Sociology -- Chapter Five

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Sociology -- Chapter Five - Quiz


final 05.02.12


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A key element of the sociological approach to deviance is that

    • A.

      Deviance is viewed as a function of the judgements of particular groups of people

    • B.

      Deviance is regarded primarily as a statistical phenomenon

    • C.

      There are frequently situations when deviance must be viewed in an absolute way

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Deviance is viewed as a function of the judgements of particular groups of people
    Explanation
    The sociological approach to deviance emphasizes that deviance is not an inherent quality of an action or behavior, but rather a social construct that is determined by the judgments and norms of specific groups of people. This perspective recognizes that what may be considered deviant in one social context may not be seen as deviant in another. Therefore, deviance is not viewed as a universal or absolute concept, but rather as a product of social interactions and societal norms.

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  • 2. 

    According to ___ approaches to deviance, deviance is believed to result from some personality disorder or maladjustment that typically develops during childhood

    • A.

      Psychological

    • B.

      Sociological

    • C.

      Criminological

    • D.

      Biological

    • E.

      Labeling

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychological
    Explanation
    According to psychological approaches to deviance, deviance is believed to result from some personality disorder or maladjustment that typically develops during childhood. These approaches focus on individual psychological factors, such as personality traits, mental illness, or childhood experiences, as the main causes of deviant behavior. They emphasize the role of internal factors in explaining deviance, rather than external social or environmental factors.

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  • 3. 

    As for biological explanation of deviance, sociologists have concluded that

    • A.

      Biology explains a substantial amount of deviance

    • B.

      Biology plays no role in causing deviance

    • C.

      Biological explanations are more important that psychological ones in understanding deviance

    • D.

      They should be given more weight than cultural transmission theories

    • E.

      When biology does play role, it is but one contributing factor rather than the sole cause of deviance.

    Correct Answer
    E. When biology does play role, it is but one contributing factor rather than the sole cause of deviance.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that when biology does play a role in deviance, it is not the sole cause but rather one contributing factor. This implies that other factors, such as psychological, cultural, and environmental influences, also play a significant role in understanding deviant behavior. This answer acknowledges the complexity of deviance and highlights the importance of considering multiple factors when explaining its occurrence.

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  • 4. 

    Conflict theorists argue that the causes of crime ad deviance can be found in

    • A.

      The labeling process

    • B.

      Biological inadequacies of individuals

    • C.

      Weakened social bonds in industrial societies

    • D.

      The learning that occurs through primary groups ties

    • E.

      Certain characteristic of capitalism

    Correct Answer
    E. Certain characteristic of capitalism
    Explanation
    Conflict theorists argue that certain characteristics of capitalism contribute to the causes of crime and deviance. Capitalism is an economic system that prioritizes profit and individualism, which can lead to inequality, competition, and exploitation. These conditions can create social and economic disparities, lack of opportunities, and alienation, which in turn can increase the likelihood of individuals engaging in criminal or deviant behavior. Conflict theorists believe that the structural inequalities and power imbalances inherent in capitalism create a fertile ground for crime and deviance to thrive.

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  • 5. 

    According to the text, a crime is

    • A.

      An act that is bad in and of itself

    • B.

      An act that is bad because it is prohibited

    • C.

      An act that is stigmatized by some powerful groups

    • D.

      An act that violates a criminal code that has been enacted by an officially constituted political authority

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. An act that violates a criminal code that has been enacted by an officially constituted political authority
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an act that violates a criminal code that has been enacted by an officially constituted political authority." This means that a crime is an act that goes against the laws that have been established by a legitimate governing body. It is not simply an act that is considered bad in itself or prohibited, but specifically one that breaks the laws set by a recognized authority. It is also not solely determined by the stigmatization of certain groups.

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  • 6. 

    The most widely use mood-altering drug in the United States is

    • A.

      Marijuana

    • B.

      Alcohol

    • C.

      Cocaine

    • D.

      Heroin

    • E.

      Nicotine

    Correct Answer
    B. Alcohol
    Explanation
    Alcohol is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the United States due to its legal status and accessibility. It is consumed by a large portion of the population and is ingrained in social and cultural activities. The availability of alcohol in various forms and settings contributes to its widespread use. Additionally, its effects on the central nervous system, such as relaxation and euphoria, make it a popular choice for altering mood.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following statements would be most consistent with the labeling theory approach to understanding mental illness?

    • A.

      Mental illness is much like physical illness

    • B.

      Mental illness is the result of childhood traumas that produce maladjustment

    • C.

      Mental illness is a mode of adaptation to anomie

    • D.

      Mental illness is caused by a shift from secondary deviance to primary deviance

    • E.

      The symptoms of mental illness arise when people conform to the expectations of how they think a mentally ill person should behave

    Correct Answer
    E. The symptoms of mental illness arise when people conform to the expectations of how they think a mentally ill person should behave
    Explanation
    The labeling theory approach to understanding mental illness suggests that the symptoms of mental illness arise when individuals conform to the expectations of how they think a mentally ill person should behave. This means that people may exhibit symptoms of mental illness because they believe that is how they are supposed to behave based on societal perceptions and stereotypes. This perspective emphasizes the role of societal labeling and stigmatization in shaping the experience and expression of mental illness.

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  • 8. 

    "Syndicates" are associated with which type of crime?

    • A.

      White-collar crime

    • B.

      Organized crime

    • C.

      Sexual crime

    • D.

      Drug crime

    • E.

      Property crime

    Correct Answer
    B. Organized crime
    Explanation
    Syndicates are commonly associated with organized crime. Organized crime refers to criminal activities that are coordinated and controlled by a group or syndicate. These groups often engage in illegal activities such as drug trafficking, money laundering, extortion, and human trafficking. Syndicates play a significant role in organizing and managing these criminal operations, often operating in a hierarchical structure with clear roles and responsibilities.

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  • 9. 

    The text recommends all of the following to help in the fight against crime and delinquency EXCEPT

    • A.

      Reduce poverty

    • B.

      Legalize some victimless crime

    • C.

      Promote personal responsibility among prison inmates

    • D.

      Encourage fuller employment

    • E.

      Give longer prison sentences for most crimes

    Correct Answer
    E. Give longer prison sentences for most crimes
    Explanation
    The text recommends various strategies to combat crime and delinquency, such as reducing poverty, legalizing some victimless crimes, promoting personal responsibility among prison inmates, and encouraging fuller employment. However, it does not suggest giving longer prison sentences for most crimes as a solution.

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  • Current Version
  • Jun 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 16, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Melkinsey2000
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