Tempature Regulation-physiology

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Tempature Regulation-physiology - Quiz

According to the discussions in our previous class, we got to understand thermoregulation and how the process takes place. An environment is said to be thermos neutral when the body does not expend or release energy to maintain its core temperature. Test how well you understood the topic as you prepare for the upcoming midterms by taking this quiz. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Acclimatization to a hot environment includes the following change in sweat?

    • A.

      More dilute

    • B.

      More oily

    • C.

      Delayed onset

    • D.

      More volatile

    • E.

      More salty

    Correct Answer
    A. More dilute
    Explanation
    In a hot environment, the body needs to cool down to maintain its temperature. One way it does this is through sweat production. Sweating helps in cooling down the body as the sweat evaporates from the skin. In acclimatization to a hot environment, the body adapts by producing more dilute sweat. This means that the sweat contains a higher percentage of water and fewer dissolved substances like salts. This change allows for more efficient cooling as the evaporation of more dilute sweat can effectively dissipate heat from the body.

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  • 2. 

    Core temperature is elevated during fever and exercise.   What distinguishes the rise in core temperature during fever from that during exercise?

    • A.

      Increased basal metabolic rate

    • B.

      Reduced sweat formation

    • C.

      Non-shivering thermogenesis

    • D.

      Reduced skin blood flow

    • E.

      Increased thermal setpoint

    Correct Answer
    E. Increased thermal setpoint
    Explanation
    During fever, the rise in core temperature is due to an increased thermal setpoint. This means that the body's internal thermostat is set to a higher temperature, leading to an elevation in core temperature. On the other hand, during exercise, the rise in core temperature is primarily caused by increased metabolic activity and heat production. In this case, the body's thermal setpoint remains unchanged. Therefore, the key difference between the rise in core temperature during fever and exercise is the mechanism behind it - an increased thermal setpoint in fever and increased metabolic activity in exercise.

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  • 3. 

    A surgical sympathectomy has completely interrupted the sympathetic nerves to a patient’s arm. How would you expect the thermoregulatory skin blood flow and sweating responses in that arm to be affected? Vasoconstriction                              Vasodilation                       Sweat        in the cold                                   in the heat                          formation

    • A.

      Abolished…………………Intact………………….Intact

    • B.

      Abolished…………………Intact……………….…Abolished

    • C.

      Abolished…………………Abolished………….. Intact

    • D.

      Abolished………………..Abolished……………Abolished

    Correct Answer
    D. Abolished………………..Abolished……………Abolished
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the thermoregulatory skin blood flow and sweating responses in the arm would be abolished. This is because the sympathetic nerves play a crucial role in regulating these responses. Without the sympathetic nerves, the blood vessels in the skin would not constrict or dilate appropriately in response to temperature changes, leading to a loss of thermoregulatory control. Similarly, the absence of sympathetic innervation would prevent the activation of sweat glands, resulting in a loss of sweating response.

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  • 4. 

    The gain or loss of heat as infrared energy between two objects that are not in physical contact with each other is called what?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation
    Explanation
    Radiation refers to the transfer of heat energy through electromagnetic waves, such as infrared radiation, without the need for direct physical contact between objects. This process occurs when objects with different temperatures emit and absorb electromagnetic waves, causing a gain or loss of heat energy. Unlike conduction and convection, which require direct contact or movement of particles, radiation can occur through empty space and is responsible for the heat transfer from the Sun to the Earth.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding the regulation of body temperature?

    • A.

      In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation

    • B.

      During water immersion, heat is mainly lost via radiation

    • C.

      The thalamus is the centre for integrating thermal information

    • D.

      As the skin possesses thermoreceptors, its temperature is regulated more closely than the core temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation
    Explanation
    In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation. This means that in moderate weather conditions, the body primarily loses heat through the process of radiation, where heat is emitted from the body to the surrounding environment. Other methods of heat loss, such as conduction, convection, and evaporation, may also contribute to regulating body temperature, but radiation is the most significant factor in temperate climates.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding sweating and heat loss?

    • A.

      Heat loss through sweating is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system

    • B.

      The efficacy of sweating as a mechanism of heat loss is increased in tropical rain forest

    • C.

      Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion

    • D.

      Common sweat is secreted by the apocrine glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion
    Explanation
    Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion because when we sweat excessively, our body loses a significant amount of water and electrolytes. This can lead to dehydration and imbalances in the body's temperature regulation. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself properly, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and rapid heartbeat. Therefore, it is important to replenish fluids and electrolytes when sweating profusely to prevent heat exhaustion.

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  • 7. 

    Pathogens that produce fever cause which of the following?

    • A.

      Decreased production of interleukin-1 (IL-1)

    • B.

      Decreased set-point temperature in the hypothalamus

    • C.

      Shivering

    • D.

      Vasodilation of blood vessels in the skin

    Correct Answer
    C. Shivering
    Explanation
    When pathogens produce fever, the body responds by increasing the set-point temperature in the hypothalamus, which leads to shivering. Shivering is a physiological response that generates heat by contracting and relaxing the muscles rapidly, helping to increase body temperature. This is a mechanism employed by the body to combat the infection and create an environment that is less favorable for the growth and replication of the pathogens.

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