Test: Group A - Module 3 : Nutritional Assessment/ Body Composition And Energy Balance

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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 600
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 187

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Nutrition Quizzes & Trivia

14 October 2015
Asia Pacific Surgical Training Center, Bali - Indonesia


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     Nutritional screening is a tool to rapidly and simply evaluate whether the patient is at risk to be or to become malnourished? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nutritional screening is indeed a tool used to assess whether a patient is at risk of malnourishment or already malnourished. It is a quick and straightforward evaluation process that helps identify individuals who may require further assessment or intervention to prevent or address malnutrition.

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  • 2. 

    Normal body cell mass (BCM) is the major determinant of an adequate nutritional state? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The normal body cell mass (BCM) refers to the total mass of all the cells in the body, excluding fat cells. It includes cells in organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. Adequate nutritional state is determined by the amount and health of these cells, as they are responsible for carrying out various functions in the body. Therefore, it can be concluded that BCM is indeed the major determinant of an adequate nutritional state.

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  • 3. 

    Plasma albumin level  is part of the NRS 2002 screening tool?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Plasma albumin level is not part of the NRS 2002 screening tool. The NRS 2002 screening tool is a nutritional risk screening tool that assesses various factors such as age, weight loss, and BMI to determine the nutritional risk of a patient. Plasma albumin level is not included in this tool as a screening parameter.

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  • 4. 

    Functional impairment and dietary change are evaluated in “Subjective Global Assessment”? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the "Subjective Global Assessment," functional impairment and dietary change are indeed evaluated. This assessment is a comprehensive method used by healthcare professionals to assess a patient's nutritional status and identify any potential malnutrition. It considers various factors such as weight loss, changes in dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, and functional capacity. By evaluating functional impairment and dietary change, healthcare professionals can determine the severity of malnutrition and develop appropriate treatment plans for patients.

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  • 5. 

    Serum biochemistry is necessary for “Subjective Global Assessment”?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Serum biochemistry is not necessary for "Subjective Global Assessment." This assessment is a subjective evaluation of a patient's nutritional status based on clinical signs and symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. It does not involve any laboratory tests or serum biochemistry. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 6. 

    Skin fold measurements for an estimation of body fat content are usually done at 4 sites? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Skin fold measurements for an estimation of body fat content are usually done at 4 sites. This is because certain areas of the body, such as the triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac, are known to have a higher concentration of subcutaneous fat. By measuring the skin fold thickness at these specific sites, it is possible to estimate the overall body fat content.

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  • 7. 

    Most of nutritional laboratory parameters are very good markers to detect malnutrition?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Nutritional laboratory parameters are not always reliable markers to detect malnutrition. While they can provide useful information about nutrient levels in the body, they do not provide a comprehensive picture of a person's overall nutritional status. Other factors such as dietary intake, physical activity, and individual variations can also influence a person's nutritional status. Therefore, relying solely on nutritional laboratory parameters may lead to inaccurate assessments of malnutrition.

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  • 8. 

    Albumin is a good parameter for assessment of malnutrition because it has a short half live time and it is not affected by hydration status and is independent of liver function? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Albumin is not a good parameter for the assessment of malnutrition because it has a long half-life time, not a short one. Additionally, albumin levels can be affected by hydration status and liver function, making it an unreliable indicator of malnutrition.

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  • 9. 

    Hypoalbuminaemia before operation does not predict surgical complications?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct answer is False. This means that hypoalbuminemia before an operation can predict surgical complications. Hypoalbuminemia refers to low levels of albumin in the blood, which can indicate malnutrition or other medical conditions. Since albumin plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance and transporting various substances in the body, low levels of albumin can increase the risk of surgical complications such as infections, poor wound healing, and longer hospital stays. Therefore, hypoalbuminemia before an operation can be a predictor of surgical complications.

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  • 10. 

    Skin tests (DHR) and lymphopenia are excellent nutritional markers because they are tightly related to recent food intake? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Skin tests (DHR) and lymphopenia are not excellent nutritional markers because they are not tightly related to recent food intake. Skin tests (DHR) are used to diagnose drug hypersensitivity reactions, not to assess nutritional status. Lymphopenia refers to a low level of lymphocytes in the blood and can be caused by various factors, such as infections or certain medications, but it is not directly related to recent food intake. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 11. 

