Unit 5 - French Revolution: Part IV (Second Revolution)

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Unit 5 - French Revolution: Part IV (Second Revolution) - Quiz

-Legislative Assembly and National Convention
-Reign of Terror
-Thermidorian Reaction and Directory


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The __________ was a radical group represented in the Legislative Assembly who favored starting a revolutionary war to free from tyranny those people living in absolutist states (such as Austria and Prussia), wanted a strong centralized gov't, and opposed restrictions on franchise. They earned the nickname "the Mountain" b/c they sat on the left on a raised platform during the National Convention.

    Explanation
    The Jacobins were a radical group represented in the Legislative Assembly who advocated for a revolutionary war to liberate people living in absolutist states. They supported a strong centralized government and opposed restrictions on voting rights. They were called "the Mountain" because they sat on the left side of a raised platform during the National Convention.

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  • 2. 

    After the ____________ of August 10 (a large mob of sans-culottes stormed the Tuileres palace and killed 600 guards), the Paris Commune (a radical gov't) forced the National Assembly to call for elections for a legislative body using universal male suffrage.

    Explanation
    After the insurrection of August 10, where a large mob stormed the Tuileries palace and killed 600 guards, the Paris Commune, a radical government, was able to exert enough pressure on the National Assembly to call for elections for a legislative body using universal male suffrage. This event marked a significant turning point in the French Revolution, as it demonstrated the power of the radical factions and their ability to influence political decisions.

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  • 3. 

    In the hall where the Convention met, those who sat in the middle, or "the Plain" were neutral. Those who sat on the left were radicals. What group sat on the right? (They favored exile for the king, believed in laissez-faire, wanted some degree of local autonomy, feared the influence of sans-culottes, and favored continuation of voting rights based on property ownership.)

    Explanation
    The group that sat on the right in the Convention were the Girondins, Girondans, or Girondists. They favored exile for the king, believed in laissez-faire, wanted some degree of local autonomy, feared the influence of sans-culottes, and favored continuation of voting rights based on property ownership.

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  • 4. 

    During the Convention meeting, a mob of sans-culottes stormed the hall and got the Girondins expelled. To appease the sans-culottes, the Convention est'd the law of maximum prices, which placed limits on the price of bread and taxed the wealthy to pay for the ______ effort.

    Explanation
    During the Convention meeting, the sans-culottes, a radical group of French revolutionaries, disrupted the proceedings and managed to expel the Girondins, who were a more moderate political faction. In order to appease the sans-culottes, the Convention implemented the law of maximum prices, which aimed to control the cost of essential goods, such as bread. This measure was intended to address the concerns of the lower classes and demonstrate the Convention's commitment to their well-being. The additional taxation of the wealthy was meant to fund the war effort, as France was engaged in a conflict at the time.

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  • 5. 

    The first coalition consisted of ___________ and _______________, the two countries who wanted to restore King Louis XVI to the throne. Britain and Spain joined after Louis XVI's execution.

    Explanation
    The first coalition consisted of Austria and Prussia, the two countries who wanted to restore King Louis XVI to the throne. Britain and Spain joined after Louis XVI's execution.

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  • 6. 

    The _________ is a counter-revolutionary revolt that began in March 1793 in a western region of France inspired by anger towards restrictions placed on the church by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

    Explanation
    The Vendee is a counter-revolutionary revolt that started in March 1793 in a western region of France. This revolt was fueled by the anger towards the limitations imposed on the church by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

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  • 7. 

    The Committee of _________ _________ was created along with the Committee of General Security by the Convention in response to the Vendee, French defeats in the Austrian Netherlands, and the betrayal of their commanding officer, General Rumouries. The leaders of this committee were Danton, Lazare Carnot, and Robespierre, all of whom were associated with the Jacobins and were becoming more influential.

    Explanation
    The Committee of Public Safety was created in response to various challenges faced by the French government, including the Vendee uprising, defeats in the Austrian Netherlands, and the betrayal of General Rumouries. The leaders of this committee, including Danton, Lazare Carnot, and Robespierre, were influential figures associated with the Jacobins. The committee was responsible for maintaining public order and security during the French Revolution, and it played a significant role in the Reign of Terror, implementing policies to suppress counter-revolutionary activities and preserve the revolutionary ideals.

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  • 8. 

    ______ was a radical journalist and a hero of the sans-culottes. He was stabbed to death of Charlotte Corday, a Girondin.

