Anatomy II Test 2 Part 1

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

You may have gotten past the last test, but it’s time to up the ante as we look at some more questions related to the human anatomy. Have you learned everything about blood vessels, tissue cells, blood pressure and more? Let’s take a look in this Anatomy II Test 2 Part 1 quiz!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the

    • A.

      Tunica media

    • B.

      Tunica adventitia

    • C.

      Tunica intima

    • D.

      Tunica externa

    • E.

      Tunica interna

    Correct Answer
    A. Tunica media
    Explanation
    The correct answer is tunica media. The tunica media is the middle layer of a blood vessel and is composed of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for regulating the diameter of the blood vessel, which in turn controls blood flow and blood pressure. The tunica adventitia is the outermost layer, providing structural support to the blood vessel. The tunica intima is the innermost layer, consisting of endothelial cells that line the vessel. The tunica externa and tunica interna are not anatomical terms used to describe the layers of a blood vessel.

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  • 2. 

    Compared to arteries, veins

    • A.

      Have a pleated endothelium

    • B.

      Are more elastic

    • C.

      Have thinner walls

    • D.

      Hold their shape when cut

    • E.

      Have more smooth muscle in their tunica media

    Correct Answer
    C. Have thinner walls
    Explanation
    Veins have thinner walls compared to arteries. This is because veins do not experience the same high pressure as arteries, so they do not need to be as strong or thick. Veins are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood back to the heart, and their thinner walls allow for easier blood flow and less resistance. In contrast, arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart at high pressure, so they have thicker and more muscular walls to withstand the force of the blood being pumped.

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  • 3. 

    Capillaries with a perforated lining are called

    • A.

      Vasa vasorum

    • B.

      Sinuses

    • C.

      Discontinuous capillaries

    • D.

      Fenestrated capillaries

    • E.

      Perforated capillaries

    Correct Answer
    D. Fenestrated capillaries
    Explanation
    Fenestrated capillaries are capillaries with small pores or openings in their lining, allowing for the exchange of small molecules and fluids between the blood and surrounding tissues. These capillaries are found in organs that require rapid exchange of substances, such as the kidneys, endocrine glands, and intestines. The term "perforated capillaries" is not commonly used in the scientific literature to describe this type of capillary, making it an incorrect option. Vasa vasorum refers to the small blood vessels that supply nutrients to the walls of larger blood vessels, sinuses are large open spaces, and discontinuous capillaries are a less specific term that could refer to various types of capillaries with interrupted linings.

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  • 4. 

    Materials can move across capillary walls by

    • A.

      Reabsorbtion

    • B.

      Filtraton

    • C.

      Diffusion

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Materials can move across capillary walls by reabsorption, filtration, and diffusion. Reabsorption refers to the movement of substances from the capillaries back into the bloodstream. Filtration is the process by which substances are forced out of the capillaries and into the surrounding tissues. Diffusion involves the passive movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Therefore, all of the above options are correct in terms of materials moving across capillary walls.

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  • 5. 

    Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?

    • A.

      Venule

    • B.

      Artery

    • C.

      Vein

    • D.

      Arteriole

    • E.

      Capillary

    Correct Answer
    E. Capillary
    Explanation
    Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels with thin walls, allowing for efficient exchange of nutrients, gases, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues. This exchange occurs through the process of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration (blood) to an area of low concentration (tissue cells). Capillaries have a large surface area and slow blood flow, facilitating this exchange process. Therefore, capillaries are the primary location for metabolite exchange with tissue cells.

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  • 6. 

    Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following except the

    • A.

      Osmolarity of interstital fluids

    • B.

      Blood vessel diameter

    • C.

      Flow characteristics

    • D.

      Blood viscosity

    • E.

      Length of a blood vessel

    Correct Answer
    A. Osmolarity of interstital fluids
    Explanation
    Total peripheral resistance refers to the resistance encountered by blood flow in the systemic circulation. It is determined by factors such as blood vessel diameter, flow characteristics, blood viscosity, and length of a blood vessel. Osmolarity of interstitial fluids, on the other hand, refers to the concentration of solutes in the fluid surrounding the cells. While osmolarity can affect fluid balance and cell function, it does not directly impact total peripheral resistance. Therefore, the osmolarity of interstitial fluids is not related to total peripheral resistance.

