Anatomy And Physiology Final Exam Questions And Answers

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Anatomy And Physiology Final Exam Questions And Answers - Quiz

Take this amazing quiz on anatomy and physiology for your final exam with questions and answers if you want to see how much you can recall about this topic! If you are preparing for your final exam, then this is the perfect quiz for you. It will help you assess how much you actually know about anatomy and physiology from an academic standpoint. All the best, and don't forget to share this quiz with your fellow students! Let's go!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Olfactory receptors are found

    • A.

      Throughout the nasal cavity

    • B.

      Only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity

    • C.

      Only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity

    • D.

      Only in the mid nasal regions

    Correct Answer
    C. Only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity
    Explanation
    Olfactory receptors are specialized sensory cells responsible for detecting and transmitting smells to the brain. These receptors are found in the superior portion of the nasal cavity, specifically in the olfactory epithelium. This area is located at the roof of the nasal cavity, near the upper part of the nasal septum and the superior turbinate. The presence of olfactory receptors in this specific region allows for the detection and processing of odor molecules in the air we breathe.

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  • 2. 

    Which hormones do the posterior pituitary gland store?

    • A.

      Prolactin and Human Growth Hormone

    • B.

      Oxytocin and Prolactin

    • C.

      FSH and TSH

    • D.

      Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone

    Correct Answer
    D. Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone
    Explanation
    The posterior pituitary gland stores oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, both of which are produced by the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is responsible for stimulating contractions during childbirth and promoting bonding between individuals. The antidiuretic hormone helps regulate water balance in the body by reducing urine production and increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys.

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  • 3. 

    This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.

    • A.

      Cardiac output

    • B.

      Stroke volume

    • C.

      Heart rate

    • D.

      Cardiac input

    Correct Answer
    A. Cardiac output
    Explanation
    The given question asks for the term that represents the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute. The correct answer is "Cardiac output." Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute and is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat) by the heart rate (the number of beats per minute).

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Mixing and propulsion

    • D.

      Absorption

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Mixing and propulsion
    Explanation
    The smooth muscle layer of the digestive system is responsible for the movement and propulsion of food through the digestive tract. It contracts and relaxes to mix the food with digestive enzymes and propel it forward for further digestion and absorption. This process ensures that the food is thoroughly broken down and nutrients can be absorbed efficiently. Therefore, the correct answer is "Mixing and propulsion."

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  • 5. 

    This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.

    • A.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • B.

      Glycolysis

    • C.

      Glucosamine

    • D.

      Calcitrol

    Correct Answer
    A. Gluconeogenesis
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. It occurs mainly in the liver and kidneys when the body needs glucose for energy but there is a limited supply of dietary carbohydrates. This process helps maintain blood glucose levels and provides a source of energy for the brain and other organs. Glycolysis, on the other hand, is the breakdown of glucose to produce energy. Glucosamine is a compound involved in the synthesis of connective tissues, while calcitrol is a hormone involved in calcium absorption.

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  • 6. 

    An acute allergic reaction can lead to

    • A.

      Transplantation

    • B.

      Passive immunity

    • C.

      Anaphylactic shock

    • D.

      Active immunity

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaphylactic shock
    Explanation
    An acute allergic reaction can lead to anaphylactic shock, which is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. During an allergic reaction, the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance, such as food, medication, or insect venom. This triggers the release of large amounts of chemicals, including histamine, which can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure, difficulty breathing, swelling, and other symptoms. If left untreated, anaphylactic shock can be fatal. Therefore, it is important to seek immediate medical attention if someone is experiencing an allergic reaction that may lead to anaphylactic shock.

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  • 7. 

    Which hormone promotes an increased metabolic rate?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    • C.

      Thyroid hormone

    • D.

      Calcitonin

    • E.

      Glucagon

    Correct Answer
    C. Thyroid hormone
    Explanation
    Thyroid hormone promotes an increased metabolic rate. It is produced by the thyroid gland and plays a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism. It increases the rate at which cells convert nutrients into energy, thereby increasing the metabolic rate. This hormone is essential for maintaining normal body temperature, heart rate, and overall energy levels.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic and immune system?

