1.
What is the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole?
Correct Answer
B. The radius of the singularity
Explanation
The Schwarzschild radius of a black hole is the radius of the singularity, the point at the center where mass is concentrated. It defines the boundary called the event horizon, beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape due to the immense gravitational pull of the singularity.
2.
Which type of black hole forms from the remnants of massive stars (above 20 solar masses)?
Correct Answer
C. Stellar-mass black holes
Explanation
Stellar-mass black holes form from the remnants of massive stars that undergo supernova explosions. These black holes typically have masses ranging from a few to tens of solar masses.
3.
What is the term for the boundary surrounding a black hole from which no information or matter can escape?
Correct Answer
A. Event horizon
Explanation
The term for this boundary is the "event horizon." It is the point of no return around a black hole, beyond which anything that crosses it is inexorably drawn into the black hole, and no information or matter can escape.
4.
What is the name of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy?
Correct Answer
A. Sagittarius A*
Explanation
The black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy is known as "Sagittarius A*," often abbreviated as "Sgr A*." It is a supermassive black hole.
5.
What is the approximate Schwarzschild radius of a black hole with a mass of 3 solar masses (in kilometers)?
Correct Answer
C. 4.5 km
Explanation
The Schwarzschild radius of a black hole can be calculated using the formula R = 2GM/c^2, where G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the black hole, and c is the speed of light. For a 3-solar mass black hole, the Schwarzschild radius is approximately 4.5 kilometers.
6.
What is the term for the phenomenon where a rapidly spinning black hole drags spacetime around it?
Correct Answer
A. Frame-dragging
Explanation
The phenomenon is known as "frame-dragging." It is a prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity and occurs because a rotating black hole twists and drags spacetime with it.
7.
According to Hawking radiation theory, what is the temperature (in Kelvin) of a black hole with a mass of 1 solar mass?
Correct Answer
B. 6.17 x 10^-8 K
Explanation
The temperature of a black hole is given by
TH
= ħ^3×c/ 8π×G×M×kB
TH ≈ 6.17×10 ^−8 Kelvin.
8.
What is the mass of a stellar-mass black hole as compared to the sun?
Correct Answer
A. 3-10 solar masses
Explanation
A stellar-mass black hole typically has a mass ranging from about 3 to 10 times that of our Sun. These black holes are formed from the remnants of massive stars that have undergone supernova explosions. The exact mass of a stellar-mass black hole can vary depending on the mass of the original star and the details of its evolution. However, as a general guideline, they are often referred to as having a mass in the range mentioned above.
9.
In which galaxy is the black hole Cygnus X-1 located, which is part of a binary star system with a massive companion star?
Correct Answer
A. Milky Way
Explanation
The black hole Cygnus X-1 is located in our own Milky Way galaxy. It is one of the most well-studied binary star systems consisting of a black hole and a massive companion star.
10.
What is the process by which two merging black holes release a burst of gravitational waves called?
Correct Answer
D. Ringdown
Explanation
The process by which two merging black holes release a burst of gravitational waves is called "Ringdown." During the final stage of a black hole merger, the resulting black hole settles into its final, stable state, emitting gravitational waves in the process.
11.
What is the term for a hypothetical region around a black hole where objects can still theoretically escape if they have sufficient velocity?
Correct Answer
C. ErgospHere
Explanation
The term for this region is the "Ergosphere." It is a region surrounding a rotating black hole where objects can still escape in the direction of the black hole's rotation, but they cannot remain stationary. It's sometimes referred to as the "zone of no return."
12.
Which theory suggests that black holes may be connected by "wormholes" or shortcuts through spacetime?
Correct Answer
C. String theory
Explanation
The theory that suggests black holes may be connected by "wormholes" or shortcuts through spacetime is "String theory." String theory is a theoretical framework in which the fundamental building blocks of the universe are not particles but tiny, vibrating strings. It allows for the possibility of wormholes.
13.
What happens to time near a black hole, as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity?
Correct Answer
A. Time slows down
Explanation
According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, time near a massive object like a black hole slows down relative to observers farther away. This phenomenon is known as "time dilation" and is a consequence of the strong gravitational field near the black hole.
14.
What is the term for the high-energy jets of particles and radiation emitted by some black holes?
Correct Answer
D. Relativistic Jets
Explanation
The term for the high-energy jets of particles and radiation emitted by some black holes is "Relativistic jets." These jets are powerful and narrow streams of particles and radiation that emanate from the vicinity of a black hole's accretion disk.
15.
What is the approximate radius of a black hole's event horizon for a black hole with a mass equal to that of the Sun?
Correct Answer
B. 3 kilometers
Explanation
The approximate radius of a black hole's event horizon for a black hole with a mass equal to that of the Sun is about 3 kilometers. The event horizon represents the boundary beyond which nothing can escape the black hole's gravitational pull, not even light.
Certainly, let's calculate the approximate radius of a black hole's event horizon for a black hole with a mass equal to that of the Sun.
The formula for the Schwarzschild radius (R_s) of a black hole is given by:
R_s = (2 * G * M) / c^2
Where:
- R_s is the Schwarzschild radius.
- G is the gravitational constant (approximately 6.674 × 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2).
- M is the mass of the black hole.
- c is the speed of light (approximately 3.00 × 10^8 m/s).
For a black hole with a mass equal to that of the Sun (M_sun), which is approximately 1.989 × 10^30 kilograms, we can calculate the Schwarzschild radius:
R_s = (2 * G * M_sun) / c^2
R_s = (2 * 6.674 × 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 * 1.989 × 10^30 kg) / (3.00 × 10^8 m/s)^2
Now, let's calculate it:
R_s = (2 * 6.674 × 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 * 1.989 × 10^30 kg) / (9.00 × 10^16 m^2/s^2)
R_s ≈ (2 * 1.328 * 10^19 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2) / (9.00 × 10^16 m^2/s^2)
Now, calculate the value:
R_s ≈ 2.96 kilometers ≈ 3 Kms
So, for a black hole with a mass equal to that of the Sun, the approximate radius of its event horizon (Schwarzschild radius) is about 3 Kms approx (2.96 kilometers.) Anything that crosses this boundary is considered inside the black hole, and nothing, including light, can escape its gravitational pull.