Anatomy & Physiology Full Semester Quiz

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Anatomy & Physiology Full Semester Quiz - Quiz

Test your knowledge of anatomy and physiology with this "Anatomy & physiology full semester quiz." Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook which is for the two-semester human anatomy as well as physiology course for life science and also for allied health majors. The quiz has so many questions that will test you as well, as you get a platform where you can learn more about it in a fun manner. Give your best shot and score high. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the

    • A.

      Dorsal and ventral

    • B.

      Cranial and sacral

    • C.

      Thoracic and abdominopelvic

    • D.

      Pelvic and thoracic

    • E.

      Lateral and medial

    Correct Answer
    C. Thoracic and abdominopelvic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is thoracic and abdominopelvic. The ventral body cavity is divided into two major divisions: the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity. The thoracic cavity is located superior to the diaphragm and contains the heart, lungs, and other thoracic organs. The abdominopelvic cavity is located inferior to the diaphragm and is further divided into two regions: the abdominal cavity, which contains the digestive organs, and the pelvic cavity, which contains the reproductive organs and bladder.

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  • 2. 

    The skin (or body surface) is found in which body region?

    • A.

      Carpal

    • B.

      Crural

    • C.

      Cutaneous

    • D.

      Femoral

    • E.

      Pubic

    Correct Answer
    C. Cutaneous
    Explanation
    Cutaneous refers to the skin or body surface. Therefore, the correct answer is Cutaneous because it is the body region where the skin is found.

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  • 3. 

    The sternum is a type of _____ bone while the atlas is a type of ____ bone

    • A.

      Flat, irregular

    • B.

      Short, irregular

    • C.

      Flat, short

    • D.

      Long, short

    • E.

      Short, flat

    Correct Answer
    A. Flat, irregular
    Explanation
    The sternum is a flat bone while the atlas is an irregular bone. Flat bones, such as the sternum, are thin and often curved, providing protection to underlying organs. Irregular bones, like the atlas, have complex shapes and do not fit into any of the other bone classification categories. They often have unique functions and are found in specific areas of the body, such as the vertebrae.

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  • 4. 

    The patella is a good example of a special type of short bone called...

    • A.

      Squamosal

    • B.

      Sesamoid

    • C.

      Spongy

    • D.

      Irregular

    • E.

      Mesenchymal

    Correct Answer
    B. Sesamoid
    Explanation
    The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a good example of a special type of short bone called a sesamoid. Sesamoid bones are small, round bones that are embedded within tendons, and their purpose is to protect the tendon and enhance its mechanical function. The patella acts as a fulcrum, increasing the leverage of the quadriceps muscles during knee extension. Therefore, the patella being a sesamoid bone is a correct statement.

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  • 5. 

    The function of nervous tissue is to

    • A.

      Insulate

    • B.

      Connect muscle to bone

    • C.

      Cushion

    • D.

      Conduct electrical impulses

    Correct Answer
    D. Conduct electrical impulses
    Explanation
    Nervous tissue is responsible for transmitting electrical impulses throughout the body. It is made up of specialized cells called neurons that can generate and transmit electrical signals, allowing for communication between different parts of the body. These electrical impulses carry information and instructions from the brain to various organs and muscles, enabling them to function properly. Therefore, the correct answer is "conduct electrical impulses."

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  • 6. 

    The chest is located in which body region?

    • A.

      Zygomatic

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Pedal

    • D.

      Olecranal

    • E.

      Nasal

    Correct Answer
    B. Thoracic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Thoracic because the chest is located in the thoracic region of the body. The thoracic region includes the chest cavity, which houses important organs such as the heart and lungs. It is located between the neck and the abdomen.

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  • 7. 

    The human body is categorized in the structural organization. Which of the following order is correct?

    • A.

      Chemicals, tissues, cells, organs, systems, organisms

    • B.

      Organisms, systems, cells, chemicals, organs, tissues

    • C.

      Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms

    • D.