    • A.

      Draining excess interstitial fluid

    • B.

      Maintaining water homeostasis in the body

    • C.

      Transporting dietary lipids

    • D.

      Carrying out immune responses

    Correct Answer
    B. Maintaining water homeostasis in the body
    Explanation
    The lymphatic and immune system is responsible for various functions in the body. It helps in draining excess interstitial fluid, which prevents edema and maintains tissue fluid balance. The system also plays a role in transporting dietary lipids, specifically fats and fat-soluble vitamins, from the small intestine to the bloodstream. Additionally, it carries out immune responses by identifying and eliminating pathogens and foreign substances. However, maintaining water homeostasis in the body is primarily regulated by the kidneys through processes such as filtration, reabsorption, and excretion. Therefore, it is not a function of the lymphatic or immune system.

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  • 9. 

    How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      66%

    • D.

      90%

    Correct Answer
    C. 66%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 66%. Intracellular fluid refers to the fluid contained within the cells of the body. It accounts for approximately two-thirds of the total volume of body fluid. The remaining one-third of body fluid is extracellular fluid, which includes the fluid outside the cells, such as blood plasma and interstitial fluid.

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  • 10. 

    What is the major hormone that regulates water loss?

    • A.

      ANP

    • B.

      Angiotensin II

    • C.

      Renin

    • D.

      ADH

    • E.

      Angiotensin

    Correct Answer
    D. ADH
    Explanation
    ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, is the major hormone that regulates water loss in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidneys, specifically on the collecting ducts, to increase water reabsorption and reduce urine output. This helps to conserve water and prevent dehydration. When the body is dehydrated, ADH levels increase, causing the kidneys to reabsorb more water and produce concentrated urine. Conversely, when the body is adequately hydrated, ADH levels decrease, allowing for more water to be excreted in the urine.

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  • 11. 

    The ______________ muscles contract in response to cold temperatures and move the testes closer to the body to absorb more body heat.

    Correct Answer
    Cremaster
    Explanation
    The cremaster muscles are responsible for contracting in response to cold temperatures. When these muscles contract, they move the testes closer to the body, which helps to absorb more body heat. This contraction of the cremaster muscles is a protective mechanism to keep the testes warm and maintain their optimal temperature for sperm production.

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  • 12. 

     In B Cell receptors, the light/heavy variable regions are located at the:

    • A.

      Transmembrane region

    • B.

      Tips of the molecules

    • C.

      There is no variable region on a B cell receptor

    • D.

      Depends on the type of B cell

    • E.

      There are only constant regions

    Correct Answer
    B. Tips of the molecules
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tips of the molecules." B cell receptors have light and heavy variable regions that are located at the tips of the molecules. These variable regions are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens. The constant regions, on the other hand, are found in the lower part of the molecule and are responsible for transmitting signals into the B cell when the receptor binds to an antigen.

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  • 13. 

    Which artery wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?

    • A.

      Tunica interna

    • B.

      Tunica media

    • C.

      Tunica externa

    • D.

      Tunica fascia

    Correct Answer
    B. Tunica media
    Explanation
    The tunica media is responsible for vasoconstriction. It is the middle layer of the artery wall and contains smooth muscle cells. When these muscle cells contract, they narrow the diameter of the artery, leading to vasoconstriction. This process helps regulate blood flow and blood pressure in the body. The tunica interna is the innermost layer of the artery wall and is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the blood vessel. The tunica externa is the outermost layer and provides support and protection to the artery. The tunica fascia is not a component of the artery wall.

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  • 14. 

    When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be

    • A.

      Immunocompetent

    • B.

      Pluripotent stem cells

    • C.

      Primary lymphatic cells

    • D.

      Germ cells

    • E.

