Adaptive, Specific Immunity And Immunization

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Immunization Quizzes & Trivia

The human immune system is attacked by different viruses and bacteria on a daily basis. This has led to inventions for immunizations to protect us from the attacks. How well do you understand how the whole immunization concept works? Take up the simple quiz below to and let the scores tell you. Best of luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    • Antigen

    • A.

      – antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B.

      – Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C.

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

    Correct Answer
    B. – Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells
    Explanation
    Antigens are molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells. They are recognized by these cells as foreign substances and trigger an immune response. T cells and B cells are programmed to "recall" their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters. This response includes the production of antibodies, which function only against the specific antigen that they were produced in response to. Therefore, antigens play a crucial role in activating the immune system and initiating an immune response.

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  • 2. 

    Specificity

    • A.

      – antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B.

      Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C.

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

    Correct Answer
    A. – antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to
    Explanation
    Antibodies are proteins produced by B cells in response to a specific antigen. These antibodies are highly specific and are designed to bind only to the antigen that triggered their production. This specificity allows antibodies to target and neutralize the specific antigen, preventing it from causing harm in the body. Therefore, antibodies function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to.

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  • 3. 

    Memory

    • A.

      Antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B.

      Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C.

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

    Correct Answer
    C. – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes, specifically T and B cells, are cells of the immune system that produce antibodies in response to antigens. These antibodies are specific to the antigen that triggered their production. This means that they are programmed to "recall" their first encounter with the antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters. This memory response allows the immune system to mount a faster and more effective defense against the same antigen if it is encountered again in the future.

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  • 4. 

    Active immunity

    • A.

      Results when a person is challenged with antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting

    • B.

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

    • C.

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    Correct Answer
    A. Results when a person is challenged with antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting
    Explanation
    Active immunity is the result of a person being exposed to an antigen, which then stimulates the production of antibodies. This process takes time and creates a memory response, meaning that the immune system will remember how to fight off that specific antigen in the future. Active immunity is acquired through normal life experiences, such as getting sick or receiving vaccines. This type of immunity is long-lasting and provides protection against future infections.

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  • 5. 

    Passive immunity

    • A.

      – results when a person is challenged with antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting

    • B.

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • C.

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

    Correct Answer
    B. – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term
    Explanation
    Passive immunity is the transfer of preformed antibodies to an individual. This process does not stimulate the production of antibodies or create memory in the recipient. Instead, the preformed antibodies immediately act to provide temporary protection against the antigen. This type of immunity is short-term and is typically acquired through external sources, such as receiving antibodies from another person or through medical interventions like immunoglobulin therapy.

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  • 6. 

    • Natural immunity

    • A.

      Preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • B.

      – acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine

    • C.

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

    Correct Answer
    C. Acquired as part of normal life experiences
    Explanation
    Natural immunity refers to the immunity that is acquired through normal life experiences. This means that the individual has been exposed to various pathogens and has developed antibodies against them, providing protection against future infections. Unlike immunity acquired through medical procedures such as vaccines, natural immunity does not involve the donation of preformed antibodies. It is also important to note that natural immunity does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term.

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  • 7. 

    Artificial immunity

    • A.

      – acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine

    • B.

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • C.

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

    Correct Answer
    A. – acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine
    Explanation
    Artificial immunity is acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine. This means that a person is deliberately exposed to a weakened or killed form of a pathogen, which stimulates the immune system to produce an immune response. The vaccine introduces antigens to the body, triggering the production of antibodies that provide protection against future infections. This type of immunity does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short-term. It is different from natural immunity, which is acquired through normal life experiences such as getting an infection and recovering from it.

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  • 8. 

    Natural active immunity

    • A.

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B.

      Acquired upon infection and recovery

    • C.

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

    Correct Answer
    B. Acquired upon infection and recovery
    Explanation
    Natural active immunity is acquired upon infection and recovery. When a person is infected with a pathogen, their immune system responds by producing antibodies and memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections from the same pathogen. This type of immunity is considered natural because it occurs as a result of natural exposure to the pathogen. In contrast, artificial active immunity is acquired through inoculation with a selected antigen, such as a vaccine.

