such as meters, kilograms, and seconds. The US system, on the other hand, uses different units such as inches, pounds, and gallons, which are not based on powers of 10.

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  • 25. 

    Process of simple compounds being built up and then used to manufacture materials for growth, reproduction, and repair:

    • A.

      Catabolism

    • B.

      Canabolism

    • C.

      Anabolic

    Correct Answer
    C. Anabolic
    Explanation
    Anabolic is the correct answer because it refers to the process of building up simple compounds into more complex ones. This process is essential for the manufacture of materials needed for growth, reproduction, and repair in organisms.

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  • 26. 

    Are basic building blocks of human body and the smallest living structure:

    • A.

      Molecules

    • B.

      Atoms

    • C.

      Cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Cells
    Explanation
    Cells are the basic building blocks of the human body and the smallest living structure. They are responsible for carrying out all the necessary functions of life. Cells are made up of molecules, which are composed of atoms. While molecules and atoms are important components, cells are the fundamental units of life as they have the ability to replicate and perform specific functions within the body. Therefore, cells are the correct answer in this case.

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  • 27. 

    Choosing what gets in or out of the cell membrane is defined as:

    • A.

      Transduction

    • B.

      Osmosis

    • C.

      Selectively permeable

    • D.

      Translucent

    Correct Answer
    C. Selectively permeable
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Selectively permeable." This term refers to the property of the cell membrane that allows certain substances to pass through while restricting the passage of others. It means that the membrane selectively chooses what can enter or exit the cell, based on factors such as size, charge, and solubility. This process is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and regulating the internal environment of the cell.

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  • 28. 

    A condition caused by malformation in membrane channels for chloride and sodium ions in which thick mucous is produced is known as:

    • A.

      Downs syndrome

    • B.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • C.

      Bronchitis

    • D.

      Bronchiolitis

    • E.

      Croup

    Correct Answer
    B. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the chloride and sodium ion channels in the body, leading to the production of thick mucus. This condition is caused by malformation in these membrane channels. Downs syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome, and it does not involve malformation in membrane channels. Bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and croup are respiratory conditions that are not specifically related to malformation in membrane channels for chloride and sodium ions. Therefore, the correct answer is cystic fibrosis.

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  • 29. 

    Bad cholesterol is known as:

    • A.

      HDL

    • B.

      LDL

    • C.

      Triglycerides

    Correct Answer
    B. LDL
    Explanation
    LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, which is commonly referred to as "bad cholesterol." LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells in the body and can build up in the arteries, leading to plaque formation and increasing the risk of heart disease. High levels of LDL cholesterol are considered unhealthy, while lower levels are desirable for maintaining cardiovascular health. HDL, on the other hand, is known as "good cholesterol" as it helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that can also contribute to heart disease if present in high levels.

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  • 30. 

    Brains” of cell Dictates activities of other organelles in cell, contains DNA is known as:

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Cell membrane

    • D.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is considered the "brains" of the cell because it controls and regulates the activities of other organelles within the cell. It contains the cell's DNA, which carries the genetic information necessary for the cell's functions and characteristics. The nucleus plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's overall structure and function, making it an essential organelle in eukaryotic cells.

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  • 31. 

    Short, microscopic, hair-like projections located on outer surface of some cells; move particles using wavelike motion are known as:

    • A.

      Villi

    • B.

      Microvilli

    • C.

      Cilia

    • D.

      Flagellum

    Correct Answer
    C. Cilia
    Explanation
    Cilia are short, microscopic, hair-like projections located on the outer surface of some cells. They move particles using a wavelike motion. Unlike villi and microvilli, which are involved in absorption and increasing surface area, cilia are primarily responsible for movement. Flagellum is a whip-like tail used for locomotion in certain cells, but it is not involved in moving particles using a wavelike motion like cilia.

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  • 32. 

    Appearance of cherry red spot is characteristic of this condition:

    • A.

      Glaucoma

    • B.

      Downs syndrome

    • C.

      Tay Sachs

    • D.

      Lyme disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Tay Sachs
    Explanation
    The appearance of a cherry red spot is characteristic of Tay Sachs disease. Tay Sachs is a rare genetic disorder that affects the nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A, which leads to the accumulation of a fatty substance called GM2 ganglioside in the brain and other tissues. The cherry red spot refers to a red spot that appears in the macula, the central part of the retina, which can be seen during an eye examination. This finding is specific to Tay Sachs and helps in diagnosing the condition.