      Specifically promoted

    Correct Answer
    A. Immunocompetent
    Explanation
    When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be immunocompetent. This means that they are capable of recognizing and responding to antigens, which are foreign substances that can trigger an immune response. Immunocompetent cells are able to differentiate between self and non-self antigens, allowing them to mount an appropriate immune response to protect the body from pathogens and other harmful substances. This term highlights the functional ability of these cells in the immune system.

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  • 15. 

    The cardiovascular center is located in _____________ _______________, which is also the location where the brainstem and spinal cord connect.The cardiovascular center is located in _____________ _______________.

    Correct Answer
    medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The cardiovascular center, responsible for regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow, is located in the medulla oblongata. This part of the brain is located in the brainstem and plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. It receives input from various sensory receptors and sends signals to the heart, blood vessels, and other organs to adjust their activity accordingly.

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  • 16. 

    Which is NOT a major function of the blood?

    • A.

      Transportation of nutrients

    • B.

      Regulation of blood pH

    • C.

      Protection against disease infection

    • D.

      Transportation of heat

    • E.

      Production of oxygen

    Correct Answer
    E. Production of oxygen
    Explanation
    The blood has several major functions, including the transportation of nutrients, regulation of blood pH, protection against disease infection, and transportation of heat. However, the blood does not produce oxygen. Oxygen is primarily obtained through the respiratory system, where it is inhaled into the lungs and then transported by the blood to the body's tissues.

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  • 17. 

    Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Plasma proteins

    • C.

      Blood clotting factors

    • D.

      Thyroid hormones

    • E.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    A. Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is the correct answer because it is the hormone produced by the pancreatic islet cells that helps to lower blood glucose levels. Insulin allows glucose to enter cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for later use. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, leading to high blood sugar levels and potentially causing diabetes.

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  • 18. 

    How many hormones do the five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete?

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      7

    • C.

      10

    • D.

      12

    • E.

      Unlimited

    Correct Answer
    B. 7
    Explanation
    The five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete a total of 7 hormones. Each type of cell is responsible for producing and releasing a specific hormone. These hormones include growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Therefore, the correct answer is 7.

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  • 19. 

    The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise:

    • A.

      The anterior pituitary

    • B.

      The hypothalamus

    • C.

      The posterior pituitary

    • D.

      The adrenal gland

    • E.

      The thyroid gland

    Correct Answer
    A. The anterior pituitary
    Explanation
    The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis are two parts of the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate various functions in the body. These hormones include growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The pars distalis is the larger part of the anterior pituitary, while the pars tuberalis is a smaller portion that surrounds the infundibulum of the hypothalamus. Together, they make up the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 20. 

    These cells provide for the sense of smell.

    • A.

      Olfactory hair cells

    • B.

      Glial cells

    • C.

      Basal stem cells

    • D.

      Bowman's glands

    • E.

      Gustatory cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Olfactory hair cells
    Explanation
    Olfactory hair cells are responsible for the sense of smell. These cells are located in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity and contain specialized receptors that detect odor molecules in the air. When these receptors are stimulated by odor molecules, they send signals to the brain, allowing us to perceive and identify different smells. Olfactory hair cells play a crucial role in our ability to detect and distinguish various scents.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the below structures converts vibrations to action potentials?

    • A.

      Cochlea

    • B.

      Pinna

    • C.

      Tympanic membrane

    • D.

      Organ of Corti

    • E.

      Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Organ of Corti
    Explanation
    The Organ of Corti is the structure within the cochlea that converts mechanical vibrations caused by sound waves into electrical signals known as action potentials. It contains specialized sensory cells called hair cells that are responsible for this conversion. When sound waves enter the cochlea, they cause the hair cells to vibrate, which in turn triggers the release of neurotransmitters and generates action potentials in the auditory nerve fibers. These action potentials are then transmitted to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound.

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  • 22. 

    This darkly pigmented structure reduces light reflection within the eyeball.

    • A.

      Sclera

    • B.

      Conjunctiva

    • C.

      Iris

    • D.

      Choroid

    • E.