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  • 7. 

    As blood travels from arteries to veins

    • A.

      Pressure builds

    • B.

      Pressure drops

    • C.

      Diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller

    • D.

      Flow becomes turbulent

    • E.

      Viscosity increases

    Correct Answer
    B. Pressure drops
    Explanation
    As blood travels from arteries to veins, the pressure drops. This is because arteries carry blood away from the heart at high pressure, while veins carry blood back to the heart at lower pressure. The drop in pressure allows the blood to flow smoothly and efficiently through the veins. Additionally, the diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller, which also contributes to the decrease in pressure.

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  • 8. 

    Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the

    • A.

      Veins constrict

    • B.

      Level of oxygen at the tissue increases

    • C.

      Arterioles dilate

    • D.

      Level of carbon dioxide at the tissue decreases

    • E.

      Both c and d

    Correct Answer
    C. Arterioles dilate
    Explanation
    When arterioles dilate, it means that the smooth muscles in the walls of the arterioles relax, allowing them to widen. This widening increases the diameter of the arterioles, which in turn increases blood flow to the tissue. This is because the increased diameter of the arterioles reduces resistance to blood flow, allowing more blood to reach the tissue. Therefore, the correct answer is arterioles dilate.

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  • 9. 

    Blood pressure is highest here.

    • A.

      Artery

    • B.

      Vein

    • C.

      Capillary

    • D.

      Venule

    • E.

      Areriole

    Correct Answer
    A. Artery
    Explanation
    Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure generated by the heart's pumping action. This allows arteries to maintain a high blood pressure, making them the correct answer for the location where blood pressure is highest. Veins, capillaries, venules, and arterioles have lower blood pressure compared to arteries.

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  • 10. 

    The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ______ pressure.

    • A.

      Critical closing

    • B.

      Circulatory

    • C.

      Mean arterial

    • D.

      Pulse

    • E.

      Blood

    Correct Answer
    D. Pulse
    Explanation
    The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the pulse pressure. This is the numerical value obtained by subtracting the diastolic pressure from the systolic pressure. It represents the force exerted by the heart with each contraction and is an important indicator of cardiovascular health.

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  • 11. 

    The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the

    • A.

      Concentration of plasma waste products

    • B.

      Number of red blood cells

    • C.

      Concentration of plasma proteins

    • D.

      Concentration of plasma glucose

    • E.

      Concentration of plasma sodium ions

    Correct Answer
    C. Concentration of plasma proteins
    Explanation
    The blood colloid osmotic pressure is primarily determined by the concentration of plasma proteins. These proteins, such as albumin, exert an osmotic force that helps to maintain fluid balance within the blood vessels. When the concentration of plasma proteins is low, as in conditions like liver disease or malnutrition, the blood colloid osmotic pressure decreases, leading to fluid accumulation in the tissues and causing edema. Therefore, the concentration of plasma proteins plays a crucial role in regulating the blood colloid osmotic pressure.

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  • 12. 

    When renin is released from the kidney

    • A.

      Blood pressure goes down

    • B.

      Angiotensiongen is converted into angiotensis I

    • C.

      Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II

    • D.

      Blood flow to the kidney decreases

    • E.

      Angiotensin I increases salt reabsorbtion at the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    B. Angiotensiongen is converted into angiotensis I
    Explanation
    When renin is released from the kidney, it initiates a cascade of reactions that ultimately lead to the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. This conversion is an important step in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) pathway. Angiotensin I is then further converted to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to constrict, leading to an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is that angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I when renin is released from the kidney.

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  • 13. 

    Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except

    • A.

      Decrease in blood volume

    • B.

      Increased levels of ANP

    • C.

      Decreased peripheral resistance

    • D.

      Release of renin

    • E.

