Astronomy Final

99 Questions

Astronomy final exam study

• 1.
If you have a 100-watt light bulb, how much energy does it use each minute?
• A.

6,000 Joules

• B.

600 Watts

• C.

6,000 Watts

• D.

100 Joules

• E.

600 Joules

• 2.
If a material is highly opaque, then it
• A.

Emits most light

• B.

Reflects most light

• C.

Absorbs most light

• D.

Transmits most light

• E.

Scatters most light

• 3.
When light reflects off an object, what is the relation between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection?
• A.

Angle of incidence - Angle of reflection = 90 degrees

• B.

Angle of incidence + Angle of reflection = 180 degrees

• C.

Angle of incidence + Angle of reflection = 90 degrees

• D.

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection

• E.

It depends on the material that the light reflects off

• 4.
If a material is transparent, then it
• A.

Transmits light well

• B.

Absorbs light well

• C.

Emits light well

• D.

Scatters light well

• E.

Reflects light well

• 5.
Grass (that is healthy) looks green because
• A.

It reflects green light and absorbs other colors

• B.

It absorbs green light and emits other colors

• C.

It transmits green light and emits other colors

• D.

It emits green light and absorbs other colors

• 6.
Everything looks red through a red filter because
• A.

The filter reflects red light and transmits other colors

• B.

The filter emits red light and absorbs other colors

• C.

The filter transmits red light and absorbs other colors

• D.

The filter absorbs red light and emits other colors

• 7.
Which of the following cannot be described by a field?
• A.

Gravitational forces

• B.

Electrical forces

• C.

• D.

Magnetic forces

• 8.
Our solar system is located in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy
• A.

True

• B.

Falso

• 9.
The solar system contains about 100 billion stars
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 10.
A typical supercluster contains no more than about 10,000 stars
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 11.
One light-year is about 10 trillion kilometers
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 12.
In the grapefruit model of the solar system, it would take a few minutes to walk from the Sun to the inner edge of the Kufper Belt (Pluto)
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 13.
The observable universe is the same size today as it was a few billion years ago.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 14.
The Milky Way is moving further away from most other galaxies in the universe
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 15.
No galaxies existed before the Big Bang
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 16.
Voyager 2 should reach the nearest stars (besides the Sun) in about 500 years
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 17.
Earth is always precisely 1 AU from the sun.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 18.
What do we mean when we say that the universe is expanding?
• A.

Individual galaxies are gradually growing in size

• B.

Everything in the universe is gradually growing in size

• C.

Average distances are increasing between star systems within galaxies

• D.

The statement is not meant to be literal; rather, it means that our knowledge of the universe is growing

• E.

Average distances are increasing between galaxies

• 19.
The age of the universe is
• A.

Between 100 million and 160 million years

• B.

Between 100 billion and 160 billion years

• C.

Between 1 billion and 1.6 billion years

• D.

Between 10 billion and 16 billion years

• E.

Between 10 million and 16 million years

• 20.
How are galaxies important to our existence?
• A.

Without galaxies, there could not have been a Big Bang

• B.

Without galaxies, the universe could not be expanding

• C.

Galaxies provide the gravity that prevents us from falling off Earth

• D.

Galaxies prevent planets from leaving their orbits around stars; e.h., our galaxy prevents Earth from leaving its orbit of the Sun

• E.

Galaxies recycle heavy elements produced in stars into future generations of stars

• 21.
Earth is made mostly of metals and rocks. Where did this material come from?
• A.

It was produced by nuclear fusion in stars

• B.

It was produced in the Big Bang

• C.

It was made by nuclear fission of uranium and other radioactive materials

• D.

It was made by our sun

• E.

It was created by chemical reactions in interstellar space

• 22.
What is nuclear fusion?
• A.

An explosion caused by putting together two volatile chemicals

• B.

A process that only occurs in bombs

• C.

The process of turning matter into pure energy

• D.

The process of combining lightweight nuclei to make heavier nuclei

• E.

The process of splitting nuclei to produce energy

• 23.
What is the meaning of the word cosmos?
• A.