      Retina

    Correct Answer
    D. Choroid
    Explanation
    The choroid is a darkly pigmented structure located between the sclera and the retina in the eyeball. It contains blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the retina. The dark pigment of the choroid helps to absorb excess light within the eyeball, reducing light reflection and preventing glare. This is important for maintaining clear vision and preventing visual disturbances caused by excessive light entering the eye.

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  • 23. 

    Taste buds are found:

    • A.

      Fungiform

    • B.

      Circumvallate

    • C.

      Foliate

    • D.

      Both a and b

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The taste buds are found in various locations on the tongue, including the Fungiform, Circumvallate, and Foliate. Taste buds regenerate every 10 days and people have anywhere from 2,000 to 10,000 taste buds.  Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above," as all of these options are correct.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the below vessels is a pulse point at the wrist?

    • A.

      Radial artery

    • B.

      Subclavian artery

    • C.

      Axillary artery

    • D.

      Cephalic artery

    • E.

      Palmar artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Radial artery
    Explanation
    The radial artery is a pulse point at the wrist. This artery is located on the thumb side of the wrist and is commonly used to measure the pulse rate. It is easily accessible and can be felt by placing two fingers (usually the index and middle fingers) on the inner side of the wrist, just below the base of the thumb. The pulsations felt here correspond to the heartbeat and can provide valuable information about a person's cardiovascular health.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the intestines?

    • A.

      Subclavian artery

    • B.

      Mesenteric artery

    • C.

      Coronary artery

    • D.

      Popliteal artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Mesenteric artery
    Explanation
    The mesenteric artery is the correct answer because it is the vessel that supplies blood to the intestines. The mesenteric artery branches off from the abdominal aorta and carries oxygenated blood to the small and large intestines, providing them with the necessary nutrients and oxygen for proper functioning. The other options, such as the subclavian artery, coronary artery, and popliteal artery, do not directly supply blood to the intestines.

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  • 26. 

    The lymph from the right foot empties into the

    • A.

      Left axillary vein

    • B.

      Lumbar trunk

    • C.

      Jugular trunk

    • D.

      Thoracic duct

    • E.

      Right lymphatic duct

    Correct Answer
    D. Thoracic duct
    Explanation
    The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body and is responsible for draining lymph from the lower limbs, abdomen, left side of the thorax, left upper limb, and left side of the head and neck. It empties into the left subclavian vein, which is located near the left axillary vein. Therefore, the correct answer is the thoracic duct.

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  • 27. 

    What protein products induce the production of a specific antibody? ____________________

    Correct Answer
    Antigens, Immunogenicity
    Explanation
    Antigens are proteins recognized by the immune system. Antibodies are made specific to the antigen detected. This term refers to the ability of a substance to induce an immune response, specifically the production of a specific antibody.

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  • 28. 

    This pressure provides information about the condition of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus. 

    • A.

      Diastolic blood pressure

    • B.

      Systolic blood pressure

    • C.

      Pulse pressure

    • D.

      Venule pressure

    • E.

      Capillary pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. Pulse pressure
    Explanation
    Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It is an important indicator of the condition of the cardiovascular system. A high pulse pressure may indicate stiff arteries, atherosclerosis, or other cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, a low pulse pressure may suggest reduced cardiac output or heart failure. Therefore, measuring pulse pressure can provide valuable information about the health and function of the cardiovascular system, including the presence of conditions such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus.

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  • 29. 

     This is a small molecule that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions and trigger cells of the immune system

    • A.

      Enzyme

    • B.

      Kinins

    • C.

      Cytokine

    • D.

      MHC

    • E.

      Leukocyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytokine
    Explanation
    Cytokines are small hormone-like proteins that can either stimulate or inhibit various normal cell functions. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses, inflammation, and cell communication. Cytokines are produced by a wide range of cells, including immune cells, and they act as messengers to mediate interactions between cells. Therefore, the correct answer is cytokine.

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  • 30. 

    The left subclavian vein receives lymph from 

    • A.

      Left axillary vein

    • B.

      Lumbar trunk

    • C.

      Jugular trunk

    • D.

      Thoracic duct

    • E.

