Urinary SySTEM Questions And Answers! Trivia Quiz

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Urinary System Questions And Answers! Trivia Quiz - Quiz


The urinary system operates as a filter that eliminates toxins from the body as waste. It utilizes a series of tubes and ducts to pass the liquid through the body. The urinary system supports the whole-body and makes it work properly. If you intend to learn more about the urinary system, this is the quiz for you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is not a major function of the kidney?

    • A.

      Regulation of blood ionic composition

    • B.

      Regulation of blood cell size

    • C.

      Regulation of blood volume

    • D.

      Regulation of blood pressure

    • E.

      Regulation of blood pH

    Correct Answer
    B. Regulation of blood cell size
    Explanation
    The kidney is not responsible for regulating blood cell size. The major functions of the kidney include regulation of blood ionic composition, blood volume, blood pressure, and blood pH. The regulation of blood cell size is primarily controlled by the bone marrow, where red blood cells are produced and mature. The kidney's main role is to filter waste products from the blood, regulate electrolyte balance, and maintain fluid balance in the body.

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  • 2. 

    This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • C.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • D.

      Glucose

    • E.

      Calcitriol

    Correct Answer
    B. Gluconeogenesis
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. This process is important for maintaining blood glucose levels, especially during periods of fasting or low carbohydrate intake. It involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert these non-carbohydrate precursors into glucose. Therefore, the formation of a new glucose molecule is a characteristic of gluconeogenesis.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Insulin

    • D.

      Cholesterol

    • E.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    A. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys. It is formed in the liver as a result of the breakdown of proteins and is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. Urea is then excreted in the urine, helping to remove waste products from the body. Glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and carbon dioxide are not waste products excreted by the kidneys.

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  • 4. 

    This is a smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter.

    • A.

      Adipose capsule

    • B.

      Renal capsule

    • C.

      Renal hilus

    • D.

      Renal cortex

    • E.

      Renal medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal capsule
    Explanation
    The renal capsule is a smooth dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds and protects the kidney. It is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter, which connects the kidney to the bladder. The renal capsule provides structural support and helps maintain the shape of the kidney. It also acts as a barrier, preventing the spread of infections or diseases from surrounding tissues to the kidney.

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  • 5. 

    The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the

    • A.

      Renal columns

    • B.

      Renal medulla

    • C.

      Renal pelvis

    • D.

      Calyces

    • E.

      Renal papilla

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal columns
    Explanation
    The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the renal columns.

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  • 6. 

    Which is the correct order of blood flow?

    • A.

      Renal artery-segmental artery-interlobular artery-peritubular capillaries- afferent arterioles

    • B.

      Interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaries-arcuate veins

    • C.

      Arcuate veins-arcuate arteries- glomerular capillaries- renal vein

    • D.

      Renal vein-segmental arteries-interlobar arteries- efferent arterioles

    • E.

      Interlobar veins- afferent arterioles- efferent arterioles- glomerular capillaries

    Correct Answer
    B. Interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaries-arcuate veins
    Explanation
    The correct order of blood flow in the given options is interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaries-arcuate veins. This sequence represents the flow of blood through the renal vasculature, starting from the interlobular arteries that supply blood to the renal cortex, then moving to the arcuate arteries that curve around the renal medulla, followed by the glomerular capillaries where filtration occurs, and finally ending with the arcuate veins that carry blood away from the glomerulus.

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  • 7. 

    Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?

    • A.

      Glomerular capsule, Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT), Collecting duct

    • B.

      Loop of Henle, glomerular capsule, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct

    • C.

      Ascending limb of Loop, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct

    • D.

      Collecting duct, DCT, PCT, Collecting duct, glomerular capsule

    • E.

      PCT, glomerular capsule, DCT, Collecting duct, Loop of Henle

    Correct Answer
    A. Glomerular capsule, Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT), Collecting duct
    Explanation
    The correct order of filtrate flow begins with the glomerular capsule, followed by the Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), then the Loop of Henle, the Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT), and finally the Collecting duct. This sequence represents the flow of fluid and solutes as they are filtered through the renal tubules in the kidney, starting from the glomerulus and ending in the collecting duct where the final concentration of urine occurs.

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  • 8. 

    Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?

    • A.

      Glomerular capsule

    • B.

      Loop of Henle

    • C.

      Ascending limb

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    • E.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    Correct Answer
    E. Proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubule is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of substances in the nephron. It is located immediately after the glomerular capsule and has a highly convoluted structure, allowing for a large surface area for reabsorption. This structure is lined with specialized cells called epithelial cells, which actively transport substances such as glucose, amino acids, ions, and water out of the tubule and back into the bloodstream. This reabsorption process helps maintain the body's balance of water and electrolytes and prevents valuable substances from being lost in the urine.

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  • 9. 

    This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.

    • A.

      Glomerular capsule

    • B.