      Chemicals, cells, organs, tissues, systems, organisms

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms
    Explanation
    The correct order of the structural organization of the human body is from smallest to largest: chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms. Chemicals are the basic building blocks of matter, followed by cells, which are the basic structural and functional units of the body. Cells then combine to form tissues, which are groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. Organs are made up of different tissues and work together to perform specific functions. Systems are groups of organs that work together to perform a broader function. Finally, organisms are individual living beings that consist of multiple systems working together.

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  • 8. 

    The calf muscle on the back of the leg is called

    • A.

      Sartorius

    • B.

      Gastrocnemius

    • C.

      Biceps femoris

    • D.

      Soleus

    Correct Answer
    B. Gastrocnemius
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gastrocnemius. The calf muscle on the back of the leg is called the gastrocnemius. This muscle is responsible for plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the knee joint. It is the largest muscle in the calf and gives shape and strength to the lower leg. The gastrocnemius works in conjunction with the soleus muscle to provide power and stability during activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

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  • 9. 

    The arm is _________ to the hand.

    • A.

      Medial

    • B.

      Lateral

    • C.

      Proximal

    • D.

      Distal

    Correct Answer
    C. Proximal
    Explanation
    The term "proximal" refers to a location that is closer to the center of the body or a point of reference. In this case, the arm is proximal to the hand because the arm is closer to the center of the body than the hand.

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  • 10. 

    A movement that decreases the angle between articulating bones

    • A.

      Flexion

    • B.

      Extension

    • C.

      Protraction

    • D.

      Retraction

    Correct Answer
    A. Flexion
    Explanation
    Flexion is the correct answer because it refers to a movement that decreases the angle between articulating bones. Flexion typically occurs in the sagittal plane and involves bending or decreasing the angle of a joint. This movement can be seen in actions such as bending the elbow or bringing the knee towards the chest.

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  • 11. 

    A cross-bridge is formed when myosin heads bind to

    • A.

      Troponin

    • B.

      Actin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Ca++

    • E.

      Ca-

    Correct Answer
    B. Actin
    Explanation
    A cross-bridge is formed when myosin heads bind to actin. Actin is a protein filament found in muscle cells that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. When the myosin heads bind to actin, it causes the filaments to slide past each other, resulting in muscle contraction. This interaction between myosin and actin is essential for muscle movement and is a fundamental process in the functioning of the muscular system.

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  • 12. 

    Which one of the following is not a function of the muscular system?

    • A.

      Holds bones together

    • B.

      Body heat

    • C.

      Body movement

    • D.

      Body posture

    Correct Answer
    A. Holds bones together
    Explanation
    The muscular system is responsible for various functions in the body, such as body movement, body posture, and generating body heat. However, holding bones together is not a function of the muscular system. This function is performed by the skeletal system, specifically the ligaments and tendons that connect bones and hold them in place.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following are not included in the axial part of the body?

    • A.

      The neck

    • B.

      The trunk

    • C.

      The upper limbs

    • D.

      The head

    Correct Answer
    C. The upper limbs
    Explanation
    The upper limbs are not included in the axial part of the body because they are part of the appendicular skeleton. The axial part of the body consists of the head, neck, and trunk, which includes the spine, ribs, and pelvis. The upper limbs, including the arms and hands, are attached to the trunk through the shoulder girdle and are considered part of the appendicular skeleton, which is responsible for movement and manipulation.

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  • 14. 

    What is the body region found on the inside of your cheek?

    • A.

      Buccal

    • B.

      Femoral

    • C.

      Pubic

    • D.

      Orbital

    • E.

      Mammary

    Correct Answer
    A. Buccal
    Explanation
    The body region found on the inside of your cheek is called the buccal region.

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  • 15. 

    Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the

    • A.

      Somatic nervous system

    • B.

      Parasympathetic nervous system

    • C.

      Afferent nervous system

    • D.

      Sympathetic nervous system

    • E.

      Autonomic nervous system

    Correct Answer
    A. Somatic nervous system
    Explanation
    The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary control of skeletal muscles. It is a part of the peripheral nervous system and is involved in conscious movements and sensations. This system allows us to consciously move our muscles and perform actions such as walking, talking, and writing. It receives information from sensory organs and sends signals to muscles to initiate movement. The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and digestion. The afferent nervous system refers to the sensory neurons that transmit information from the body to the central nervous system.

