The Heart Practice MCQ's - The Cardiovascular System (I): The Heart

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The Heart Practice MCQs - The Cardiovascular System (I): The Heart - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which mesodermal layer gives rise to the endocardial heart tubes?

    • A.

      Paraxial mesoderm

    • B.

      Somatic mesoderm

    • C.

      Intermediate mesoderm

    • D.

      Splanchnic mesoderm

    • E.

      Somitic mesoderm

    Correct Answer
    D. Splanchnic mesoderm
    Explanation
    The splanchnic mesoderm gives rise to the endocardial heart tubes. The endocardial heart tubes are the precursor of the heart and are formed during early embryonic development. The splanchnic mesoderm is one of the three layers of the mesoderm, along with the paraxial and intermediate mesoderm. It is located closest to the developing gut and plays a crucial role in the formation of various organs, including the heart. Therefore, the correct answer is splanchnic mesoderm.

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  • 2. 

    Which heart chamber does the right horn of the sinus venosus contribute to during development of the fetal heart?

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Left ventricle

    • C.

      Right atrium

    • D.

      Right ventricle

    • E.

      Common ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Right atrium
    Explanation
    During the development of the fetal heart, the right horn of the sinus venosus contributes to the formation of the right atrium. The sinus venosus is a part of the developing heart that receives deoxygenated blood from the veins. As the heart develops, the right horn of the sinus venosus specifically contributes to the formation of the right atrium, which is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body and pumping it into the right ventricle.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the aorticopulmonary septum is INCORRECT?

    • A.

      The aorticopulmonary septum partitions the outflow channel of the ventricles into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk.

    • B.

      The aorticopulmonary septum is largely derived from neural crest cells

    • C.

      The aorticopulmonary septum contributes to the formation of the muscular interventricular septum

    • D.

      The aorticopulmonary septum contributes to the formation of the membranous interventricular septum

    • E.

      The aorticopulmonary septum undergoes a 180o spiral

    Correct Answer
    C. The aorticopulmonary septum contributes to the formation of the muscular interventricular septum
    Explanation
    The aorticopulmonary septum does not contribute to the formation of the muscular interventricular septum. The muscular interventricular septum is formed by the growth and fusion of the muscular walls of the ventricles. The aorticopulmonary septum, on the other hand, separates the outflow channel of the ventricles into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk.

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  • 4. 

    A newborn infant presents with cyanotic heart disease and fails to thrive.  On examination of the heart, it was revealed that the aorta arose from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk arose from the left ventricle.  What is the name given to this type of cardiac malformation?

    • A.

      Persistent truncus arteriosus

    • B.

      Transposition of the great vessels

    • C.

      Tetralogy of Fallot

    • D.

      Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

    • E.

      Atrial-septal defect (ASD)

    Correct Answer
    B. Transposition of the great vessels
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transposition of the great vessels. Transposition of the great vessels is a congenital heart defect where the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk arises from the left ventricle. This results in a complete reversal of the normal blood flow pattern. The condition presents with cyanotic heart disease and failure to thrive in newborn infants.

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  • 5. 

    Which part of the primitive heart tube gives rise to the pulmonary artery and the aorta?

    • A.

      Bulbus cordis

    • B.

      Primitive atrium

    • C.

      Primitive ventricle

    • D.

      Sinus venosus

    • E.

      Truncus arteriosus

    Correct Answer
    E. Truncus arteriosus
    Explanation
    The truncus arteriosus gives rise to the pulmonary artery and the aorta. During embryonic development, the truncus arteriosus is a part of the primitive heart tube that eventually divides into two separate vessels, forming the pulmonary artery and the aorta. This division allows for the proper separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flow in the developing cardiovascular system.

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  • 6. 

    The left sinus horn becomes the

    • A.

      Coronary sinus.

    • B.

      Inferior vena cava.

    • C.

      Oblique vein of the right atrium.

    • D.

      Main inflow of the right atrium

    • E.

      Left sinus horn, there is no change.

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronary sinus.
    Explanation
    During embryonic development, the heart undergoes several changes to form its final structure. The left sinus horn is a part of the developing heart that eventually becomes the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus is a large vein located in the posterior part of the heart that collects deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle itself and drains it into the right atrium. Therefore, the correct answer is the coronary sinus.

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  • 7. 

    The sinus venarum is

    • A.

      Formed from the right auricle.

    • B.

      The trabeculated part of the right atrium.

    • C.

      Formed from tissue of the right sinus horn

    • D.

      Formed from the pulmonary veins.

    • E.

      A ridge of tissue between the original atrial wall tissue and the smooth part of the atrium

    Correct Answer
    C. Formed from tissue of the right sinus horn
    Explanation
    The sinus venarum is formed from tissue of the right sinus horn. The right sinus horn is a structure that develops during embryonic development and gives rise to various parts of the heart, including the sinus venarum. This structure contributes to the formation of the right atrium, and specifically, the smooth part of the atrium. The sinus venarum is a smooth-walled area of the right atrium, located between the original atrial wall tissue and the trabeculated part of the atrium.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the partitioning of the atria is CORRECT?

