Cell Transport: Vocabulary Test

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Cell Transport: Vocabulary Test - Quiz

Welcome to the Electronic Frontier Classroom of the 21st Century. This test covers homeostasis and cell transport topics and vocabulary terms. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells.
As a "fill-in" type question appears during this test. Please enter your answer(s) using all lower case letters, unless you are given specific instructions at the question site. I wish you good luck and good road ahead in your life science studies.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The movement of a substance down the substance's concentration gradient is called a(n)_____.

    Explanation
    Diffusion refers to the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process occurs spontaneously and does not require any external energy input. It is driven by the random motion of particles, allowing them to spread out and reach a state of equilibrium. Diffusion is a fundamental mechanism for the transport of molecules and ions in various biological and physical systems.

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  • 2. 

    ____ solution causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis.

    Explanation
    A hypertonic solution causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis. In a hypertonic solution, the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. This creates a concentration gradient, causing water to move out of the cell to the area of higher solute concentration. As a result, the cell loses water and shrinks.

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  • 3. 

    ____ is the movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell.

    Explanation
    Exocytosis is the process by which a substance is transported out of a cell through a vesicle. During exocytosis, the vesicle fuses with the cell membrane, releasing its contents into the extracellular space. This mechanism is essential for the secretion of various molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and digestive enzymes, allowing them to be released and exert their effects outside the cell. Exocytosis plays a crucial role in cell communication, signaling, and maintaining homeostasis within the organism.

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  • 4. 

    _____ - _____ _____ is an example of a cell membrane "pump".

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Sodium-potassium pump, Sodium potassium pump". The question is asking for an example of a cell membrane "pump". The sodium-potassium pump is a specific type of pump found in cell membranes that uses energy to transport sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. It is an important mechanism for maintaining the proper balance of these ions inside and outside of the cell. Therefore, the sodium-potassium pump is an example of a cell membrane "pump".

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  • 5. 

    The carrier protein is used to transport specific substances across a membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Carrier proteins are a type of membrane protein that are involved in facilitated diffusion and active transport processes. They bind to specific substances, such as ions or molecules, and undergo conformational changes to transport these substances across the membrane. This mechanism allows for the selective transport of specific substances across the membrane, making the statement true.

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  • 6. 

    A cation channel is not used to transport proteins through the membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cation channels are membrane proteins that allow the passage of cations (positively charged ions) across the cell membrane. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as nerve signaling and muscle contraction. However, cation channels are not involved in the transport of proteins through the membrane. Protein transport across the membrane is typically mediated by other mechanisms, such as protein translocation complexes or protein transporters. Therefore, the statement that a cation channel is not used to transport proteins through the membrane is true.

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  • 7. 

    _____ is the movement of a substance by a vesicle to the inside of a cell.

    Correct Answer
    Endocytosis
    Explanation
    Endocytosis is the process by which substances are taken into a cell through the formation of a vesicle. This process involves the inward budding of the cell membrane to form a vesicle that encloses the material to be transported. The vesicle then moves into the cell, allowing the substance to be delivered to its intended destination within the cell.

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  • 8. 

    _____ _____ does not require energy or ATP from the cell to operate.

    Correct Answer
    Passive transport, Passive Transport
    Explanation
    Passive transport refers to the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without the use of energy or ATP. This process occurs down the concentration gradient, meaning that molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Passive transport includes simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis. Therefore, since passive transport does not require energy or ATP from the cell to operate, the given answer is correct.

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  • 9. 

    When the concentration of molecules are equal throughout a cell, it is called a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Diffusion

    • B.

      Equilibrium

    • C.

      Hypertonic solution

    • D.

      Hypotonic solution

    Correct Answer
    B. Equilibrium
    Explanation
    When the concentration of molecules is equal throughout a cell, it is called equilibrium. In this state, there is no net movement of molecules, as the concentration gradient is balanced. This means that the number of molecules moving into the cell is equal to the number of molecules moving out of the cell. It represents a state of balance and stability within the cell.

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  • 10. 

    The concentration _____ is the difference in the concentration of molecules across a space within the cell membrane.

    Correct Answer
    gradient
    Explanation
    The concentration gradient refers to the difference in the concentration of molecules between two areas within the cell membrane. This difference in concentration creates a gradient, which is essential for various cellular processes such as diffusion and active transport. The concentration gradient allows molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, facilitating the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

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  • 11. 

    Osmosis is the diffusion of glucose molecules through a cellular membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules, not glucose molecules, through a cellular membrane. Glucose molecules are too large to pass through the membrane by osmosis. Therefore, the statement that osmosis is the diffusion of glucose molecules through a cellular membrane is incorrect.

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  • 12. 

    Which organelle is used by organisms to pump water out of the cell?

    • A.

      Mitochdonrion

    • B.

