Adaptive, Specific Immunity And Immunization

24 Questions | Total Attempts: 493

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Immunization Quizzes & Trivia

The human immune system is attacked by different viruses and bacteria on a daily basis. This has led to inventions for immunizations to protect us from the attacks. How well do you understand how the whole immunization concept works? Take up the simple quiz below to and let the scores tell you. Best of luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • Antigen
    • A. 

      – antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B. 

      – Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C. 

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

  • 2. 
    Specificity
    • A. 

      – antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B. 

      Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C. 

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

  • 3. 
    Memory
    • A. 

      Antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

    • B. 

      Molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells

    • C. 

      – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

  • 4. 
    Active immunity
    • A. 

      Results when a person is challenged with antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting

    • B. 

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

    • C. 

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

  • 5. 
    Passive immunity
    • A. 

      – results when a person is challenged with antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting

    • B. 

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • C. 

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

  • 6. 
    • Natural immunity
    • A. 

      Preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • B. 

      – acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine

    • C. 

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

  • 7. 
    Artificial immunity
    • A. 

      – acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine

    • B. 

      – preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term

    • C. 

      Acquired as part of normal life experiences

  • 8. 
    Natural active immunity
    • A. 

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B. 

      Acquired upon infection and recovery

    • C. 

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

  • 9. 
    Natural passive immunity
    • A. 

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B. 

      – acquired upon infection and recovery

    • C. 

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

  • 10. 
    Artificial active immunity
    • A. 

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B. 

      Administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies

    • C. 

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

  • 11. 
    Artificial passive immunity
    • A. 

      Acquired through inoculation with a selected Ag

    • B. 

      Administration of a preparation containing specific antibodies

    • C. 

      Acquired by a child through placenta and breast milk

  • 12. 
    Specific Immune Responses
    • A. 

      • Development and differentiation of the immune system • Lymphocytes and antigen processing • The cooperation between lymphocytes during antigen presentation • B lymphocytes and the production and actions of antibodies • T lymphocyte responses

    • B. 

      • Major functions of receptors are: 1. To perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules 2. To promote the recognition of self molecules 3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system 4. To aid in cellular development

  • 13. 
    Development of the Immune Response System
    • A. 

      Cell receptors or markers confer specificity and identity of a cell

    • B. 

      Separate but related activities of the specific immune response

  • 14. 
    Major functions of receptors are:
    • A. 

      • Receptors found on all cells except RBCs • Also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) • Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B. 

      1. To perceive and attach to nonself or foreign molecules 2. To promote the recognition of self molecules 3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system 4. To aid in cellular development

  • 15. 
    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
    • A. 

      • Receptors found on all cells except RBCs • Also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) • Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B. 

      Genes for MHC clustered in a multigene complex

  • 16. 
    Functions of MHC
    • A. 

      Plays a role in recognition of self by the immune system and in rejection of foreign tissue

    • B. 

      Genes for MHC clustered in a multigene complex

  • 17. 
    Class I
    • A. 

      Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions • Required for T lymphocytes

    • B. 

      Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells • Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells

  • 18. 
    Class II
    • A. 

      Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions • Required for T lymphocytes

    • B. 

      Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells • Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells

  • 19. 
    Lymphocyte Receptors
    • A. 

      • Lymphocytes use 500 genes to produce a tremendous variety of specific receptors • Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate millions of different cell types • Each cell has a particular/unique receptor specificity

    • B. 

      • Lymphocyte’s role in surveillance and recognition is a function of their receptors • B-cell receptors – bind free antigens • T-cell receptors – bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them

  • 20. 
    Clonal Selection Theory
    • A. 

      • Lymphocytes use 500 genes to produce a tremendous variety of specific receptors • Undifferentiated lymphocytes undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate millions of different cell types • Each cell has a particular/unique receptor specificity

    • B. 

      • Lymphocyte’s role in surveillance and recognition is a function of their receptors • B-cell receptors – bind free antigens • T-cell receptors – bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them

  • 21. 
    lymphocytic in the bone marrow
    • A. 

      • Lymphocyte specificity is preprogrammed, existing in the genetic makeup before an antigen has ever entered the system • Each genetically different type of lymphocyte (clone) expresses a single specificity • First introduction of each type of antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte • Causes it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that antigen

    • B. 

      • In the bone marrow, lymphocytic stem cells differentiate into either T or B cells • B cells stay in the bone marrow • T cells migrate to the thymus • Both T and B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue

  • 22. 
    Lymphocyte specificity
    • A. 

      • Lymphocyte specificity is preprogrammed, existing in the genetic makeup before an antigen has ever entered the system • Each genetically different type of lymphocyte (clone) expresses a single specificity • First introduction of each type of antigen into the immune system selects a genetically distinct lymphocyte • Causes it to expand into a clone of cells that can react to that antigen

    • B. 

      • In the bone marrow, lymphocytic stem cells differentiate into either T or B cells • B cells stay in the bone marrow • T cells migrate to the thymus • Both T and B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue

  • 23. 
    Specific B-Cell Receptor: Immunoglobulin
    • A. 

      Receptor genes of B cells govern immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis • Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: – 2 identical heavy chains (H) – 2 identical light chains (L) • Y shaped arrangement – ends of the forks formed by light and heavy chains contain a wide range of variable antigen binding sites • Variable regions • Constant regions

    • B. 

      • Immunoglobulin genes lie on 3 different chromosomes • Undifferentiated lymphocyte has 150 different genes for the variable region of light chains and 250 for the variable region and diversity region of the heavy chain • During development, recombination causes only the selected V and D genes to be active in the mature cell • Once synthesized, immunoglobulin is transported to cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor

  • 24. 
    Development of Receptors
    • A. 

      Receptor genes of B cells govern immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis • Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: – 2 identical heavy chains (H) – 2 identical light chains (L) • Y shaped arrangement – ends of the forks formed by light and heavy chains contain a wide range of variable antigen binding sites • Variable regions • Constant regions

    • B. 

      • Immunoglobulin genes lie on 3 different chromosomes • Undifferentiated lymphocyte has 150 different genes for the variable region of light chains and 250 for the variable region and diversity region of the heavy chain • During development, recombination causes only the selected V and D genes to be active in the mature cell • Once synthesized, immunoglobulin is transported to cell membrane and inserted there to act as a receptor

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