      Loop of Henle

    • C.

      Ascending limb

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    • E.

      Renal corpuscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Glomerular capsule
    Explanation
    The glomerular capsule is the structure in the nephron that filters blood. It is also known as Bowman's capsule and is located in the renal corpuscle. The glomerular capsule surrounds the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries where the filtration of blood occurs. It has a double-layered structure that allows for the filtration of waste products, excess water, and other substances from the blood into the renal tubules.

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  • 10. 

    This term means the entry of substances into the body from the filtrate.

    • A.

      Reabsorption

    • B.

      Filtration

    • C.

      Secretion

    • D.

      Excretion

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Reabsorption
    Explanation
    Reabsorption refers to the process of substances being taken back into the body from the filtrate. This occurs primarily in the renal tubules of the kidneys, where certain substances that were initially filtered out of the blood are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. Reabsorption helps in maintaining the balance of fluids, electrolytes, and other important substances in the body.

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  • 11. 

    This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.

    • A.

      Reabsorption

    • B.

      Filtration

    • C.

      Secretion

    • D.

      Excretion

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Secretion
    Explanation
    Secretion is the process by which substances from the blood are actively transported into the already formed filtrate in the nephron. This process allows for the elimination of waste products and the regulation of electrolyte and pH balance in the body. Reabsorption, on the other hand, is the process by which substances are transported from the filtrate back into the blood. Filtration is the initial step in urine formation, where blood pressure forces water and solutes across the filtration membrane. Excretion refers to the elimination of waste products from the body.

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  • 12. 

    This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix.

    • A.

      Glomerular endothelial cells

    • B.

      Basal lamina

    • C.

      Pedicels

    • D.

      Filtration slits

    • E.

      Slit membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Basal lamina
    Explanation
    The correct answer is basal lamina because it is the layer of the filtration membrane that is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix. The basal lamina acts as a barrier and helps to filter out substances based on their size and charge. It provides structural support to the glomerular capillaries and prevents the passage of larger molecules such as proteins.

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  • 13. 

    This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles.

    • A.

      Glomerular filtration rate

    • B.

      Tubulomerular feedback

    • C.

      Myogenic mechanism

    • D.

      Renal autoregulation

    • E.

      Capsular hydrostatic pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. Myogenic mechanism
    Explanation
    The myogenic mechanism is the correct answer because it refers to the ability of the smooth muscle walls in the afferent arterioles to contract in response to stretching. When the arterioles are stretched due to increased blood pressure, the smooth muscle cells contract, reducing the diameter of the arterioles and limiting the flow of blood into the glomerulus. This helps to maintain a consistent glomerular filtration rate and regulate blood flow in the kidneys.

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  • 14. 

    This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid.

    • A.

      Paracellular reabsoprtion

    • B.

      Transcellular reabsoprtion

    • C.

      Apical reasborption

    • D.

      Basolateral reabsorption

    • E.

      Active transport

    Correct Answer
    B. Transcellular reabsoprtion
    Explanation
    Transcellular reabsorption refers to the process in which a substance moves from the fluid in the tubular lumen, across the apical membrane, through the cytosol, and into the interstitial fluid. This process involves the movement of substances through the cells themselves, rather than between them (paracellular reabsorption). The term "transcellular" indicates that the substance is passing through the cells. This process can occur through various mechanisms, including active transport, which requires energy to move substances against their concentration gradient.

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  • 15. 

    Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule

    • A.

      It is less dense

    • B.

      It has a higher K+ concentration

    • C.

      It is called tubular fluid

    • D.

      All the Na+ is removed

    • E.

      It is headed to the ascending loop

    Correct Answer
    C. It is called tubular fluid
    Explanation
    When fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule, it undergoes various changes. One of these changes is that it is called tubular fluid. This term is used to describe the fluid that has passed through the glomerulus and entered the renal tubule. The tubular fluid contains waste products and substances that need to be reabsorbed or excreted by the kidneys. Therefore, the correct answer is that once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule, it is called tubular fluid.

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  • 16. 

    The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water?

    • A.

      25%

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      65%

    • D.

      80%

    • E.

      99%

    Correct Answer
    C. 65%
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubules in the kidneys are responsible for reabsorbing water from the filtrate. Out of the total amount of water that is filtered, the proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb approximately 65% of it. This reabsorption process helps to maintain the body's water balance and prevent excessive loss of water through urine.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?

    • A.

      It increases GFR

    • B.

      It can decrease GFR

    • C.

      It enhances reabsorption of certain ions

    • D.

      It stimulates the release of aldosterone

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. It increases GFR
    Explanation
    Angiotensin II affects the kidneys by increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR refers to the rate at which blood is filtered by the glomerulus in the kidneys. An increase in GFR means that more blood is being filtered and more waste products are being excreted in the urine. This can be beneficial in certain situations, such as when the body needs to eliminate excess fluid or waste products.