      Increased levels of aldosterone

    Correct Answer
    D. Release of renin
    Explanation
    The release of renin is not expected to lead to a decrease in blood pressure. Renin is an enzyme that is released by the kidneys when there is a decrease in blood flow or a decrease in sodium levels. Its primary function is to initiate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which ultimately leads to an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the release of renin would actually cause an increase in blood pressure, making it the exception among the given options.

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  • 14. 

    Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Aorta

    • C.

      Left atrium

    • D.

      Systemic circuit

    • E.

      Right atrium

    Correct Answer
    A. Lungs
    Explanation
    Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the lungs. This is because the pulmonary arteries are responsible for transporting deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, where it can be oxygenated. Once the blood reaches the lungs, it undergoes gas exchange, where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is taken in. This oxygenated blood is then returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins and is pumped out to the rest of the body through the systemic circuit. Therefore, the correct answer is "lungs."

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  • 15. 

    Pulmonary Veins carry blood to the

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Right atrium

    • C.

      Lungs

    • D.

      Pulmonary circuit

    • E.

      Left atrium

    Correct Answer
    E. Left atrium
    Explanation
    The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. This blood is then pumped into the left atrium, which is one of the four chambers of the heart. From the left atrium, the blood flows into the left ventricle and is then pumped out to the rest of the body through the aorta. Therefore, the correct answer is left atrium.

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  • 16. 

    An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the ____ artery

    • A.

      Azygos

    • B.

      Mental

    • C.

      External carotid

    • D.

      Internal carotid

    • E.

      Maxillary

    Correct Answer
    D. Internal carotid
    Explanation
    The internal carotid artery is an important artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is one of the two main branches of the common carotid artery. The internal carotid artery enters the skull through the carotid canal and provides blood supply to the brain, including the cerebrum and the eyes. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain, making it a crucial artery for brain function.

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  • 17. 

    Blood from the brain returns to the heart through the _____ vein

    • A.

      Azygos

    • B.

      External jugular

    • C.

      Internal jugular

    • D.

      Vertebral

    • E.

      Innominate

    Correct Answer
    C. Internal jugular
    Explanation
    The internal jugular vein is responsible for carrying blood from the brain back to the heart. It is a major vein located in the neck that runs alongside the carotid artery. The other options listed, such as the azygos, external jugular, vertebral, and innominate veins, are not directly involved in the drainage of blood from the brain to the heart.

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  • 18. 

    Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors reflexy results in

    • A.

      Increased heart rate

    • B.

      Stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center in the brain

    • C.

      Increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart

    • D.

      Stimulation of the vascconstrictive center

    • E.

      Increased activity by parasympathetic nervous system

    Correct Answer
    E. Increased activity by parasympathetic nervous system
    Explanation
    Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors reflex results in increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system. Aortic baroreceptors are specialized nerve endings located in the aortic arch, which detect changes in blood pressure. When blood pressure increases, the baroreceptors send signals to the brain, specifically to the cardiovascular control center, which then activates the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system helps to decrease heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation and reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Therefore, increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system is the correct answer.

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  • 19. 

    In response to hemorrhage there is

    • A.

      Peripheral vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart

    • C.

      Mobilzation of the venous reserve

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and c only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and c only
    Explanation
    In response to hemorrhage, there is peripheral vasoconstriction and mobilization of the venous reserve. This means that the blood vessels in the peripheral parts of the body constrict, which helps to redirect blood flow to vital organs. Additionally, the body mobilizes the venous reserve, which refers to the extra blood that is stored in the veins and can be released to increase blood volume. Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart is not a response to hemorrhage.

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  • 20. 

    Branches off the aortic arch include the

    • A.

      Left subclavin artery

    • B.

      Brachiocephalic trunk

    • C.

      Left comman carotid artery

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      B and c only

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The branches off the aortic arch include the left subclavin artery, brachiocephalic trunk, and left common carotid artery. These arteries supply blood to different parts of the body. The left subclavin artery supplies blood to the left arm, the brachiocephalic trunk supplies blood to the right arm, head, and neck, and the left common carotid artery supplies blood to the left side of the head and neck. Therefore, all of the above options are correct.