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  • 16. 

    Which one of the following muscles is named for its shape?

    • A.

      Gastrocnemius

    • B.

      Deltoid

    • C.

      Tibialis anterior

    • D.

      Intercostals

    • E.

      The tribalious ant-eater.

    Correct Answer
    B. Deltoid
    Explanation
    The deltoid muscle is named for its shape, which resembles the Greek letter delta (∆). It is a triangular muscle located in the shoulder region and is responsible for the abduction and flexion of the arm. The other options mentioned are not named for their shape but rather for their location or function.

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  • 17. 

    Which one of the following sets represents antagonistic muscles?

    • A.

      Rectus femoris and rectus abdominis

    • B.

      Triceps brachii and biceps brachii

    • C.

      All three hamstrings

    • D.

      Vastus lateralis and vastus medialis

    • E.

      All 12 turkey strings

    Correct Answer
    B. Triceps brachii and biceps brachii
    Explanation
    Antagonistic muscles are muscles that work in opposition to each other. When one muscle contracts, the other muscle relaxes. The triceps brachii and biceps brachii are a classic example of antagonistic muscles in the human body. When the triceps brachii contracts, it extends the forearm, while the biceps brachii relaxes. Conversely, when the biceps brachii contracts, it flexes the forearm, while the triceps brachii relaxes. These muscles work together to create movement in the arm.

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  • 18. 

    Which is not a type of muscle tissue:

    • A.

      Smooth

    • B.

      Cardiac

    • C.

      Skeletal

    • D.

      Fibrous

    Correct Answer
    D. Fibrous
    Explanation
    Fibrous tissue is not a type of muscle tissue. Fibrous tissue refers to a type of connective tissue that is composed of densely packed collagen fibers. It is found in structures such as tendons and ligaments, which connect muscles to bones and bones to each other. Muscle tissue, on the other hand, is specialized tissue that is responsible for movement and contraction. The three types of muscle tissue are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of organs and blood vessels, cardiac muscle is found in the heart, and skeletal muscle is attached to bones and responsible for voluntary movements.

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  • 19. 

    Lines and encloses body cavities, secrete lubricating fluid to reduce friction from muscle movement:

    • A.

      Serous Membrane

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Mucus membrane

    • D.

      Visceral cavity

    Correct Answer
    A. Serous Membrane
    Explanation
    Serous membranes are thin, double-layered membranes that line and enclose body cavities, such as the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. These membranes secrete a lubricating fluid called serous fluid, which helps reduce friction between organs and body walls during muscle movement. This allows for smooth and painless movement of organs within the body cavities.

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  • 20. 

    Which is not a tissue:

    • A.

      Cartilage

    • B.

      Epithelial

    • C.

      Connective

    • D.

      Nervous

    Correct Answer
    A. Cartilage
    Explanation
    Cartilage is not a tissue because it is a type of connective tissue. Connective tissue is responsible for providing support, structure, and protection to the body. It is made up of cells and an extracellular matrix that contains fibers and ground substance. Cartilage, on the other hand, is a specialized type of connective tissue that is flexible and found in areas such as the joints, ears, and nose. It provides cushioning and support to these areas. Therefore, cartilage cannot be considered as a separate tissue category but rather a specific type of connective tissue.

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  • 21. 

    Melanin is more spread out in which type of skin:

    • A.

      Dark Skin

    • B.

      Light Skin

    Correct Answer
    A. Dark Skin
    Explanation
    Melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color, is more spread out in dark skin. This is why individuals with dark skin have a higher concentration of melanin, resulting in their darker complexion. The increased spread of melanin provides more protection against harmful UV rays from the sun, reducing the risk of sunburn and skin damage. Additionally, melanin helps to absorb and disperse UV radiation, which can lower the risk of developing skin cancer.

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  • 22. 

    Which is not a function of connective tissue:

    • A.