The dark sky

• B.

The sum total of all matter and energy, that is, everything within and between all galaxies

• C.

The light from a distant astronomical object

• D.

The origin of Earth and life upon it

• E.

The Milky Way

• 24.
• A.

You, Earth, solar system,. Local Group, Local Supercluster, Milky Way

• B.

You, Earth, solar system, Milky Way, Local Supercluster, Local Group

• C.

You, Earth, solar system, Milky Way, Local Group, Local Supercluster

• D.

You, Earth, Local Group, Local Supercluster, solar system, Milky Way

• E.

You, Earth, solar system, Local Group, Milky Way, Local Supercluster

• 25.
About where is our solar system within the Milky Way Galaxy?
• A.

In the halo of the galaxy within the galactic disk

• B.

At the center of the galaxy

• C.

About two-third of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk

• D.

About 10 percent of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk

• E.

Near the far outskirts of the galactic disk

• 26.
Roughly how many stars are in the Milky Way Galaxy?
• A.

10 billion

• B.

1 billion

• C.

100 million

• D.

100 trillion

• E.

100 billion

• 27.
Modern telescopes are capable of seeing bright galaxies up to about
• A.

1 trillion light-years away

• B.

10 billion light-years away

• C.

10 million light-years away

• D.

1 billion light years away

• E.

1 million light years away

• 28.
Suppose we imagine the Sun to be about the size of a grapefruit. How big of an area would the orbits of the nine planets of the solar system cover?
• A.

The size of a small city

• B.

The size of a typical dorm room

• C.

The size of a typical campus building

• D.

The size of a typical campus

• E.

The size of a western stage (e.g., Colorado)

• 29.
In South Africa, it's usually quite warm around the time of the winter solstice and quite cool around the time of the summer solstice
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 30.
Columbus was the first person to discover that Earth is round
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 31.
You can find the tilt of Earth's axis by measuring the angle between your horizon and the North Star
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 32.
The Milky Way can be seen only from the Northern Hemisphere
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 33.
The seasons on Earth are caused by its elliptical orbit from the Sun
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 34.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 35.
It is possible to see the third-quarter Moon near the western horizon at sunrise
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 36.
It is possible to see the full Moon rising just before sunrise
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 37.
If you lived on the Moon, you'd see full Earth when we see new Moon.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 38.
It is possible to view the Moon in first-quarter phase the day after a total lunar eclipse
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 39.
The Moon and the Sun are approximately the same angular size
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 40.
A solar eclipse occurs only when the Moon is new
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 41.
A lunar eclipse occurs only when the Moon is new
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 42.
Speed and velocity are the same thing
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 43.
The Moon is constantly falling toward Earth
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 44.
If you are driving at 30 miles per hour and increase your speed to 60 miles per hour, you quadruple your kinetic energy
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 45.
If you double the mass of fusion material in a hydrogen bomb, you quadruple the amount of energy generated
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 46.
When energy is converted from one form to another, a tiny amount is inevitably lost
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 47.
Kepler deduced his laws of planetary motion once Newton had published his universal law gravitation.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 48.
The center of mass for Earth orbiting the Sun lies inside the Sun
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 49.
There is no gravity in space
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 50.
Doubling the distance between two objects halves the gravitational force between them
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 51.
The escape velocity from Earth is greater for larger rockets than for small ones
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 52.
Tidal friction caused by Earth's stretching from the Moon's gravity is gradually slowing down the rotation of Earth
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 53.
The Moon is slowly moving away from Earth
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 54.
Which of the following is an example in which you are traveling at constant speed but not at constant velocity?
• A.

Driving backward at exactly 50 km/hr

• B.

Driving around in a circle at exactly 100 km/hr

• C.

Jumping up and down, with a period of exactly 60 hops per minute

• D.

Rolling freely down a hill in a cart, traveling in a straight line

• E.

None of the above

• 55.
What is the acceleration of gravity of Earth?
• A.

9.8 m/s downward

• B.