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  • 9. 

    Natural passive immunity

    • A.

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B.

      – acquired upon infection and recovery

    • C.

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

    Correct Answer
    C. Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk
    Explanation
    Natural passive immunity is acquired when an individual receives antibodies from another source, rather than producing them themselves. In the case of a child, they can acquire passive immunity through the transfer of antibodies from their mother through the placenta during pregnancy and through breast milk after birth. This provides the child with temporary protection against certain diseases until their own immune system develops fully.

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  • 10. 

    Artificial active immunity

    • A.

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B.

      Administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies

    • C.

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

    Correct Answer
    A. Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag
    Explanation
    Artificial active immunity is acquired through inoculation with a selected antigen (Ag). This means that a person is deliberately exposed to a specific antigen, usually through vaccination, in order to stimulate their immune system to produce a response and develop immunity against that particular antigen. This type of immunity is different from the administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies, as it relies on the body's own immune response to generate long-term protection. It is also distinct from immunity acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk, which is a form of passive immunity.

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  • 11. 

    Artificial passive immunity

    • A.

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B.

      Administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies

    • C.

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

    Correct Answer
    B. Administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies
    Explanation
    Artificial passive immunity refers to the transfer of specific antibodies from one individual to another. In this case, the correct answer states that it is acquired through the administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies. This means that the antibodies are obtained from an external source, such as through injection or infusion of a serum or immunoglobulin containing the desired antibodies. This method provides immediate protection against the targeted antigen, but the immunity is temporary as the transferred antibodies eventually degrade and are eliminated from the body.

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  • 12. 

    Specific Immune Responses

    • A.

      • Development and differentiation of the immune system • Lymphocytes and antigen processing • The cooperation between lymphocytes during antigen presentation • B lymphocytes and the production and actions of antibodies • T lymphocyte responses

    • B.

      • Major functions of receptors are: 1. To perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules 2. To promote the recognition of self molecules 3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system 4. To aid in cellular development

    Correct Answer
    A. • Development and differentiation of the immune system • Lymphocytes and antigen processing • The cooperation between lymphocytes during antigen presentation • B lymphocytes and the production and actions of antibodies • T lymphocyte responses
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the major functions of receptors in the immune system, which are to perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules, promote the recognition of self molecules, receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells, and aid in cellular development. This answer also mentions the development and differentiation of the immune system, lymphocytes and antigen processing, the cooperation between lymphocytes during antigen presentation, and the production and actions of antibodies by B lymphocytes and T lymphocyte responses. These topics are all related to specific immune responses and are important for understanding how the immune system functions.

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  • 13. 

    Development of the Immune Response System

    • A.

      Cell receptors or markers confer specificity and identity of a cell

    • B.

      Separate but related activities of the specific immune response

    Correct Answer
    A. Cell receptors or markers confer specificity and identity of a cell
    Explanation
    Cell receptors or markers play a crucial role in conferring specificity and identity to a cell. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific molecules or antigens, which then trigger a response from the immune system. By interacting with these receptors, cells can differentiate between self and non-self molecules, allowing the immune system to target and eliminate foreign invaders while sparing healthy cells. Therefore, the presence of cell receptors or markers is essential for the development and functioning of the immune response system.

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  • 14. 

    Major functions of receptors are:

    • A.

      • Receptors found on all cells except RBCs • Also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) • Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B.

      1. To perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules 2. To promote the recognition of self molecules 3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system 4. To aid in cellular development

    Correct Answer
    B. 1. To perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules 2. To promote the recognition of self molecules 3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system 4. To aid in cellular development
    Explanation
    Receptors have multiple functions in the body. They are responsible for perceiving and attaching to nonself or foreign molecules, promoting the recognition of self molecules, receiving and transmitting chemical messages among other cells of the system, and aiding in cellular development. These functions allow receptors to play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition of foreign substances and in the communication between cells.

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  • 15. 

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

    • A.

      • Receptors found on all cells except RBCs • Also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) • Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B.