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  • 18. 

    Urea recycling can cause a buildup of urea in the

    • A.

      Renal capsule

    • B.

      Loop of Henle

    • C.

      Ascending tubule

    • D.

      Renal medulla

    • E.

      Renal pelvis

    Correct Answer
    D. Renal medulla
    Explanation
    Urea recycling refers to the process in which urea, a waste product of protein metabolism, is reabsorbed and transported back to the kidney for excretion. The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney, and it plays a crucial role in concentrating urine. Urea buildup in the renal medulla can occur when there is impaired reabsorption or increased production of urea. This can lead to various renal disorders and affect the overall function of the kidney.

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  • 19. 

    Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?

    • A.

      Increase, pressure

    • B.

      Decrease, volume

    • C.

      Increase, sodium levels

    • D.

      Decrease, pH

    • E.

      Increase, urea

    Correct Answer
    D. Decrease, pH
    Explanation
    Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a decrease in blood pH. Hydrogen ions are acidic, so when they are secreted in higher amounts, they lower the pH of the blood, making it more acidic. This can have various effects on the body's overall pH balance and can disrupt normal physiological processes.

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  • 20. 

    Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?

    • A.

      Increase, potassium

    • B.

      Decrease, volume

    • C.

      Decrease, volume

    • D.

      Decrease, pH

    • E.

      Increase, sodium

    Correct Answer
    E. Increase, sodium
    Explanation
    Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in an increase of blood sodium. Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that plays a role in regulating sodium and potassium levels in the body. When Aldosterone levels increase, it causes the kidneys to reabsorb more sodium from the urine and excrete more potassium. This leads to an increase in blood sodium levels, which can have effects on blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

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  • 21. 

    The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Water

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Sodium

    • E.

      Chloride

    Correct Answer
    B. Water
    Explanation
    The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water. This means that water cannot pass through the walls of the ascending loop of Henle. As a result, water is not reabsorbed in this part of the nephron and remains in the tubular fluid. This allows for the concentration of urine as it moves through the collecting duct, as more water can be reabsorbed in the presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

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  • 22. 

    An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called

    • A.

      Urinalysis

    • B.

      Filtration study

    • C.

      Concentration study

    • D.

      Diuretic

    • E.

      Osmolarity

    Correct Answer
    A. Urinalysis
    Explanation
    Urinalysis is the correct answer because it refers to the examination and analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine. This process helps in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney diseases, and diabetes. By analyzing urine samples, healthcare professionals can detect abnormalities, such as the presence of blood, protein, or bacteria, which can indicate underlying health issues. Therefore, urinalysis is a crucial diagnostic tool used in clinical settings.

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  • 23. 

    This is a test to measure kidney function.

    • A.

      Plasma creatinine

    • B.

      Renal study

    • C.

      Kidney assay

    • D.

      Renal clearance

    • E.

      Hilus study

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma creatinine
    Explanation
    Plasma creatinine is a correct answer because it is a commonly used test to measure kidney function. Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by muscles and filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. By measuring the level of creatinine in the blood, doctors can assess how well the kidneys are functioning. Higher levels of creatinine indicate decreased kidney function, while lower levels indicate better kidney function. Therefore, plasma creatinine is an important indicator in evaluating kidney health.

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  • 24. 

    This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.

    • A.

      Urethra

    • B.

      Ureter

    • C.

      Descending loop of Henle

    • D.

      Renal hilus

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Ureter
    Explanation
    The ureter is the correct answer because it is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. The descending loop of Henle is a part of the nephron in the kidney involved in urine concentration. The renal hilus is the area of the kidney where the blood vessels and ureter enter and exit. Therefore, the ureter is the only option that correctly describes the structure responsible for transporting urine from the kidney to the bladder.

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  • 25. 

    This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers.

    • A.

      Mucosa

    • B.

      Transitional epithelium

    • C.

      Lamina propria

    • D.

      Adventitia

    • E.

      Lamina elastica

    Correct Answer
    C. Lamina propria
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Lamina propria. The lamina propria is a layer of connective tissue found in the ureter. It is composed of elastic and collagen fibers, which provide support and flexibility to the ureter. This layer is located beneath the transitional epithelium, which lines the inner surface of the ureter. The lamina propria plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of the ureter and allowing it to stretch and contract as urine passes through.

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  • 26. 

    This lies in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder.

    • A.

      Urethral sphincter

    • B.

      Adventitia bundle

    • C.

      Ureter

    • D.

      Internal urethral orifice

    • E.

      Muscularis bundle

    Correct Answer
    D. Internal urethral orifice
    Explanation
    The internal urethral orifice is the correct answer because it is the opening at the base of the bladder that connects to the urethra. It is located in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder, which is a triangular area on the bladder floor. The internal urethral orifice is responsible for allowing urine to pass from the bladder into the urethra for elimination from the body.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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