    Iron deficiency should be considered in patients with microcytic anemia and dyspepsia?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Iron deficiency should be considered in patients with microcytic anemia and dyspepsia because microcytic anemia is a common symptom of iron deficiency. Dyspepsia, which refers to symptoms like indigestion, bloating, and stomach discomfort, can also be associated with iron deficiency. Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells, and a deficiency in iron can lead to a decrease in the size of red blood cells, resulting in microcytic anemia. Therefore, when patients present with both microcytic anemia and dyspepsia, iron deficiency should be considered as a possible underlying cause.

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  • 12. 

    Zinc deficiency should be considered in patients who have wound healing problems? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Zinc is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in wound healing. It is involved in various processes such as collagen synthesis, immune function, and cell division, all of which are important for proper wound healing. Therefore, if a patient is experiencing difficulties in wound healing, it is reasonable to consider zinc deficiency as a potential cause.

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  • 13. 

    The two compartment model consists of fat mass and fat  free body mass?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The two compartment model is a commonly used method to estimate body composition. It divides the body into two compartments: fat mass and fat-free body mass. Fat mass refers to the amount of adipose tissue in the body, while fat-free body mass includes all other components such as muscle, bone, and organs. Therefore, it is correct to say that the two compartment model consists of fat mass and fat-free body mass.

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  • 14. 

    In the four compartment model, three compartments are measured by three different methods, the fourth is calculated

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the four compartment model, three compartments are measured by three different methods, which means that the values for these compartments are obtained through direct measurement. The fourth compartment, however, is not directly measured but rather calculated using the values obtained from the other three compartments. Therefore, the statement that the fourth compartment is calculated is correct.

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  • 15. 

    . Urinary creatinine excretion correlates with muscle mass but is influenced by renal function and meat intake.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Urinary creatinine excretion is a measure of the amount of creatinine, a waste product produced by muscles, that is excreted in the urine. Since muscle mass is the primary source of creatinine production, urinary creatinine excretion can be used as an indirect measure of muscle mass. However, it is important to note that other factors such as renal function and meat intake can also influence urinary creatinine excretion. Therefore, the statement that urinary creatinine excretion correlates with muscle mass but is influenced by renal function and meat intake is true.

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  • 16. 

    Total body fat mass is more important than muscle mass for survival of critical illness? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. While both total body fat mass and muscle mass play important roles in the survival of critical illness, muscle mass is generally considered to be more crucial. Muscle mass is directly related to physical strength, mobility, and overall functional capacity, which are essential for recovery and rehabilitation during critical illness. Additionally, muscle mass is also associated with better outcomes in terms of mortality and complications. Therefore, maintaining or increasing muscle mass is often a primary focus in the management of critically ill patients.

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  • 17. 

    Fat free mass (FFM) is not a good indicator of body cell mass (BCM) in severe disease or malnutrition because of fluid shifts.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fat free mass (FFM) refers to the weight of the body without any fat content. On the other hand, body cell mass (BCM) refers specifically to the weight of the body's cells. In severe disease or malnutrition, fluid shifts can occur in the body, which can affect the accuracy of FFM as an indicator of BCM. This means that even if FFM appears to be low, it may not accurately reflect the actual amount of cells in the body. Therefore, FFM is not a good indicator of BCM in severe disease or malnutrition.

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  • 18. 

    BIA gives also adequate results in patients with a BMI <16 and >35? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) provides accurate results for patients with a BMI (body mass index) below 16 and above 35. However, this is not true. BIA may not be as accurate in these extreme ranges of BMI due to factors such as variations in body composition and hydration levels. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 19. 

    Undernutrition can be practically excluded in acutely ill severely  obese patients? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Undernutrition cannot be practically excluded in acutely ill severely obese patients because although they may have excess body weight, they can still be deficient in essential nutrients. Severely obese individuals often have poor dietary habits and may not consume a balanced diet, leading to deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Additionally, their excessive body weight can put them at risk for various health complications, which can further impact their nutritional status. Therefore, it is important to assess the nutritional status of acutely ill severely obese patients to ensure appropriate care and management.

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  • 20. 

    Waist circumference connected with increased risk of metabolic syndrome is more than 80 cm in women and more than 94 cm in men? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Waist circumference is a measure of abdominal obesity, which is strongly associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that include high blood pressure, high blood sugar, abnormal cholesterol levels, and excess body fat around the waist. Research has shown that a waist circumference of more than 80 cm in women and more than 94 cm in men is indicative of abdominal obesity and is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the statement that waist circumference connected with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome is more than 80 cm in women and more than 94 cm in men is true.

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  • 21. 