      Genes for MHC clustered in a multigene complex

    Correct Answer
    A. • Receptors found on all cells except RBCs • Also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) • Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue
    Explanation
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that encode for receptors found on all cells except red blood cells (RBCs). These receptors, also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA), play a crucial role in the recognition of self by the immune system and in the rejection of foreign tissue. The MHC genes are clustered together in a multigene complex.

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  • 16. 

    Functions of MHC

    • A.

      Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B.

      Genes for MHC clustered in a multigene complex

    Correct Answer
    B. Genes for MHC clustered in a multigene complex
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that genes for MHC are clustered in a multigene complex. MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) is a group of genes that play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition of self and rejection of foreign tissue. These genes are closely located together in a specific region of the genome known as a multigene complex. This clustering allows for coordinated regulation and expression of the MHC genes, which is important for their proper functioning in immune responses.

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  • 17. 

    Class I

    • A.

      Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions • Required for T lymphocytes

    • B.

      Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells • Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions • Required for T lymphocytes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions. Required for T lymphocytes." This answer accurately describes the function of the markers in question. These markers play a crucial role in the immune system by identifying self molecules and regulating immune reactions. They are specifically required for T lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response.

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  • 18. 

    Class II

    • A.

      Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions • Required for T lymphocytes

    • B.

      Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells • Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells • Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells." This answer is supported by the information provided in the passage, which states that Class II markers are required for T lymphocytes and are involved in presenting antigen to T-cells. The passage also mentions that Class II markers display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulate immune reactions. Therefore, it can be inferred that these markers are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, as these cells are involved in presenting antigens to T-cells and regulating immune reactions.

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  • 19. 

    Lymphocyte Receptors

    • A.

      • Lymphocytes use 500 genes to produce a tremendous variety of specific receptors • Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate millions of different cell types • Each cell has a particular/unique receptor specificity

    • B.

      • Lymphocyte’s role in surveillance and recognition is a function of their receptors • B-cell receptors – bind free antigens • T-cell receptors – bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them

    Correct Answer
    B. • Lymphocyte’s role in surveillance and recognition is a function of their receptors • B-cell receptors – bind free antigens • T-cell receptors – bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune system's surveillance and recognition of foreign substances. This is possible due to the specific receptors found on the surface of lymphocytes. B-cell receptors are responsible for binding free antigens, while T-cell receptors bind processed antigens along with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on antigen-presenting cells. These receptors allow lymphocytes to identify and respond to different types of antigens, contributing to the body's defense against pathogens and foreign substances.

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  • 20. 

    Clonal Selection Theory

    • A.

      • Lymphocytes use 500 genes to produce a tremendous variety of specific receptors • Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate millions of different cell types • Each cell has a particular/unique receptor specificity

    • B.

      • Lymphocyte’s role in surveillance and recognition is a function of their receptors • B-cell receptors – bind free antigens • T-cell receptors – bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them

    Correct Answer
    A. • Lymphocytes use 500 genes to produce a tremendous variety of specific receptors • Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate millions of different cell types • Each cell has a particular/unique receptor specificity
    Explanation
    The Clonal Selection Theory states that lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, use 500 genes to produce a wide variety of specific receptors. These receptors allow lymphocytes to recognize and bind to antigens. Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes, resulting in the generation of millions of different cell types, each with a unique receptor specificity. This diversity allows the immune system to effectively recognize and respond to a wide range of antigens.

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  • 21. 

    lymphocytic in the bone marrow

    • A.

      • Lymphocyte specificity is preprogrammed, existing in the genetic makeup before an antigen has ever entered the system • Each genetically different type of lymphocyte (clone) expresses a single specificity • First introduction of each type of antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte • Causes it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that antigen

    • B.

      • In the bone marrow, lymphocytic stem cells differentiate into either T or B cells • B cells stay in the bone marrow • T cells migrate to the thymus • Both T and B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. • In the bone marrow, lymphocytic stem cells differentiate into either T or B cells • B cells stay in the bone marrow • T cells migrate to the thymus • Both T and B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue
    Explanation
    Lymphocytic stem cells in the bone marrow have the ability to differentiate into either T or B cells. B cells remain in the bone marrow, while T cells migrate to the thymus. Both T and B cells then migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue. This process is important for the development of lymphocyte specificity, as each genetically different type of lymphocyte expresses a single specificity. The first introduction of an antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte, causing it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that specific antigen.