      Ribosomes

    • C.

      Contractile Vacuole

    • D.

      Nucleus

    • E.

      Water pump

    Correct Answer
    C. Contractile Vacuole
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Contractile Vacuole. Contractile vacuoles are organelles found in certain organisms, such as protists, that live in freshwater environments. These vacuoles function to pump excess water out of the cell, helping to maintain the cell's internal balance and prevent it from bursting. They contract rhythmically, expelling the accumulated water from the cell. Mitochondria are responsible for energy production, ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis, the nucleus contains genetic material, and water pump is not an organelle used by organisms.

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  • 13. 

    ____ diffusion is a passive transport using carrier proteins.

    Correct Answer
    Facilitated
    Explanation
    Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport that involves the movement of molecules across a cell membrane with the help of carrier proteins. These carrier proteins act as channels or transporters, allowing specific molecules to pass through the membrane. Unlike simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion does not require energy input from the cell. Instead, it relies on concentration gradients to drive the movement of molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is "Facilitated."

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  • 14. 

    Hypotonic solution has the concentration of both solutions which are equal.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes compared to the other solution it is being compared to. In other words, the concentration of solutes in a hypotonic solution is lower than the concentration of solutes in the solution it is being compared to. Therefore, the statement that a hypotonic solution has the concentration of both solutions which are equal is false.

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  • 15. 

    Name the mechanism that involves the movement of a substance against the substance's concentration gradient.

    Correct Answer
    active transport
    Explanation
    Active transport is the mechanism that involves the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient. In active transport, energy is required to pump molecules or ions across a cell membrane, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This process is essential for the uptake of nutrients, ions, and other molecules that are needed by the cell, even when the concentration of those substances outside the cell is lower. Active transport plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and proper functioning of cells.

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  • 16. 

    Hypertonic solution causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of solutes compared to the cell's cytoplasm. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water molecules move out of the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to lose water and shrink. This is because water moves from an area of lower solute concentration (inside the cell) to an area of higher solute concentration (the hypertonic solution) in an attempt to equalize the solute concentrations on both sides of the cell membrane. Therefore, the statement "Hypertonic solution causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis" is true.

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  • 17. 

    A vesicle is an organelle that fuses with mitochondrion in order that contents can be digested.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. A vesicle is an organelle that fuses with a lysosome, not a mitochondrion, in order for its contents to be digested.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the follow organism(s) have contractile vacuoles to remove large amounts of water from the cell.

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Bird egg shells

    • C.

      Paramecia

    • D.

      Mushrooms

    • E.

      Tigers

    Correct Answer
    C. Paramecia
    Explanation
    Paramecia have contractile vacuoles to remove large amounts of water from the cell. Contractile vacuoles are organelles found in certain protists, including Paramecia, that help regulate the water balance within the cell. These vacuoles collect excess water from the cytoplasm and expel it out of the cell, preventing the cell from bursting or undergoing osmotic stress. Bacteria, bird egg shells, mushrooms, and tigers do not possess contractile vacuoles.

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  • 19. 

    There are two (2) main types of endocytosis based on the kind of material that is taken into a cell.  Which two are correct answers listed below?

    • A.

      Diffusion + Ion channels

    • B.

      Pinocytosis + Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Active Osmosis + Passive Transport

    • D.

      Phagocytosis + Passive Transport

    • E.

      Sodium-Potassium Pump + Iron-Sodium Pump

    Correct Answer
    B. Pinocytosis + Phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Pinocytosis and phagocytosis are the correct answers because they are both types of endocytosis. Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in materials from the external environment by engulfing them with their cell membrane. Pinocytosis involves the cell taking in small droplets of fluid, while phagocytosis involves the cell engulfing larger solid particles. Both processes are important for nutrient uptake and immune defense. The other options listed are not types of endocytosis, but rather different processes or mechanisms involved in cellular transport.

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  • 20. 

    The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall is called _____ _____.    (Section 1)

    Correct Answer
    turgor pressure
    Explanation
    Turgor pressure refers to the pressure exerted by water molecules against the cell wall. It is the force that helps maintain the shape and rigidity of plant cells. When the water molecules enter the cell, they create a pressure against the cell wall, causing the cell to become firm and turgid. Turgor pressure is essential for plant cells to support the plant's structure and for processes like nutrient uptake and cell expansion.

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  • 21. 

    In a _____ environment, water leaves the cells through osmosis, cells shrink away from the cells walls, and the loss of turgor pressure.

    • A.

      Hypertonic

    • B.

      Hypotonic

    • C.

      Isotonic

    • D.

      Mesotonic

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypertonic
    Explanation
    In a hypertonic environment, the concentration of solutes outside the cells is higher than inside the cells. As a result, water leaves the cells through osmosis, causing the cells to shrink away from the cell walls. This loss of water also leads to a decrease in turgor pressure within the cells.