9.8 km/s2 downward

• C.

9.8 m/s2 downward

• D.

9.8 km/s downward

• E.

9.8 m2/s downward

• 56.
If you drop a rock from a great height, about how fast will it be falling after 5 seconds, neglecting air resistance?
• A.

It depends on what shape it is

• B.

50 m/s

• C.

10 m/s

• D.

It depends on how heavy it is

• E.

15 m/s

• 57.
Momentum is defined as
• A.

Mass times speed

• B.

Mass times velocity

• C.

Force times acceleration

• D.

Mass times acceleration

• E.

Force times velocity

• 58.
If an object's velocity is doubled, the momentum is
• A.

Doubled

• B.

• C.

Unchanged

• D.

Dependent on its acceleration

• E.

Halved

• 59.
As long as an object is not gaining or losing mass, a net force on the object will cause a change in
• A.

Velocity

• B.

Direction

• C.

Acceleration

• D.

Weight

• E.

Speed

• 60.
If you mass is 60kg on Earth, what would your mass be on the Moon?
• A.

10kg

• B.

10lb

• C.

50kg

• D.

60lb

• E.

60kg

• 61.
In which of the following cases would you feel weightless?
• A.

While falling from an airplane with your parachute open

• B.

While walking on the Moon

• C.

While traveling through space in an accelerating rocket

• D.

While falling from a roof

• E.

None of the above

• 62.
You are standing on a scale in an elevator. Suddenly you notice your weight decreases. What do you conclude?
• A.

The elevator is accelerating downwards

• B.

The elevator is accelerating upwards

• C.

• D.

The elevator is moving at a constant velocity upwards

• E.

The elevator is moving at a constant velocity downwards

• 63.
What would happen if the Space Shuttle were launched with a speed greater than Earth's escape velocity?
• A.

It would travel in a higher orbit around Earth

• B.

It would take less time to reach its bound orbit

• C.

It would be in an unstable orbit

• D.

It would travel away from Earth into the solar system

• E.

It would orbit Earth at a faster velocity

• 64.
Suppose an object is moving in a straight line at 50mi/hr. According to newton's first law of motion, the object will
• A.

Continue to move in the same way forever, no matter what happens

• B.

Eventually slow down and come to a shop

• C.

Continue to move in a straight line forever if it in space, but slow and stop otherwise.

• D.

Continue to move in the same way until it is acted upon by a force

• 65.
Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's laws of motion?
• A.

The rate of change of momentum of an object is equal to the net force applied to the object

• B.

What goes up must come down

• C.

For any force, there always is an equal and opposite reaction force

• D.

In the absence of a net force, an object moves with constant velocity

• E.

All of the above are Newton's laws of motion

• 66.
Newton's second law of motion tells us that the net force applied to an object equals its
• A.

Momentum times velocity

• B.

Mass times accerleration

• C.

Mass times velocity

• D.

Energy times accerleration

• E.

Mass times energy

• 67.
How does the Space Shuttle take off?
• A.

It converts mass-energy to kinetic energy

• B.

It achieves lift from its wings in the same way that airplanes do

• C.

The hot rocket exhaust expands the air beneath the shuttle, propelling it forward

• D.

Hot gas shoots out from the rocket and, by conservation of momentum, the shuttle moves in the opposite direction

• E.

Its rocket engines push against the launch pad propelling the shuttle upwards

• 68.
The movement of a pool ball, after being struck by a cue, is an example of
• A.

Conservation of momentum

• B.

Newton's first law of motion

• C.

Newton's third law of motion

• D.

The universal law of gravitation

• E.

Newton's second law of motion

• 69.
The fact that the Voyager spacecraft continue to speed out of the solar system, even though its rockets have no fuel, is an example of
• A.

Newton's third law of motion

• B.

The universal law of gravitation

• C.

Newton's second law of motion

• D.

Newton's first law of motion

• E.

