T And B Lymphocytes

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Quizzes Created: 14 | Total Attempts: 28,602
Questions: 12 | Attempts: 484

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Human Biology Quizzes & Trivia

HUMAN BIOLOGY AS LEVEL


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    B lymphocytes are formed from ____ cells in the  _____ ______.

    Explanation
    B lymphocytes are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones, where blood cells are produced. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to develop into different types of cells. In the case of B lymphocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow differentiate and mature into B lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response.

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  • 2. 

    There are around 10 millions different B lymphocytes, each with a different shape of _____ in its plasma _______. Each of these cells are capable of making a different antibody.

    Explanation
    Each B lymphocyte has a unique shape of receptor membrane in its plasma. This receptor membrane is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens. The diversity in the shapes of receptor membranes allows for a wide range of antibodies to be produced, as each B lymphocyte is capable of making a different antibody. This diversity is crucial for the immune system to effectively recognize and target a wide variety of pathogens.

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  • 3. 

    When a pathogen enters the body, one kind of B lymphocyte will have receptors that exactly for the ______ on the pathogen.

    Explanation
    B lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. When a pathogen enters the body, B lymphocytes with receptors that specifically recognize and bind to the antigens on the pathogen are activated. This binding triggers the production of antibodies, which help to neutralize and eliminate the pathogen from the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "antigens" as B lymphocytes have receptors that specifically recognize and bind to antigens on pathogens.

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  • 4. 

    The B lymphocyte divides by _____ to produce a clone of identical B lymphocytes. Some of these cells develop into ____ cells. These secrete specific antibodies against the pathogen. This is called the _______ ______ response.

    Explanation
    B lymphocytes divide by mitosis to produce a clone of identical B lymphocytes. Some of these cells develop into plasma cells. These plasma cells secrete specific antibodies against the pathogen. This is called the primary immune response.

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  • 5. 

    But some of the cells become _____ B lymphocytes, also known as ______ cells. These last much longer than plasma cells, and can survive for decades. These do not secrete ________, but serve as the body's ________ memory of the original antigen. If they ever encounter the same antigen again, they divide and rapidly produce plasma cells and more memory cells. This means that the second time the pathogen is encountered, the response is much faster and more intense. This is the _______ ______ response.

    Explanation
    Some of the cells become memory B lymphocytes, also known as memory cells. These last much longer than plasma cells, and can survive for decades. These do not secrete antibodies, but serve as the body's memory of the original antigen. If they ever encounter the same antigen again, they divide and rapidly produce plasma cells and more memory cells. This means that the second time the pathogen is encountered, the response is much faster and more intense. This is the secondary immune response.

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  • 6. 

    T lymphocytes are pruced from stem cells in the bone marrow. They mature in the _____ gland.

    Explanation
    T lymphocytes, also known as T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They are produced from stem cells in the bone marrow, but they undergo maturation in the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a specialized organ located in the upper chest behind the breastbone. It is responsible for the development and maturation of T cells, which involves the selection and education of T cells to recognize foreign antigens and distinguish them from self-antigens. Therefore, the correct answer is the thymus gland.

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  • 7. 

    A macrophage that has engulfed a pathogen by phagocytosis digests the pathogen and _______ the antigen on its cell surface ________. The T lymphocyte with the right shape of _______ to fit the antigen binds to the macrophage.

    Explanation
    After a macrophage engulfs a pathogen through phagocytosis, it digests the pathogen and presents the antigen on its cell surface by attaching it to a membrane receptor. This allows T lymphocytes, which have the right shape of receptors to fit the antigen, to bind to the macrophage.

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  • 8. 

    Some of these T lymphocytes develop into T ____ lymphocytes that kill any cell carrying the specific antigen, they secrete a tixic substance called hydrogen ________. Others develop into T ____ lymphocytes which secrete chemicals that stimulate phagocytosis by phagocytes and antibody production by B lymphocytes. Both types produce their own type of _____ cells.

    Explanation
    T lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. Some T lymphocytes, known as killer T cells, are able to recognize and kill cells that are infected with a specific antigen. They do this by releasing a toxic substance called hydrogen peroxide. Other T lymphocytes, known as helper T cells, secrete chemicals that stimulate phagocytosis by phagocytes (cells that engulf and destroy pathogens) and antibody production by B lymphocytes (another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response). Both killer and helper T cells are considered memory cells because they can "remember" specific antigens and mount a faster and more efficient immune response upon subsequent exposure.

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  • 9. 

    A further type of T lymphocyte is a T _______ lymphocyte. These 'wind down' the action of the immune system once the pathogen has been destroyed.

    Explanation
    T suppressor lymphocytes are a type of T lymphocyte that regulates the immune response by "winding down" the action of the immune system once the pathogen has been eliminated. They help prevent excessive immune responses that could lead to tissue damage or autoimmune diseases. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing immune overactivity.

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  • 10. 

    _____ ________ is the selection of correct T killer lymphocytes and helper lymphocytes.

    Explanation
    Clonal selection is the process by which the immune system selects and activates specific T killer lymphocytes and helper lymphocytes that are capable of recognizing and targeting a specific antigen. This process ensures that only the lymphocytes with the appropriate receptors for the antigen are activated, leading to an effective immune response against the invading pathogen.

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  • 11. 

    ______ ________ is the reproduction of T helper or T killer lymphocytes.

    Explanation
    Clonal expansion refers to the process of reproducing T helper or T killer lymphocytes. This process involves the rapid proliferation of a specific population of lymphocytes in response to an antigen. These lymphocytes undergo multiple rounds of cell division, resulting in an increased number of identical cells that can recognize and attack the antigen. Clonal expansion is essential for the immune system to mount an effective response against pathogens and eliminate them from the body.

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  • 12. 

    _______ are released by T helper lymphocytes and they activate the B lymphocytes.

    Explanation
    Interleukins are released by T helper lymphocytes and they play a crucial role in activating the B lymphocytes. Interleukins are a group of cytokines that act as signaling molecules in the immune system. They help regulate the immune response by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells, including B lymphocytes. When T helper lymphocytes recognize antigens, they release interleukins that bind to receptors on B lymphocytes, triggering their activation and subsequent production of antibodies. Therefore, interleukins are important mediators of the immune response and play a key role in coordinating the actions of different immune cells.

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