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  • 22. 

    In a hypertonic environment, water leaves the cells through osmosis, cells shrink away from the cells walls, and the loss of turgor pressure.  What is the name assigned to this condition?

    Correct Answer
    plasmolysis
    Explanation
    Plasmolysis is the correct answer because it refers to the condition where water leaves the cells in a hypertonic environment, causing the cells to shrink away from the cell walls and lose turgor pressure. This process occurs due to osmosis, where water moves from an area of lower solute concentration (inside the cell) to an area of higher solute concentration (outside the cell). Plasmolysis is a common phenomenon observed in plant cells when they are placed in a hypertonic solution.

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  • 23. 

    In a _____ environment, water diffuses into the cells, causing them to swell and eventually burst. The bursting of cells is called cytolysis.

    • A.

      Hypertonic

    • B.

      Hypotonic

    • C.

      Isotonic

    • D.

      Pelotonic

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypotonic
    Explanation
    In a hypotonic environment, the concentration of solutes outside the cells is lower than inside the cells. As a result, water diffuses into the cells through osmosis, causing them to swell. Eventually, the excessive influx of water causes the cells to burst, a process known as cytolysis.

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  • 24. 

    In a hypotonic environment, water diffuses into the cells, causing them to swell and eventually burst. The bursting of cells is called facilitated diffusion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is incorrect. In a hypotonic environment, water actually diffuses into the cells, causing them to swell, but they do not burst. The bursting of cells is not called facilitated diffusion, but rather it is known as cell lysis.

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  • 25. 

    Ion channels involves transporting ions from higher to lower concentrations. Which of the following ions is NOT found in the plasma membrane?

    • A.

      Chloride ion

    • B.

      Iron (III) ion

    • C.

      Calcium ion

    • D.

      Potassium ion

    Correct Answer
    B. Iron (III) ion
    Explanation
    Iron (III) ion is not found in the plasma membrane because it is not involved in the process of ion transport. Ion channels in the plasma membrane are responsible for transporting ions such as chloride, calcium, and potassium from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration. However, Iron (III) ion is not typically involved in this process and is therefore not found in the plasma membrane.

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  • 26. 

    Active transport requires a cell expend energy in the chemical form of ATP.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Active transport is a cellular process that moves molecules or ions across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This process requires the cell to expend energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary energy currency of cells. Therefore, the statement that active transport requires a cell to expend energy in the chemical form of ATP is true.

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  • 27. 

    Which ion is being prepared to leave the cell in step 1?

    • A.

      Calcium Ions

    • B.

      Potassium Ions

    • C.

      Sodium Ions

    • D.

      Fluoride Ions

    Correct Answer
    C. Sodium Ions
    Explanation
    In step 1, the ion being prepared to leave the cell is sodium ions.

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  • 28. 

    Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are main types of endocytosis.   (Section 2)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are indeed the main types of endocytosis. Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and ingest large particles or microorganisms, while pinocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and ingest fluids and dissolved solutes. These two processes are essential for the cell to take in necessary nutrients and eliminate waste materials. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 29. 

    What type active transport is shown in the image?   (Section 2)

    • A.

      Diffusion

    • B.

      Endocytosis

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      Facilitated Facilitated Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Endocytosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Endocytosis. Endocytosis is a type of active transport where cells engulf substances from the external environment by forming vesicles around them. This process allows cells to take in large molecules or particles that cannot pass through the cell membrane on their own. In the given image, if it is showing the engulfment of substances by the cell, it is likely depicting endocytosis.

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  • 30. 

    Phagocytes allow lysosomes to fuse with the vesicles that contain the ingested bacteria and viruses. Lysosomal enzymes can destroy the contents of the vesicles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phagocytes are immune cells that engulf and destroy bacteria and viruses. They accomplish this by allowing lysosomes, which contain powerful enzymes, to fuse with the vesicles that contain the ingested pathogens. Once fused, the lysosomal enzymes can break down and destroy the contents of the vesicles, effectively eliminating the bacteria and viruses. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 31. 

    What structure is formed as it pinches off from the cell membrane which folds into itself called______?

    Correct Answer
    vesicle
    Explanation
    When a structure pinches off from the cell membrane and folds into itself, it forms a vesicle. A vesicle is a small sac-like structure that is involved in various cellular processes such as transport of molecules within the cell and between cells. It is formed through a process called endocytosis or exocytosis, where a portion of the cell membrane invaginates or buds off, respectively, to form the vesicle.

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  • 32. 

    _____  is a mode of nutrition in which nutrients are obtained by absorption directly across cell membranes. It is typical of fungi.