    Nitrogen balance measurement is not influenced by renal and hepatic functions?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Nitrogen balance measurement is not influenced by renal and hepatic functions" is false. Renal and hepatic functions play a significant role in nitrogen balance measurement. The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products, including nitrogen, from the blood, while the liver is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, the main source of nitrogen in the body. Therefore, any impairment in renal or hepatic functions can affect nitrogen balance and its measurement.

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  • 22. 

    Nitrogen balance can be used for estimation of the adequacy of protein intake?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nitrogen balance can be used for estimation of the adequacy of protein intake because nitrogen is an essential component of protein. When protein is consumed, nitrogen is incorporated into the body's tissues. By measuring the amount of nitrogen consumed and excreted, it is possible to determine if there is a balance between protein intake and protein loss. A positive nitrogen balance indicates that protein intake is sufficient, while a negative balance suggests inadequate protein intake. Therefore, nitrogen balance can serve as an indicator of protein adequacy.

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  • 23. 

    Systemic inflammatory response is not connected with increased gluconeogenesis?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Systemic inflammatory response is not connected with increased gluconeogenesis" is false. Gluconeogenesis is the process by which the body produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. During a systemic inflammatory response, there is an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can stimulate gluconeogenesis. This is because the body needs more glucose to fuel the immune response and provide energy for the increased metabolic demands during inflammation. Therefore, there is a connection between systemic inflammatory response and increased gluconeogenesis.

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  • 24. 

    Respiratory quotient (RQ) can help us to calculate substrate oxidation?  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because respiratory quotient (RQ) is a measure of the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed during respiration. By measuring RQ, we can determine the type of substrate being oxidized for energy production. Different substrates such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins have different RQ values. Therefore, RQ can be used to calculate substrate oxidation by analyzing the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed.

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  • 25. 

    If fat is oxidized as a sole substrate, the RQ value equals 1?   

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    When fat is oxidized as a sole substrate, the RQ value is not equal to 1. The respiratory quotient (RQ) is the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed during metabolism. When fat is the only substrate being oxidized, the RQ value is less than 1 because the oxidation of fat produces more carbon dioxide relative to the amount of oxygen consumed. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 26. 

    Energy expenditure is more determined by fat free mass than fat mass (FFM)?  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Energy expenditure is more determined by fat-free mass (FFM) than fat mass because FFM includes all the body's tissues and organs that require energy for their functioning. These tissues and organs have a higher metabolic rate compared to fat tissue, which means they burn more calories at rest. Therefore, individuals with higher FFM will have a higher resting metabolic rate and will expend more energy throughout the day, even when they are not engaged in physical activity. Fat mass, on the other hand, has a lower metabolic rate and contributes less to overall energy expenditure.

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  • 27. 

     Energy expenditure can be directly measured using Oxygen consumption and C02 production and indirectly estimated by measuring of the heart rate?  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Oxygen consumption and CO2 production are direct measures of energy expenditure because they reflect the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced during metabolism. Measuring heart rate is an indirect method of estimating energy expenditure because heart rate increases as the body requires more energy. Therefore, it is true that energy expenditure can be directly measured using oxygen consumption and CO2 production, and indirectly estimated by measuring heart rate.

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  • 28. 

    In an acute situation a negative energy balance is connected with increased  lipolysis and release of fatty acids? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During an acute situation, such as intense exercise or fasting, the body requires more energy than it is taking in. This leads to a negative energy balance, where the body starts to break down stored energy sources, such as fat, to meet its energy demands. Lipolysis is the process by which stored fat is broken down into fatty acids and released into the bloodstream. Therefore, it is true that in an acute situation, a negative energy balance is connected with increased lipolysis and release of fatty acids.

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  • 29. 

    Indirect calorimetry is the best method for the measurement of energy expenditure? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Indirect calorimetry is considered the best method for measuring energy expenditure because it directly measures the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced by an individual. By measuring these gas exchange rates, indirect calorimetry can accurately estimate the number of calories burned during various activities. This method is more precise and reliable compared to other techniques such as direct calorimetry or estimations based on heart rate or activity levels. Therefore, it is considered the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure.

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  • 30. 

    Abdominal adipose tissue is a risk factor for cardiac diseases and stroke?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Abdominal adipose tissue, also known as belly fat, is considered a risk factor for cardiac diseases and stroke. This type of fat is located around the abdomen and is associated with higher levels of inflammation and insulin resistance, which can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, abdominal adipose tissue is often linked to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and diabetes. Therefore, it is important to manage and reduce abdominal adipose tissue to lower the risk of cardiac diseases and stroke.

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