      Heat Production

    • B.

      Movement

    • C.

      Secretion

    • D.

      Transport

    Correct Answer
    C. Secretion
    Explanation
    Connective tissue is responsible for various functions in the body, including support, protection, and binding of other tissues. It also plays a crucial role in transportation of nutrients, waste products, and hormones. Additionally, connective tissue is involved in heat production through its metabolism. However, secretion is not a function of connective tissue. Secretion is primarily performed by glandular epithelial tissue, which is specialized for the production and release of substances such as hormones, enzymes, and mucus.

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  • 23. 

    Produce hormones, no open contact with exterior, no ducts, secrete fluids directly to blood:

    • A.

      Endocrine

    • B.

      Exocrine

    Correct Answer
    A. Endocrine
    Explanation
    Endocrine glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions. Unlike exocrine glands, endocrine glands do not have open contact with the exterior and do not have ducts to transport their secretions. Instead, they secrete their fluids directly into the bloodstream, allowing the hormones to be distributed throughout the body and exert their effects on target organs and tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is "Endocrine."

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  • 24. 

    The most highly vascular layer in the skin is:

    • A.

      Hypodermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Epidermis

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypodermis
    Explanation
    The hypodermis is the most highly vascular layer in the skin because it contains a network of blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the surrounding tissues. This layer is located beneath the dermis and serves as a cushioning layer, providing insulation and protection to the underlying structures. The high vascularity of the hypodermis allows for efficient delivery of blood to the skin and helps regulate body temperature.

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  • 25. 

    Atrophy is:

    • A.

      The process of the cells multiplying

    • B.

      The process of the cells enlarging

    • C.

      The process of the cells disappearing

    • D.

      The process of the cells shrinking

    Correct Answer
    D. The process of the cells shrinking
    Explanation
    Atrophy refers to the process of cells shrinking. This can occur due to various reasons such as disuse, lack of nutrients, or aging. When cells undergo atrophy, they decrease in size and may lose their function. This can happen in different tissues and organs of the body, leading to a decrease in their overall size and function.

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  • 26. 

    Which membrane lines the passage that opens to the external environment and whose functions is to lubricate/secrete fluids, absorb, and protect:

    • A.

      Serous

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Mucus

    • D.

      Synovial

    Correct Answer
    C. Mucus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mucus. Mucus is a membrane that lines the passage that opens to the external environment. Its functions include lubricating and secreting fluids, absorbing substances, and protecting the underlying tissues.

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  • 27. 

    Thinning of hair/baldness. An autoimmune deficienty:

    • A.

      Pattern Baldness

    • B.

      Hirsutism

    • C.

      Alopecia

    Correct Answer
    C. Alopecia
    Explanation
    Alopecia is the correct answer because it refers to the thinning or loss of hair, commonly known as baldness. It can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune deficiencies where the immune system mistakenly attacks hair follicles. This autoimmune deficiency leads to hair loss in patches or complete baldness. Pattern baldness and hirsutism are not relevant in this context as they refer to different conditions.

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  • 28. 

    Most common type of skin cancer that seldom metastizes is:

    • A.

      Basal Cell Carcinoma

    • B.

      Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • C.

      Melanoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Explanation
    Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer that seldom metastasizes. This means that it rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Basal Cell Carcinoma usually develops in the basal cells, which are found in the deepest layer of the epidermis. It is often caused by long-term exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Although it is the most common type of skin cancer, it is usually slow-growing and rarely spreads to other organs. Early detection and treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma are important to prevent it from causing further damage to the skin.

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  • 29. 

    Sebaceous Glands produce an oily secretion called:

    • A.

      Sweat

    • B.

      Cerumen

    • C.

      Milk

    • D.

      Sebum

    Correct Answer
    D. Sebum
    Explanation
    Sebaceous glands produce an oily secretion called sebum. Sebum is a waxy, oily substance that helps to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair. It is produced by the sebaceous glands, which are found in the dermis layer of the skin. Sebum helps to keep the skin moisturized and protects it from drying out. It also helps to keep the hair soft and shiny.