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  • 21. 

    After passing the first rib, the sub clavin artery becomes the ____ artery.

    • A.

      Ulnar

    • B.

      Digital

    • C.

      Brachial

    • D.

      Axillary

    • E.

      Radial

    Correct Answer
    D. Axillary
    Explanation
    After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery continues its course and becomes the axillary artery. The axillary artery is a major blood vessel that supplies blood to the upper limb. It begins at the lateral border of the first rib and extends to the lower border of the teres major muscle. It is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the shoulder, chest wall, and upper arm.

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  • 22. 

    After entering the arm, the axillary artery becomes the ____ artery.

    • A.

      Ulnar

    • B.

      Brachial

    • C.

      Radial

    • D.

      Digital

    • E.

      Subclavin

    Correct Answer
    B. Brachial
    Explanation
    After entering the arm, the axillary artery continues its course and becomes the brachial artery. This transition occurs in the upper arm region. The brachial artery is responsible for supplying blood to the muscles of the upper arm and elbow joint. It also gives rise to several branches that supply blood to the forearm and hand.

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  • 23. 

    The brachial artery branches to form the radical and _____ arteries.

    • A.

      Digital

    • B.

      Brachiocephalic

    • C.

      Ulnar

    • D.

      Axillary

    • E.

      Subclavin

    Correct Answer
    C. Ulnar
    Explanation
    The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ulnar arteries. The radial artery runs along the thumb side of the forearm, while the ulnar artery runs along the pinky side. These arteries supply blood to the forearm and hand.

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  • 24. 

    The inernal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called the

    • A.

      Common carotid artery

    • B.

      Basal ring

    • C.

      Arterial bypass

    • D.

      External carotid artery

    • E.

      Cerebral arterial circle

    Correct Answer
    E. Cerebral arterial circle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cerebral arterial circle. The cerebral arterial circle, also known as the Circle of Willis, is an anastomosis of blood vessels located at the base of the brain. It connects the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery, allowing for collateral circulation and equal distribution of blood flow to the brain. This circle of blood vessels helps to ensure that even if one of the major arteries supplying the brain becomes blocked or damaged, blood can still reach all areas of the brain through alternative routes.

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  • 25. 

    The _____ divides the aorta into the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta

    • A.

      Diaphragm

    • B.

      Peritoneum

    • C.

      Mediastinum

    • D.

      Pleura

    • E.

      Pericardium

    Correct Answer
    A. Diaphragm
    Explanation
    The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a crucial role in respiration by contracting and relaxing to allow for the expansion and contraction of the lungs. In addition to its respiratory function, the diaphragm also acts as a barrier between the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta, effectively dividing the aorta into two sections. This division is important for the proper functioning of the circulatory system and the distribution of oxygenated blood throughout the body.

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  • 26. 

    The vessel that recievs blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the

    • A.

      Coronary sinus

    • B.

      External juglar vein

    • C.

      Internal jugular vein

    • D.

      Superior vena cava

    • E.

      Inferior vena cava

    Correct Answer
    D. Superior vena cava
    Explanation
    The superior vena cava is the vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms. It is the largest vein in the body and carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body to the right atrium of the heart. The other options listed, such as the coronary sinus, external jugular vein, internal jugular vein, and inferior vena cava, are not responsible for receiving blood from these specific areas of the body.

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  • 27. 

    The radical and ulnar veins fuse to form the _____ vein.

    • A.

      Hemiazygos

    • B.

      Azygos

    • C.

      Axillary

    • D.

      Basilic

    • E.

      Barchial

    Correct Answer
    E. Barchial
  • 28. 

    When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the ______ vein.

    • A.

      Deep formal

    • B.

      Femoral

    • C.

      Interal iliac

    • D.

      Lumbar

    • E.

      External iliac

    Correct Answer
    B. Femoral
    Explanation
    When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the femoral vein. This is because the popliteal vein is located behind the knee and runs through the popliteal fossa. As it continues its course upwards, it passes through the adductor canal and enters the thigh. At this point, it is referred to as the femoral vein. The femoral vein is a major blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities back to the heart.