    • A.

      The septum primum is thick and muscular

    • B.

      The septum secundum is a transient structure which degenerates by the end of the fourth week

    • C.

      The ostium secundum forms by apoptosis in the central part of the septum secundum

    • D.

      The septum primum forms the valve of the oval foramen

    • E.

      The ostium primum is a common atrial-septal defect

    Correct Answer
    D. The septum primum forms the valve of the oval foramen
    Explanation
    The septum primum forms the valve of the oval foramen. This means that the septum primum acts as a flap-like structure that covers the opening between the atria known as the oval foramen. It allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium during fetal development, bypassing the non-functioning lungs. This valve-like structure is important for directing blood flow in the developing heart.

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  • 9. 

    True or false?  The muscular portion of the interventricular septum develops from growth of the myocardium.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The muscular portion of the interventricular septum develops from the growth of the myocardium. This means that the muscle tissue in the septum is formed through the expansion and development of the heart muscle itself. This process occurs during embryonic development and continues as the heart grows and matures. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the aorticopulmonary septum is INCORRECT?

    • A.

      The aorticopulmonary septum undergoes a 180-degree spiral

    • B.

      The aorticopulmonary septum is formed by fusion of conal and truncal septa

    • C.

      The aorticopulmonary septum partitions the aorta and the pulmonary trunk

    • D.

      The aorticopulmonary septum develops from splanchnic mesoderm

    • E.

      The aorticopulmonary septum contributes to the interventricular septum

    Correct Answer
    D. The aorticopulmonary septum develops from splanchnic mesoderm
    Explanation
    The aorticopulmonary septum (also called the spiral septum, ) is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest

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  • 11. 

     Failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to undergo the 180-degree spiral will result in

    • A.

      Tetralogy of Fallot

    • B.

      Transposition of the great vessels

    • C.

      Persistent truncus arteriosus

    • D.

      An atrial-septal defect

    • E.

      Pulmonary stenosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Transposition of the great vessels
    Explanation
    The failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to undergo the 180-degree spiral refers to a developmental abnormality in the heart during embryonic development. This spiral is crucial for the proper alignment of the aorta and pulmonary artery. When this spiral fails to occur, it can lead to the transposition of the great vessels. In transposition of the great vessels, the aorta and pulmonary artery are switched, resulting in the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arising from the left ventricle. This condition disrupts the normal blood flow and requires surgical intervention shortly after birth.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the development of the atrioventricular valves is CORRECT?

    • A.

      The atrioventricular valves develop from mesenchyme derived from neural crest cells

    • B.

      The papillary muscles attached to the atrioventricular valves are formed from mounds of tissue called endoventricular cushions

    • C.

      Molding of the atrioventricular valves is caused by the normal turbulent flow of blood through the ventricles

    • D.

      The atrioventricular valve leaflets are derived from atrial wall tissue which invaginates into the atrioventricular canals

    • E.

      The atrioventricular valves form before the ventricles to provide a skeleton framework for each developing ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Molding of the atrioventricular valves is caused by the normal turbulent flow of blood through the ventricles
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the molding of the atrioventricular valves is caused by the normal turbulent flow of blood through the ventricles. This means that the shape and structure of the valves are influenced by the movement and pressure of blood as it flows through the heart. This turbulent flow helps to shape and form the valves, allowing them to function properly in regulating blood flow between the atria and ventricles.

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  • 13. 

    If you were a membranous interventricular septum, which of the following tissues would you NOT need?

    • A.

      Right sinus horn

    • B.

      Endocardial cushion

    • C.

      Neural crest cells

    • D.

      Muscular interventricular septum

    • E.

      Bulbar ridge

    Correct Answer
    A. Right sinus horn
    Explanation
    right sinous horn becomes the sinous venarum of the right ATRIA

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  • 14. 

    When does the heart start to beat?

    • A.

      At the end of the third week

    • B.

      During the tenth week once the heart is fully formed

    • C.

      At the end of the fourth week after looping

    • D.

      In the fetal period when the primitive organs mature

    • E.

      Immediately after birth when the baby takes the first breath

    Correct Answer
    A. At the end of the third week
  • 15. 

    The primitive heart tube develops bulges and constrictions along its anteroposterior axis.  Which part of the heart tube delivers oxygenated blood to supply the embryo?

    • A.

      Truncus arteriosus

    • B.

      Sinus venosus

    • C.

      Primitive ventricle

    • D.

      Conus cordis

    • E.

      Primitive atrium

    Correct Answer
    A. Truncus arteriosus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Truncus arteriosus. The truncus arteriosus is a structure that forms from the primitive heart tube during embryonic development. It is responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to supply the embryo.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Aug 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 02, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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