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  • 30. 

    Apocrine Glands are associated with:

    • A.

      Beard, soles, forehead

    • B.

      Pubic hair, axillary hair, beard

    • C.

      Axillary hair, beard

    Correct Answer
    B. Pubic hair, axillary hair, beard
    Explanation
    Apocrine glands are a type of sweat gland that are found in specific areas of the body, including the pubic region, the armpits (axillary area), and the facial hair area (beard). These glands are responsible for producing a thicker and more odoriferous sweat compared to the sweat produced by other sweat glands. Therefore, the correct answer is pubic hair, axillary hair, and beard, as these are the areas where apocrine glands are predominantly found.

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  • 31. 

    What primarily determines the power of a muscle?

    • A.

      The length

    • B.

      The shape

    • C.

      The number of neurons innervating it

    • D.

      The total number of muscle cells available for contraction

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of neurons innervating it
    Explanation
    The power of a muscle is primarily determined by the number of neurons innervating it. Neurons are responsible for sending signals to the muscle fibers, causing them to contract. The more neurons that innervate a muscle, the more signals can be sent and the more forceful the muscle contractions can be. The length, shape, and total number of muscle cells available for contraction may have some influence on muscle power, but the number of neurons innervating the muscle is the most significant factor.

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  • 32. 

    To exhale forcibly, one would contract the:

    • A.

      Diaphragm alone.

    • B.

      Internal intercostals and diaphragm.

    • C.

      External intercostals and diaphragm.

    • D.

      Rectus abdominis and diaphragm.

    Correct Answer
    B. Internal intercostals and diaphragm.
    Explanation
    When exhaling forcibly, the internal intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract. The internal intercostal muscles are located between the ribs and help to decrease the size of the chest cavity, while the diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and contracts to push air out of the lungs. Together, the contraction of these muscles helps to expel air forcefully during exhalation.

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  • 33. 

    Orbicularis oris ________.

    • A.

      Closes, purses, and protrudes the lips

    • B.

      Pulls the lower lip down and back

    • C.

      Draws the eyebrows together

    • D.

      Allows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye

    Correct Answer
    A. Closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
    Explanation
    The orbicularis oris muscle is responsible for closing, pursing, and protruding the lips. This muscle helps in actions such as kissing, whistling, and forming various facial expressions involving the lips.

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  • 34. 

    In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ________.

    • A.

      Biceps brachii acts as antagonist

    • B.

      Triceps brachii acts as antagonist

    • C.

      Brachioradialis acts as antagonist

    • D.

      Coracobrachialis acts as antagonist

    Correct Answer
    B. Triceps brachii acts as antagonist
    Explanation
    In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the triceps brachii acts as an antagonist. The triceps brachii is a muscle located on the back of the upper arm and is responsible for extending the forearm at the elbow joint. When flexing the forearm, the triceps brachii relaxes and allows the biceps brachii to contract and perform the movement. This makes the triceps brachii the antagonist muscle in this action.

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  • 35. 

    Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?

    • A.

      Muscle location

    • B.

      The type of muscle fibers

    • C.

      The type of action they cause

    • D.

      Muscle shape

    Correct Answer
    B. The type of muscle fibers
    Explanation
    Muscle fibers can be classified into two types: slow-twitch (Type I) and fast-twitch (Type II) fibers. Slow-twitch fibers are used for endurance activities and have a high resistance to fatigue, while fast-twitch fibers are used for explosive movements and tire quickly. However, the question asks for a way of classifying muscles, not muscle fibers. Therefore, the correct answer is "the type of muscle fibers" because this refers to the classification of individual muscle fibers, not the classification of muscles as a whole.

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  • 36. 

    Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?

    • A.

      Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones.

    • B.

      The bones serve as levers.

    • C.

      During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

    • D.

      The movements produced may be of graded intensity.

    Correct Answer
    C. During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
    Explanation
    During muscle contraction, the two articulating bones do not move equally. One bone acts as the fixed point or anchor, while the other bone moves in response to the contraction of the muscle. This movement is what allows for the generation of force and the resulting movement of the body. Therefore, the statement that the two articulating bones move equally during contraction is not true.