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  • 29. 

    The two comman iliac veins form the

    • A.

      Inferior vena cava

    • B.

      Femoral vein

    • C.

      Innominate vein

    • D.

      Greater saphenous vein

    • E.

      Hepatic portal vein

    Correct Answer
    A. Inferior vena cava
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the inferior vena cava. The two common iliac veins merge to form the inferior vena cava, which is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body to the right atrium of the heart. The inferior vena cava is an essential component of the circulatory system, playing a crucial role in returning blood to the heart for oxygenation.

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  • 30. 

    Elderly individuals usually have

    • A.

      Stiff inelastic arteries

    • B.

      Increased blood pressure

    • C.

      Reduced hematocrits

    • D.

      Decreased cardiac reserve

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    As individuals age, their arteries tend to become stiff and less elastic, which can lead to increased blood pressure. Additionally, aging is associated with a decrease in hematocrit levels, which is the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. Lastly, elderly individuals often have a decreased cardiac reserve, meaning their hearts are less able to respond to increased demands. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and commonly observed in elderly individuals.

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  • 31. 

    The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called

    • A.

      Arterioles

    • B.

      Capillaries

    • C.

      Venules

    • D.

      Arteries

    • E.

      Veins

    Correct Answer
    E. Veins
    Explanation
    Veins are the correct answer because they are the large vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Arterioles are smaller vessels that branch out from arteries and lead to capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels where exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products occurs. Venules are small vessels that receive blood from capillaries and lead to veins. Arteries, on the other hand, carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.

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  • 32. 

    In large arteries the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the

    • A.

      Tunia media

    • B.

      Tunica externa

    • C.

      Internal elastic membrane

    • D.

      External elastic membrane

    • E.

      Tunica intima

    Correct Answer
    C. Internal elastic membrane
    Explanation
    The correct answer is internal elastic membrane. In large arteries, the internal elastic membrane is a thick layer of elastic fibers that separates the tunica intima from the tunica media. It provides elasticity and helps maintain the structural integrity of the artery. The tunica externa is the outermost layer of the artery, while the tunica intima is the innermost layer. The external elastic membrane is found between the tunica media and the tunica externa.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following is most likely to result from an aneurysm in a brain artery?

    • A.

      Quadriplegia

    • B.

      Stroke

    • C.

      Pulmonary embolism

    • D.

      Myocardial infarction

    • E.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    B. Stroke
    Explanation
    An aneurysm in a brain artery is most likely to result in a stroke. An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the wall of an artery, and if it ruptures in the brain, it can cause bleeding and interrupt the blood flow to certain areas, leading to a stroke. A stroke occurs when there is a blockage or rupture of blood vessels in the brain, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells, resulting in damage or death of those cells. This can lead to various neurological symptoms depending on the affected area of the brain.

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  • 34. 

    These vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply

    • A.

      Vein

    • B.

      Artery

    • C.

      Capillary

    • D.

      Venule

    • E.

      Arteriole

    Correct Answer
    A. Vein
    Explanation
    Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. They have a larger diameter and thinner walls compared to arteries, allowing them to hold a larger percentage of the blood supply. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, capillaries are the smallest blood vessels where exchange of nutrients and waste occurs, venules are small veins that receive blood from capillaries, and arterioles are small arteries that regulate blood flow. Therefore, veins are the correct answer as they have the capacity to hold the largest percentage of the blood supply.

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  • 35. 

    A vein that measures 5 mm would be considered

    • A.

      A venous valve

    • B.

      A medium vein

    • C.

      An arteriovenule

    • D.

      A venule

    • E.

      A large vein

    Correct Answer
    B. A medium vein
    Explanation
    A vein that measures 5 mm would be considered a medium vein because it falls in the middle range of vein sizes. Veins can vary in size, with smaller ones called venules and larger ones called large veins. The given measurement of 5 mm indicates that it is not a smaller venule or a larger vein, but rather falls in the middle range, making it a medium vein.