    Explanation
    Marat was a radical journalist and a hero of the sans-culottes during the French Revolution. He was known for his fiery writings and his support for the lower classes. Marat's assassination by Charlotte Corday, a Girondin, further fueled the tensions between the Girondins and the radical Jacobins. Marat's death was seen as a martyrdom by the Jacobins and contributed to the radicalization of the revolution.

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  • 9. 

    _________ was one of the three leaders of the Committee of Public Safety and head of the military. He issued a proclamation calling for a levee en masse, drafting the entire population for military service. Men were expected to go into battle, women should make tents and clothing and serve in hospitals, children were to "turn old linen into lint", and old ppl were to go to public places and arouse courage of warriors and preach  the hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.

    Explanation
    Carnot was one of the three leaders of the Committee of Public Safety and head of the military. He issued a proclamation calling for a levee en masse, drafting the entire population for military service. Men were expected to go into battle, women should make tents and clothing and serve in hospitals, children were to "turn old linen into lint", and old people were to go to public places and arouse courage of warriors and preach the hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.

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  • 10. 

    The Jacobins' ideal was known as the __________ ___ ___________. To achieve this, they felt they had to obliterate all traces of old monarchical regime --- they came up with a new calendar based on 10-day weeks, renamed the months to reflect the seasons, attacked Christianity and churches (those in power forcibly removed religious symbols from public buildings), and labeled the first year of the Republic (1792), year 1.

    Explanation
    The Jacobins' ideal was known as the Republic of Virtue. They believed that in order to achieve their ideal society, they needed to completely eliminate any remnants of the old monarchical regime. They implemented various measures to achieve this, such as introducing a new calendar with 10-day weeks and renaming the months to reflect the seasons. They also attacked Christianity and churches, forcibly removing religious symbols from public buildings. Additionally, they labeled the first year of the Republic as year 1, symbolizing a fresh start for their vision of a virtuous republic.

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  • 11. 

    The Cult of Supreme Being was established by ____________ to move people away from the corrupting influence of the church. The cathedral of Notre Dame was turned into a Temple of Reason. These steps proved to be unpopular and eventually led to a political backlash against the Committee of Public Safety.

    Explanation
    Robespierre established the Cult of Supreme Being to counter the influence of the church and promote a more secular society. He believed that the church had become corrupt and wanted to create a new religion that focused on reason and virtue. As part of this movement, the cathedral of Notre Dame was transformed into a Temple of Reason. However, these actions were met with opposition and eventually led to a political backlash against the Committee of Public Safety, which Robespierre was a part of.

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  • 12. 

    There was a planned _________  constructed by the Committee of Public Safety to supply the war and to aid the poor and keep their support.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "economy" because the sentence mentions a planned construction by the Committee of Public Safety to supply the war and aid the poor. This suggests that the construction was related to managing resources and finances, which falls under the concept of economy.

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  • 13. 

    _____________ were extreme radicals who were violently anti-Christian.They demanded revolutionary war both within France and across Europe, and put pressure on the National Convention to pass radical measures, both political and economical.They were later arrested and the leaders, including Jacques Hébert himself, were guillotined.

    Explanation
    The hebertists were extreme radicals who were violently anti-Christian. They demanded revolutionary war both within France and across Europe, and put pressure on the National Convention to pass radical measures, both political and economical. They were later arrested and the leaders, including Jacques Hébert himself, were guillotined.

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  • 14. 

    On July 26, 1794, someone shouted "Down with the tyrant!" when Robespierre spoke before the Convention about the need for one more major purge. The next day, he hand his leading supporters were arrested, put on trial, and were executed by guillotine. What was this event called?

    Explanation
    The event described in the question is known as the Thermidorian Reaction. It refers to the overthrow and execution of Maximilien Robespierre and his supporters during the French Revolution. The term "Thermidorian" comes from the French Republican calendar, and it refers to the month of Thermidor when this event took place. The Thermidorian Reaction marked a turning point in the revolution, leading to the end of the Reign of Terror and the beginning of a more moderate phase in French politics.

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  • 15. 

    After the Thermidorian Reaction, the Paris Commune and the Committee of Public Safety were abolished and the _________ was established. This was headed by an executive council of 5 men and the new constitution provided for a 2-house legislature, made up of a Council of the Ancients, who discussed and voted on legislations proposed by the Council of Five Hundred.

    Explanation
    After the Thermidorian Reaction, the Paris Commune and the Committee of Public Safety were abolished and the Directory was established. The Directory was headed by an executive council of 5 men and the new constitution provided for a 2-house legislature, made up of a Council of the Ancients, who discussed and voted on legislations proposed by the Council of Five Hundred.

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