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  • 37. 

    A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling called the ________.

    • A.

      Platysma

    • B.

      Masseter

    • C.

      Zygomaticus

    • D.

      Buccinator

    Correct Answer
    D. Buccinator
    Explanation
    The buccinator muscle is responsible for the sucking action in nursing infants. This muscle is also used by adults for whistling. The other options, platysma, masseter, and zygomaticus, are not involved in the sucking action or whistling.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?

    • A.

      The gastrocnemius

    • B.

      The sartorius

    • C.

      All of the hamstrings

    • D.

      The quadriceps femoris

    Correct Answer
    B. The sartorius
    Explanation
    The sartorius muscle is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position. The sartorius is the longest muscle in the body and runs from the hip to the knee. It is responsible for flexing, abducting, and laterally rotating the hip joint, as well as flexing and medially rotating the knee joint. When crossing one leg over the other, the sartorius muscle contracts to help bring the leg across the midline of the body.

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  • 39. 

    The muscles that are found at openings of the body are collectively called ________.

    • A.

      Convergent muscles

    • B.

      Circular muscles

    • C.

      Parallel muscles

    • D.

      Divergent muscles

    Correct Answer
    B. Circular muscles
    Explanation
    Circular muscles are the correct answer because they are the muscles that are found at openings of the body. These muscles are arranged in a circular pattern and when they contract, they constrict the opening, helping to control the flow of substances in and out of the body. Examples of circular muscles include the muscles of the iris in the eye and the muscles that control the sphincters in the digestive and urinary systems.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body?

    • A.

      There are approximately the same number of muscles as bones: 206.

    • B.

      There are approximately 350 muscles in the body.

    • C.

      There are over 600 muscles in the body.

    • D.

      If one considers the very tiny, insignificant muscles, there are over 1000 muscles in the body.

    Correct Answer
    C. There are over 600 muscles in the body.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that there are over 600 muscles in the body. This is true because the human body contains hundreds of skeletal muscles that are responsible for various movements and functions. These muscles are attached to bones and work together to allow the body to move, maintain posture, and perform other essential activities. While the exact number of muscles may vary depending on individual variations, it is generally accepted that there are over 600 muscles in the human body.

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  • 41. 

    When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscleʹs name, you can assume that ________.

    • A.

      The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively

    • B.

      The muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively

    • C.

      The muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively

    • D.

      The muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively

    Correct Answer
    A. The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
    Explanation
    When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, it indicates the number of origins that the muscle has. "Bi" means two, "tri" means three, and "quad" means four. Therefore, when these terms are used, it signifies that the muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following muscles is involved in abduction?

    • A.

      Deltoid

    • B.

      Subscapularis

    • C.

      Teres major

    • D.

      Latissimus dorsi

    Correct Answer
    A. Deltoid
    Explanation
    The deltoid muscle is involved in abduction. Abduction refers to the movement of a body part away from the midline of the body. The deltoid muscle is located in the shoulder and is responsible for lifting the arm away from the body. It is a large, triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint and allows for a wide range of movement, including abduction. The other muscles listed, such as the subscapularis, teres major, and latissimus dorsi, are not primarily involved in abduction.

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  • 43. 

    What primarily determines the power of a muscle?

    • A.

      The length

    • B.

      The shape

    • C.

      The number of neurons innervating it

    • D.

      The total number of muscle cells available for contraction

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of neurons innervating it
    Explanation
    The power of a muscle is primarily determined by the number of neurons innervating it. Neurons are responsible for transmitting signals from the brain to the muscle, allowing it to contract and generate force. The more neurons that innervate a muscle, the more signals it can receive and the more power it can generate. The length, shape, and total number of muscle cells available for contraction may have some influence on muscle strength, but the number of neurons innervating the muscle is the most significant factor.

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  • 44. 

    To exhale forcibly, one would contract the:

    • A.

      Diaphragm alone.

    • B.

      Internal intercostals and diaphragm.