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  • 36. 

    Clinically the term blood pressure usually refers to

    • A.

      Arteriovenous pressure

    • B.

      Peripheral pressure

    • C.

      Capillary hydrostatic pressure

    • D.

      Pulse pressure

    • E.

      Arterial pressure

    Correct Answer
    E. Arterial pressure
    Explanation
    The term "blood pressure" clinically refers to the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries. This is commonly measured using a sphygmomanometer and is expressed as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. Arterial pressure specifically refers to the pressure within the arteries, which is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and can help diagnose conditions such as hypertension.

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  • 37. 

    Venous valces are responsible for

    • A.

      Preventing anterograde flow

    • B.

      Channeling blood toward the heart

    • C.

      Channeling blood away from the heart

    • D.

      Both a and b

    • E.

      Both a and c

    Correct Answer
    B. Channeling blood toward the heart
    Explanation
    Venous valves are responsible for channeling blood toward the heart. These valves are present in the veins and help to prevent the backward flow of blood, ensuring that it moves in the correct direction towards the heart. This mechanism is important for maintaining proper blood circulation throughout the body and preventing any pooling or stagnation of blood in the veins.

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  • 38. 

    ADH and aldosterone secreation are part of the bodys long term compensation for

    • A.

      A heavy meal

    • B.

      Prolonged exercise

    • C.

      A serious hemmorage

    • D.

      Hypertension

    • E.

      A heart attack

    Correct Answer
    C. A serious hemmorage
    Explanation
    ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for a serious hemorrhage. When a significant amount of blood is lost due to hemorrhage, the body responds by increasing the secretion of ADH and aldosterone. ADH helps to increase water reabsorption in the kidneys, reducing urine output and conserving water in the body. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium and water in the kidneys, further helping to retain fluids. These compensatory mechanisms aim to maintain blood volume and blood pressure, which are significantly affected by hemorrhage.

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  • 39. 

    Factors that increase the rish of artherosclerosis include which of the following?

    • A.

      Smoking

    • B.

      Lack of exercies

    • C.

      Obesity

    • D.

      High cholesterol

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the listed factors, smoking, lack of exercise, obesity, and high cholesterol, increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Smoking damages blood vessels and promotes the formation of plaque. Lack of exercise contributes to weight gain and high cholesterol levels, both of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Obesity increases the strain on the heart and can lead to high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels are a direct risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, all of these factors combined significantly increase the risk of atherosclerosis.

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  • 40. 

    Turbulent blood flow occurs

    • A.

      A high flow rates

    • B.

      When there are irregularities in the vessel wall

    • C.

      When there are sudden changes in vessel diameter

    • D.

      A and c only

    • E.

      A b and c

    Correct Answer
    E. A b and c
    Explanation
    Turbulent blood flow can occur at high flow rates, when there are irregularities in the vessel wall, and when there are sudden changes in vessel diameter. These factors can disrupt the smooth flow of blood, causing it to become turbulent.

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  • 41. 

    Edema is favored when

    • A.

      Endothelial permeabiltiy goes up

    • B.

      Capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated

    • C.

      The plasma concentration of protein is reduced

    • D.

      A and c only

    • E.

      A b and c

    Correct Answer
    E. A b and c
    Explanation
    Edema is favored when endothelial permeability goes up, capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated, and the plasma concentration of protein is reduced. These factors contribute to an increase in the movement of fluid from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, leading to the accumulation of fluid and the development of edema. Therefore, options a, b, and c are all correct explanations for why edema may occur.

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  • 42. 

    When a person rises quickly from a sitting position

    • A.

      Reflex vasoconstriction of peropheral blood vessels occurs

    • B.

      Heart rate is reflexy elevated

    • C.

      The carotid baroreceptors become less active

    • D.

      Venous return is decreased

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Heart rate is reflexy elevated
    Explanation
    When a person rises quickly from a sitting position, the body's reflex response is to increase the heart rate. This is because the sudden change in position causes a temporary drop in blood pressure, and the body compensates by increasing the heart rate to maintain adequate blood flow to the brain and other organs. This reflexive elevation of heart rate helps to counteract the decrease in blood pressure and prevent dizziness or fainting.