      Right lymphatic duct

    Correct Answer
    D. Thoracic duct
    Explanation
    The left subclavian vein receives lymph from the thoracic duct. The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body and is responsible for draining lymph from the lower body, left upper body, and left side of the head and neck. It collects lymph from various lymphatic trunks, including the lumbar trunk and jugular trunk, and then delivers it into the left subclavian vein, where it mixes with the blood. The right lymphatic duct, on the other hand, drains lymph from the right upper body and delivers it into the right subclavian vein.

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  • 31. 

    Continuous capillaries can be found in the following tissues.

    • A.

      Skeletal muscle

    • B.

      Smooth muscle

    • C.

      Connective tissue

    • D.

      Lungs

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Continuous capillaries are a type of capillaries that have a complete endothelial lining with tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells. These capillaries are found in tissues where there is a need for continuous exchange of substances, such as oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, connective tissue, and lungs all require this continuous exchange, hence they all contain continuous capillaries. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 32. 

    Which of the below is NOT found in arteries but IS found in veins?

    • A.

      Tunica externa

    • B.

      Tunica media

    • C.

      Tunica interna

    • D.

      Valves

    Correct Answer
    D. Valves
    Explanation
    Valves are not found in arteries but are found in veins. Valves in veins help to prevent the backflow of blood and ensure that blood flows in one direction towards the heart. Arteries, on the other hand, do not have valves because they carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and the pressure from the heart's contractions is sufficient to keep the blood flowing in the correct direction.

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  • 33. 

    Which of these does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?

    • A.

      Macrophages

    • B.

      Saliva

    • C.

      Urine

    • D.

      Mucus

    • E.

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophages
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in the body's defense against pathogens. They are part of the immune system and provide an immune response rather than a physical or chemical barrier. Macrophages engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, through a process called phagocytosis. They are not considered a physical or chemical barrier because they do not form a physical barrier like the skin or mucous membranes, nor do they produce chemical substances like saliva or mucus that can inhibit the entry of pathogens.

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  • 34. 

    This is a blood vessel that conveys blood from the tissues back to the heart.

    • A.

      Artery

    • B.

      Arteriole

    • C.

      Aorta

    • D.

      Vein

    • E.

      Capillary

    Correct Answer
    D. Vein
    Explanation
    A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the tissues back to the heart. Unlike arteries, veins have thinner walls and lower pressure, allowing them to transport blood at a slower pace. Veins also contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood. This is essential for returning deoxygenated blood to the heart, where it can be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 35. 

    When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle contracts producing

    • A.

      A tear in the artery/arteriole

    • B.

      A branch off the artery called an arteriole

    • C.

      A vascular spasm

    • D.

      Tetanus

    • E.

      Constriction of the outer four layers

    Correct Answer
    C. A vascular spasm
    Explanation
    When an artery or arteriole is damaged, the smooth muscle in the vessel wall contracts, causing a vascular spasm. This contraction helps to reduce blood flow to the damaged area and prevent further bleeding. It is a protective mechanism of the body to minimize blood loss and initiate the healing process. The vascular spasm also allows time for other mechanisms, such as platelet aggregation and clot formation, to occur and further assist in the repair of the damaged vessel.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is the blood vessel that distributes blood to organs?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Capillaries

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Arterioles

    • E.

      Veins

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries
    Explanation
    Arteries are blood vessels that distribute oxygenated blood from the heart to various organs in the body. They have thick, elastic walls that help maintain blood pressure and carry blood away from the heart. Arteries branch into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into capillaries, allowing for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and organs. Veins, on the other hand, carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Venules are small veins that collect blood from capillaries. Therefore, arteries are the correct answer as they are responsible for distributing blood to organs.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following reduces blood loss?

    • A.

      Erythrocyte

    • B.

      Platelet

    • C.

      Lymphocyte

    • D.

      Basophil

    • E.