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  • 33. 

    Organelles containing powerful enzymes that take care of cleaning up intercellular debris and other waste (housekeeper) are known as:

    • A.

      Lysosomes

    • B.

      Golgi

    • C.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are organelles containing powerful enzymes that are responsible for cleaning up intercellular debris and other waste materials in the cell. They act as the "housekeeper" of the cell by breaking down and recycling unwanted substances. Lysosomes are involved in various cellular processes such as autophagy, where they degrade damaged organelles and proteins, and phagocytosis, where they digest foreign substances that are engulfed by the cell. Overall, lysosomes play a crucial role in maintaining the cleanliness and functionality of the cell.

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  • 34. 

    Used by cells for intake of liquid and food when substance too large to diffuse across membrane:

    • A.

      Exocytosis

    • B.

      Endocytosis

    • C.

      Passive transport

    Correct Answer
    B. Endocytosis
    Explanation
    Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in substances that are too large to diffuse across the cell membrane. It involves the formation of a vesicle around the substance and the subsequent internalization of the vesicle into the cell. This allows the cell to bring in nutrients and other molecules from the external environment. Exocytosis, on the other hand, is the opposite process where substances are released from the cell. Passive transport refers to the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the need for energy expenditure.

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  • 35. 

    Common medical problem; main symptom (high blood sugar or glucose) caused by problem with facilitated diffusion:

    • A.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • B.

      Celiac sprue

    • C.

      Diabetes

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetes
    Explanation
    Diabetes is a common medical problem characterized by high blood sugar levels. It is caused by a problem with facilitated diffusion, which refers to the transport of glucose across cell membranes with the help of specific proteins. In diabetes, there is either a lack of insulin (Type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin effectively (Type 2 diabetes), both of which result in impaired glucose transport and elevated blood sugar levels.

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  • 36. 

    Areas of body allow fewer X-rays to pass through to film; produce light areas on the film called?

    • A.

      Radiopaque

    • B.

      Radiolucent

    • C.

      PA

    • D.

      AP

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiopaque
    Explanation
    Radiopaque refers to areas of the body that allow fewer X-rays to pass through to the film. These areas appear as light areas on the film.

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  • 37. 

    Refers to body parts away from point of reference:

    • A.

      Proximal

    • B.

      Distal

    • C.

      Abduction

    • D.

      Adduction

    Correct Answer
    B. Distal
    Explanation
    The term "distal" refers to body parts that are located away from a specific point of reference. In anatomical terms, it is used to describe body parts that are farther away from the center of the body or a specific structure. For example, the fingers are considered distal to the wrist, as they are located further away from the center of the body.

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  • 38. 

    Refers to body parts towards or on back of body:

    • A.

      Posterior

    • B.

      Anterior

    • C.

      Distal

    • D.

      Proximal

    Correct Answer
    A. Posterior
    Explanation
    The term "posterior" refers to body parts that are located towards or on the back of the body. It is the opposite of "anterior," which refers to body parts that are located towards or on the front of the body. "Distal" and "proximal" are terms used to describe the location of body parts in relation to the center or point of reference. Therefore, the correct answer in this case is "posterior."

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  • 39. 

    Refers to body parts towards or on front of body:

    • A.

      Back

    • B.

      Posterior

    • C.

      Dorsal

    • D.

      Anterior

    Correct Answer
    D. Anterior
    Explanation
    Anterior refers to body parts towards or on the front of the body. It is the opposite of posterior, which refers to body parts towards or on the back of the body. Dorsal refers to body parts towards or on the back of an animal, while anterior specifically refers to the front of the body.

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  • 40. 

    This virus affect the oral region and often produces vesicles ( fluid filled sacks) that are painful in episodes:

    • A.

      Herpes simplex type I

    • B.

      Herpes simplex type II

    • C.

      HPV

    • D.

      HTLV

    Correct Answer
    A. Herpes simplex type I
    Explanation
    Herpes simplex type I is the correct answer because it is a virus that commonly affects the oral region and causes painful vesicles. This virus is known to cause cold sores or fever blisters, which are fluid-filled sacks that appear on or around the lips. Herpes simplex type I is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with the affected area or through sharing personal items such as utensils or towels.

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  • May 01, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Jan 31, 2011
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