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  • 43. 

    After losing 25 percent of blood volume in a motorcycle accident which of the following compensatory responses would occur?

    • A.

      Vasoconstricion of the body wall

    • B.

      Increase of contractility

    • C.

      Venoconstriction of skin vessels

    • D.

      Increased heart rate

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    After losing 25 percent of blood volume in a motorcycle accident, the body would initiate compensatory responses to maintain blood pressure and perfusion. Vasoconstriction of the body wall would occur to redirect blood flow to vital organs. Increase of contractility would help the heart pump blood more forcefully. Venoconstriction of skin vessels would reduce blood flow to the skin and redirect it to more important areas. Increased heart rate would also help maintain cardiac output. Therefore, all of the above responses would occur to compensate for the blood loss.

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  • 44. 

    Identify the artery labeled 16

    • A.

      Axiallary

    • B.

      Splenic

    • C.

      Celiac

    • D.

      Superior mesenteric

    • E.

      Inferior mesenteric

    Correct Answer
    E. Inferior mesenteric
    Explanation
    The artery labeled 16 is the inferior mesenteric artery.

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  • 45. 

    Identify the artery labeled 12

    • A.

      Axiallary

    • B.

      Inferior mesenteric

    • C.

      Celiac trunk

    • D.

      Splenic

    • E.

      Superior mesenteric

    Correct Answer
    C. Celiac trunk
    Explanation
    The correct answer is celiac trunk. The celiac trunk is a major branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the upper abdominal organs, including the stomach, liver, spleen, and pancreas. It is located just below the diaphragm and is responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to these organs.

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  • 46. 

    Identify the artery labeled 1

    • A.

      Brachiocephalic

    • B.

      Common carotid

    • C.

      Aorta

    • D.

      Brachial

    • E.

      Axiallary

    Correct Answer
    A. Brachiocephalic
    Explanation
    The artery labeled 1 is the brachiocephalic artery.

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  • 47. 

    Identify the arteries labeled 9

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Brachial

    • C.

      Brachiocephalic

    • D.

      Common carotid

    • E.

      Axiallary

    Correct Answer
    D. Common carotid
    Explanation
    The artery labeled 9 is the common carotid artery. The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel located in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck region. It branches off into the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, and the external carotid artery, which supplies blood to the face and neck muscles.

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  • 48. 

    Identify the arteries labeled 6

    • A.

      Femoral

    • B.

      Interal iliac

    • C.

      Abdominal aorta

    • D.

      External iliac

    • E.

      Comman iliac

    Correct Answer
    E. Comman iliac
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the common iliac artery. The common iliac artery is a major blood vessel that branches off from the abdominal aorta and supplies blood to the pelvic organs and lower limbs. It divides into the internal iliac artery, which supplies the pelvic organs, and the external iliac artery, which continues down the leg as the femoral artery. Therefore, option 6, common iliac artery, is the correct identification for the labeled artery.

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  • 49. 

    Identify the vein labeled 9

    • A.

      Brachial

    • B.

      Median cubital

    • C.

      Axillary

    • D.

      Basilic

    • E.

      Cephalic

    Correct Answer
    C. Axillary
    Explanation
    The correct answer is axillary. The axillary vein is located in the armpit region and is responsible for draining blood from the upper limb. It is a continuation of the basilic vein and becomes the subclavian vein as it travels towards the heart. The brachial, median cubital, basilic, and cephalic veins are also present in the upper limb, but they are not labeled as vein number 9.

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  • 50. 

    Identify the vein labeled 15

    • A.

      Ulnar

    • B.

      Axiallary

    • C.

      Brachial

    • D.

      Radial

    • E.

      Basilic

    Correct Answer
    A. Ulnar
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ulnar because it is a vein located in the forearm. It runs parallel to the ulna bone and is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The other options, such as axiallary, brachial, radial, and basilic, are not veins in the forearm.

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