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  • 22. 

    Lymphocyte specificity

    • A.

      • Lymphocyte specificity is preprogrammed, existing in the genetic makeup before an antigen has ever entered the system • Each genetically different type of lymphocyte (clone) expresses a single specificity • First introduction of each type of antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte • Causes it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that antigen

    • B.

      • In the bone marrow, lymphocytic stem cells differentiate into either T or B cells • B cells stay in the bone marrow • T cells migrate to the thymus • Both T and B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. • Lymphocyte specificity is preprogrammed, existing in the genetic makeup before an antigen has ever entered the system • Each genetically different type of lymphocyte (clone) expresses a single specificity • First introduction of each type of antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte • Causes it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that antigen
    Explanation
    Lymphocyte specificity refers to the ability of lymphocytes to recognize and respond to specific antigens. This specificity is determined by the genetic makeup of lymphocytes before any antigen enters the system. Each genetically different lymphocyte expresses a single specificity. When a new antigen is introduced into the immune system, it selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte that can recognize and react to that antigen. This selected lymphocyte then expands into a clone of cells that can specifically respond to the antigen. This process occurs in both B cells, which stay in the bone marrow, and T cells, which migrate to the thymus and then to secondary lymphoid tissue.

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  • 23. 

    Specific B-Cell Receptor: Immunoglobulin

    • A.

      Receptor genes of B cells govern immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis • Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: – 2 identical heavy chains (H) – 2 identical light chains (L) • Y shaped arrangement – ends of the forks formed by light and heavy chains contain a wide range of variable antigen binding sites • Variable regions • Constant regions

    • B.

      • Immunoglobulin genes lie on 3 different chromosomes • Undifferentiated lymphocyte has 150 different genes for the variable region of light chains and 250 for the variable region and diversity region of the heavy chain • During development, recombination causes only the selected V and D genes to be active in the mature cell • Once synthesized, immunoglobulin is transported to cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor

    Correct Answer
    A. Receptor genes of B cells govern immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis • Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: – 2 identical heavy chains (H) – 2 identical light chains (L) • Y shaped arrangement – ends of the forks formed by light and heavy chains contain a wide range of variable antigen binding sites • Variable regions • Constant regions
    Explanation
    B-cell receptors are large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells. They are composed of 4 polypeptide chains, 2 identical heavy chains (H) and 2 identical light chains (L). The arrangement of these chains forms a Y shape, with the ends of the forks containing a wide range of variable antigen binding sites. These variable regions allow the B-cell receptor to recognize and bind to specific antigens. The constant regions of the receptor provide stability and structural support. The genes responsible for the synthesis of these receptors are located on different chromosomes and undergo recombination during B-cell development to generate a diverse repertoire of receptors. Once synthesized, the immunoglobulin is transported to the cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor.

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  • 24. 

    Development of Receptors

    • A.

      Receptor genes of B cells govern immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis • Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: – 2 identical heavy chains (H) – 2 identical light chains (L) • Y shaped arrangement – ends of the forks formed by light and heavy chains contain a wide range of variable antigen binding sites • Variable regions • Constant regions

    • B.

      • Immunoglobulin genes lie on 3 different chromosomes • Undifferentiated lymphocyte has 150 different genes for the variable region of light chains and 250 for the variable region and diversity region of the heavy chain • During development, recombination causes only the selected V and D genes to be active in the mature cell • Once synthesized, immunoglobulin is transported to cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor

    Correct Answer
    B. • Immunoglobulin genes lie on 3 different chromosomes • Undifferentiated lymphocyte has 150 different genes for the variable region of light chains and 250 for the variable region and diversity region of the heavy chain • During development, recombination causes only the selected V and D genes to be active in the mature cell • Once synthesized, immunoglobulin is transported to cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor
    Explanation
    The explanation provided describes the development of receptors in B cells. It states that immunoglobulin genes are located on three different chromosomes and that undifferentiated lymphocytes have multiple genes for the variable regions of light and heavy chains. During development, recombination occurs to activate only the selected V and D genes in mature cells. Once synthesized, immunoglobulins are transported to the cell membrane and inserted as receptors.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 01, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Maer
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