    • C.

      External intercostals and diaphragm.

    • D.

      Rectus abdominis and diaphragm.

    Correct Answer
    B. Internal intercostals and diaphragm.
    Explanation
    When exhaling forcibly, the internal intercostals and diaphragm contract. The internal intercostals are muscles located between the ribs, and their contraction helps to decrease the size of the chest cavity. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the chest cavity, and its contraction also helps to decrease the size of the chest cavity. By contracting these muscles, the lungs are compressed, causing air to be expelled from the lungs more forcefully. The other options listed do not involve the muscles necessary for forceful exhalation.

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  • 45. 

    Orbicularis oris ________.

    • A.

      Closes, purses, and protrudes the lips

    • B.

      Pulls the lower lip down and back

    • C.

      Draws the eyebrows together

    • D.

      Allows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye

    Correct Answer
    A. Closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
    Explanation
    The orbicularis oris muscle is responsible for closing, pursing, and protruding the lips. This muscle is located around the mouth and helps in various functions such as speaking, eating, and facial expressions like kissing or smiling.

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  • 46. 

    In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ________.

    • A.

      Biceps brachii acts as antagonist

    • B.

      Triceps brachii acts as antagonist

    • C.

      Brachioradialis acts as antagonist

    • D.

      Coracobrachialis acts as antagonist

    Correct Answer
    B. Triceps brachii acts as antagonist
    Explanation
    The triceps brachii acts as an antagonist in flexing the forearm at the elbow. When the biceps brachii contracts to flex the forearm, the triceps brachii relaxes to allow this movement to occur smoothly. The triceps brachii is responsible for extending the forearm, so it acts in opposition to the biceps brachii during flexion.

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  • 47. 

    Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?

    • A.

      Muscle location

    • B.

      The type of muscle fibers

    • C.

      The type of action they cause

    • D.

      Muscle shape

    Correct Answer
    B. The type of muscle fibers
    Explanation
    Muscle classification can be based on various factors such as muscle location, the type of action they cause, and muscle shape. However, the type of muscle fibers is not a way of classifying muscles. Muscle fibers can be classified as either slow-twitch (Type I) or fast-twitch (Type II) based on their contraction speed and endurance capabilities. However, this classification is specific to the muscle fibers themselves and not used to classify muscles as a whole.

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  • 48. 

    Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?

    • A.

      Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones.

    • B.

      The bones serve as levers.

    • C.

      During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

    • D.

      The movements produced may be of graded intensity.

    Correct Answer
    C. During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
    Explanation
    During muscle contraction, the two articulating bones do not necessarily move equally. The movement of bones depends on the type of joint and the specific muscle involved. Some muscles may cause one bone to move while the other remains relatively stationary. In other cases, the movement may be asymmetrical, with one bone moving more than the other. Therefore, the statement that the two articulating bones move equally during contraction is not true.

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  • 49. 

    A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling called the ________.

    • A.

      Platysma

    • B.

      Masseter

    • C.

      Zygomaticus

    • D.

      Buccinator

    Correct Answer
    D. Buccinator
    Explanation
    The buccinator muscle is responsible for the sucking motion in nursing infants and is also used by adults for whistling. This muscle is located in the cheeks and helps to compress the cheeks against the teeth and gums, allowing for the sucking action. The other muscles listed, such as the platysma, masseter, and zygomaticus, are not directly involved in the sucking motion and do not play a role in whistling.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?

    • A.

      The gastrocnemius

    • B.

      The sartorius

    • C.

      All of the hamstrings

    • D.

      The quadriceps femoris

    Correct Answer
    B. The sartorius
    Explanation
    The sartorius muscle is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position. The sartorius is a long, thin muscle that runs diagonally across the front of the thigh. It is responsible for flexing, abducting, and laterally rotating the hip joint, as well as flexing the knee joint. When crossing one leg over the other, the sartorius muscle is activated to bring the leg across the midline of the body. The other muscles listed, such as the gastrocnemius, hamstrings, and quadriceps femoris, are not directly involved in this specific movement.

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