None of the above

• 70.
Energy and power are different words for the same thing
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 71.
Process of science: I am doing science when I already know the answer to my scientific question and I am searching for evidence in the natural world strictly to support what I know
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 72.
Grass is green because it absorbs green light, reflecting all other colors
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 73.
The shorter the wavelength of light, the higher its frequency
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 74.
The greater the wavelength of light, the greater its energy
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 75.
X rays, because they have more energy, travel through space faster than visible light
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 76.
X rays are always more intense than radio waves
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 77.
You are currently emitting electromagnetic waves
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 78.
There are more atoms in a glass of water than stars in the observable universe
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 79.
Atomic nuclei consist of photons and electrons
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 80.
Electrons orbit an atomic nucleus like planets orbit the Sun
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 81.
The atomic nuclei of the same element always have the same number of protons
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 82.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 83.
The energy levels for electrons vary from one element to another
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 84.
The energy levels of an element and its ion are the same
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 85.
Lines of a particular element appear at the same wavelength in both emission and absorption line spectra
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 86.
Any object moving relative to Earth will have a Doppler shift
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 87.
Emission lines from different ionization states of the same element appear in the same place in the spectrum
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 88.
We see each other in the classroom right now because we
• A.

Reflect visible light

• B.

• C.

Reflect infrared light

• D.

Emit visible light

• E.

Emit infrared light

• 89.
Without telescopes or other aid, we can look up and see the Moon in the night sky because it
• A.

• B.

Reflects infrared light

• C.

Emits visible light

• D.

Reflects visible light

• E.

• 90.
How many atoms fit across the period at the end of this sentence?
• A.

Thousands

• B.

Hundreds

• C.

Billions

• D.

Millions

• E.

More than you could count in a lifetime

• 91.
The frequency of a wave is
• A.

The number of peaks passing by any point each second

• B.

Equal to the speed of the wave divided by the wavelength of the wave

• C.

Measured by cycles per second

• D.

Measured in hertz (Hz)

• E.

All of the above

• 92.
The wavelength of a wave is
• A.

The distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave

• B.

Equal to the speed of the wave times the wave's fequency

• C.

The distance between where the wave is emitted and where it is absorbed

• D.

The distance between a peak of the wave and the next through

• E.

How strong the wave is

• 93.
How are wavelength, frequency, and energy related for photons of light?
• A.

Longer wavelength means lower frequency and higher energy

• B.

Longer wavelength means higher frequency and lower energy

• C.

Longer wavelength means higher frequency and higher energy

• D.

Longer wavelength means lower frequency and lower energy

• E.

There is no simple relationship because different photons travel at different speeds

• 94.
From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?
• A.

Radio, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays

• B.

Radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays

• C.

Gamma rays, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radio

• D.

Visible light, infrared, X rays, ultraviolet, gamma rays, radio

• E.

Infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays, radio

• 95.
From shortest to longest wavelength, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?
• A.

Radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays

• B.

Gamma rays, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radio

• C.

Infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays, radio

• D.

Gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio

• E.

Visible light, infrared, X rays, ultraviolet, gamma rays, radio

• 96.
Which of the following statements about X rays and radio waves is not true?
• A.

X rays travel through space faster than radio waves

• B.

X rays have shorter wavelengths than radio waves

• C.

X rays and radio waves are both forms of light, or electromagnetic radiation

• D.

X rays have higher frequency than radio waves

• E.

X rays have higher energy than radio waves

• 97.
Which of the following statements about X rays and radio waves is not true?
• A.

X rays have shorter wavelengths than radio waves

• B.

X rays and radio waves are both forms of light, or electromagnetic radiation

• C.

Neither X rays nor radio waves can penetrate the earth's atmosphere

• D.

X rays have higher energy than radio waves

• E.

X rays have higher frequency than radio waves

• 98.
Which is hotter?
• A.

A blue star

• B.

A red star

• C.

A planet that emits only infrared light

• 99.
What would happen inside the sun if a slight rise in core temperature led to a rapid rise in fusion energy?
• A.

The core would expand and heat up slightly

• B.

The core would expand and cool

• C.

The sun would blow up like a hydrogen bomb

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