      Neutrophil

    Correct Answer
    B. Platelet
    Explanation
    Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, which helps to reduce blood loss. When there is an injury or damage to a blood vessel, platelets gather at the site and form a plug to stop bleeding. They release chemicals that activate other clotting factors, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot. This clot helps to seal the wound and prevent further blood loss. Therefore, platelets play a crucial role in reducing blood loss.

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  • 38. 

    List the 10 cells, structures, and fluids that light must pass through to reach the photoreceptor cells. (in order)

    Correct Answer
    cornea, aqueous humor in the anterior chamber, pupil, aqueous humor in posterior chamber, lens, vitreous humor, axons of ganglion cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells, photoreceptor cells
    Explanation
    Light must pass through the cornea, which is the transparent outer layer of the eye. Then, it enters the anterior chamber, where the aqueous humor is located. After passing through the pupil, it reaches the posterior chamber, where more aqueous humor is present. The light then passes through the lens, which helps focus the light onto the retina. Next, it passes through the vitreous humor, a gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. The light also interacts with the axons of ganglion cells, ganglion cells, and bipolar cells, which are all involved in the transmission of visual signals. Finally, the light reaches the photoreceptor cells, which are located in the retina and are responsible for detecting light and transmitting visual information to the brain.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following does not provide immune responses?

    • A.

      Eosinophil

    • B.

      Macrophage

    • C.

       Lymphocyte

    • D.

      Basophil

    • E.

      Platelet

    Correct Answer
    E. Platelet
    Explanation
    Platelets clump together to stop bleeding and do not provide an immune response. The other 4 listed are involved in various types of immune responses.

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  • 40. 

    What controls the anterior pituitary gland?

    • A.

      Action of the hypothalamus

    • B.

      Chemical signals from the blood

    • C.

      The peripheral nervous system

    • D.

      Action potentials from the thalamus

    • E.

      Chemical changes in CSF

    Correct Answer
    A. Action of the hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the action of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus produces and releases various hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones, known as releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones, travel through a specialized blood vessel system called the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland. Once in the anterior pituitary gland, these hormones stimulate or inhibit the release of specific hormones that regulate various bodily functions. Therefore, the action of the hypothalamus is responsible for controlling the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is NOT a function of a hormone?

    • A.

      Regulates chemical composition and volume of the internal environment

    • B.

      Regulates metabolism

    • C.

      Regulates glandular secretions

    • D.

      Produces electrolytes

    • E.

      Controls growth and development

    Correct Answer
    D. Produces electrolytes
    Explanation
    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in the body. They are responsible for maintaining homeostasis, regulating metabolism, controlling glandular secretions, and promoting growth and development. However, hormones do not directly produce electrolytes. Electrolytes are ions that help maintain the balance of fluids and pH levels in the body. They are primarily regulated by the kidneys and other organs, not hormones.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?

    • A.

      Albumins

    • B.

      Globulins

    • C.

      Fibrinogens

    • D.

      Prostaglandins

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Fibrinogens
    Explanation
    Fibrinogens are plasma proteins that play a crucial role in blood clotting. When there is an injury, fibrinogens are converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh-like structure to stop bleeding and form a blood clot. This process is essential for wound healing and preventing excessive blood loss. Albumins and globulins are also plasma proteins, but they do not directly participate in blood clotting. Prostaglandins are lipid molecules that have various physiological effects but are not involved in blood clotting. Therefore, the correct answer is fibrinogens.

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Lindsey Block |BS, Cellular & Molecular Biology |
Biology Expert
"Lindsey, Ph.D. in cellular and molecular biology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, specializes in Zika's impact on conception and preterm birth biomarkers. She completed courese on Advanced Cell Biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Advanced Virology at University College Cork. Lindsey's accolades include three first-author papers, three fellowships, and active participation in five conference presentations. Currently associated with the University of Pennsylvania through a T32 NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship, she continues to contribute significantly to her field, combining academic rigor with practical research to advance understanding in reproductive health and prenatal care. Currently, she is a full time lecturer at Northwestern University - The Feinberg School of Medicine.
"

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 01, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Lindsey Block
  • May 09, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Jlpena
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