    Correct Answer
    Osmotrophic
    Explanation
    Osmotrophic is the correct answer because it refers to a mode of nutrition where organisms obtain nutrients by absorbing them directly across their cell membranes. This mode of nutrition is typical of fungi, as they do not have the ability to ingest or engulf food particles like animals do. Instead, fungi secrete enzymes that break down organic matter in their environment into smaller molecules, which they then absorb through their cell membranes for nourishment.

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  • 33. 

    Osmotic balance is the delicate balance in ion channel pressures that must be maintained in order for the system to function properly.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Osmotic balance refers to the balance of solute concentrations across a semipermeable membrane, not the balance in ion channel pressures. Therefore, the statement is incorrect and the answer is false.

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  • 34. 

    _____  _____ is a membrane-technology filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution.

    • A.

      Reverse osmosis

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Passive osmosis

    • D.

      Osmotrophic membrane

    • E.

      Reverse diffusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Reverse osmosis
    Explanation
    Reverse osmosis is a membrane-technology filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution. This process involves forcing the solution through a semipermeable membrane, which only allows water molecules to pass through while blocking larger molecules and ions. The pressure applied helps to overcome the osmotic pressure and drive the solvent (water) from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration, resulting in the separation of solutes from the solvent.

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  • 35. 

    Identify the filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution. Please use the image as a reference for your answer.

    • A.

      Reverse osmosis

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Passive osmosis

    • D.

      Osmotrophic membrane

    • E.

      Reverse diffusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Reverse osmosis
    Explanation
    Reverse osmosis is a filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution. In reverse osmosis, the solution is forced through a semipermeable membrane that allows only solvent molecules to pass through, while blocking the passage of solute molecules and ions. This process effectively removes contaminants from the solution, resulting in purified water or a concentrated solution.

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  • 36. 

    Sodium-Potassium pump is a type of active transport process involving the hydrolysis of _____ to provide the necessary energy.

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      ADP

    • C.

      FAD

    • D.

      QAD

    Correct Answer
    A. ATP
    Explanation
    The sodium-potassium pump is a type of active transport process that moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. This process requires energy, which is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is a molecule that stores and releases energy in cells, making it the necessary energy source for the sodium-potassium pump to function efficiently.

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  • 37. 

    When animal cells are placed into a hypertonic solution will undergo _____, where a cell shrivels up as it loses water.

    Correct Answer
    crenation
    Explanation
    When animal cells are placed into a hypertonic solution, the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. As a result, water molecules move out of the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to lose water. This loss of water leads to the cell shrinking and shriveling up, a process known as crenation.

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  • 38. 

    What is the magnification of the scanning electron microscope of a macrophage engulfs a human tumor cell?

    • A.

      3,520 X

    • B.

      3,520

    • C.

      35,200X

    • D.

      350,250X

    • E.

      750,000

    Correct Answer
    A. 3,520 X
    Explanation
    The magnification of the scanning electron microscope is given as 3,520 X. This means that the image produced by the microscope is 3,520 times larger than the actual size of the macrophage engulfing a human tumor cell. This level of magnification allows for detailed observation and analysis of the cell and its interactions, aiding in the understanding of cellular processes and disease progression.

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  • 39. 

    What is the magnfication of the paramecia vacuole filling with water using a light microscope?(HINT:

    Correct Answer
    315X, 315 X
    Explanation
    The magnification of the paramecia vacuole filling with water using a light microscope is 315X or 315 times. This means that the image of the vacuole appears 315 times larger than its actual size when viewed through the microscope.

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  • 40. 

    The plasma membrane is a solid structure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is not a solid structure. It is a fluid and dynamic structure made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. This fluidity allows for the movement of molecules and ions across the membrane. Additionally, the membrane is also flexible, allowing it to change shape and accommodate various cellular processes such as endocytosis and exocytosis. Therefore, the statement that the plasma membrane is a solid structure is incorrect.

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  • 41. 

    Which of these choices do not have basic cell structures?

    • A.

      Neurons

    • B.

      Viruses

    • C.

      Plant cells

    • D.

      Amoeba

    Correct Answer
    B. Viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses do not have basic cell structures because they are considered acellular entities. Unlike neurons, plant cells, and amoeba, viruses lack the essential components of a typical cell, such as a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles. Instead, viruses consist of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat called a capsid. They are unable to carry out metabolic processes or reproduce independently, relying on host cells to replicate and function. Therefore, viruses can be distinguished from other choices as not having basic cell structures.

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  • 42. 

    Diffusion always causes particles to move from a region of _____ concentration to a region of _____ concentration.

    • A.

      Low - to - high

    • B.

      High - to low

    • C.

      High - to - medium

    • D.

      50 millimoles - to 100 millimoles

    Correct Answer
    B. High - to low
    Explanation
    Diffusion is the process by which particles move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This occurs because particles have a natural tendency to spread out and become evenly distributed. Therefore, the correct answer is "High - to low."

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