Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment Chapter Test Practice

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Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment Chapter Test Practice - Quiz

Fans of history and science alike will know that the Scientific Revolution was a series of events which marked the emergence of modern science, a period of time in which subjects like mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and biology were all beginning to be explored, simultaneously transforming the way we look society and the nature of our world. What do you know about it? Take the following quiz and we’ll find out together!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The idea that man is born equal with natural rights and that it's the government's job to protect those rights are prominent in the Declaration of Independence.  That document was based MOST on the ideas of which of the following?

    • A.

      Montesquieu

    • B.

      Bacon

    • C.

      Darwin

    • D.

      Machiavelli

    • E.

      Locke

    Correct Answer
    E. Locke
    Explanation
    The only two you could possibly confuse here are Locke and Montesquieu, but Montesquieu's ideas about checks and balances are prominent in the Constitution, not the Declaration of Independence.

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  • 2. 

    Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in

    • A.

      Supporting the divine right theory

    • B.

      Changing the relationship between people and their government

    • C.

      Debating the role of the church in society

    • D.

      Promoting increased power for European monarch

    Correct Answer
    B. Changing the relationship between people and their government
    Explanation
    Enlightenment thinkers were reformers who were looking to change the way government and society functioned.

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  • 3. 

    John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be most likely to support

    • A.

      A return to feudalism in Europe

    • B.

      A government ruled by a divine right monarchy

    • C.

      A society ruled by the Catholic Church

    • D.

      A society in which the people chose the ruler

    Correct Answer
    D. A society in which the people chose the ruler
    Explanation
    Locke and Montesquieu are both big on self government.

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  • 4. 

    During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they

    • A.

      Relied heavily on the ideas of medieval thinkers

    • B.

      Favored an absolute monarchy as a way of improving economic conditions

    • C.

      Received support from the Catholic Church

    • D.

      Examined natural laws governing the universe

    Correct Answer
    D. Examined natural laws governing the universe
    Explanation
    Both groups were interested in using new ideas to discover the truth and not relying on old traditions.

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  • 5. 

    The French word ___________ meant “philosopher”, or “enlightened thinker.”

    Correct Answer
    philosophe
    Explanation
    Philosophe

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  • 6. 

    Rousseau argued that through a __________, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.

    Correct Answer
    social contract
    Social Contract
    Social Contract Theory
    social contract theory
    Explanation
    Rousseau proposed the concept of a social contract, where a society collectively agrees to be governed by its general will. This means that individuals willingly give up some of their freedoms in order to live in a society that is governed by the common good and the will of the majority. The social contract theory suggests that this agreement is necessary for the functioning and stability of a society.

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  • 7. 

    ________________ criticized the use of the death penalty, calling it hypocritical and cruel.

    Correct Answer
    Beccaria
    beccaria
    Explanation
    Beccaria, also known as Cesare Beccaria, criticized the use of the death penalty, arguing that it was both hypocritical and cruel. He believed that the punishment should fit the crime and that the death penalty was an excessive and ineffective deterrent. Beccaria's ideas were influential in the development of modern criminal justice systems and the abolition of the death penalty in many countries. His work emphasized the importance of proportionality and human rights in punishment.

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  • 8. 

    ______________ was known for the creation of rationalism and his statement “I think, therefore I am.”

    Correct Answer
    Descartes
    descartes
    Explanation
    Descartes is known for the creation of rationalism and his famous statement "I think, therefore I am." This statement, also known as the cogito, is a fundamental concept in philosophy that highlights the existence of the self based on the act of thinking. Descartes argued that even if everything else is doubted or uncertain, the fact that one is thinking proves their existence. This concept became a cornerstone of modern philosophy and had a significant impact on various fields, including epistemology and metaphysics.

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  • 9. 

    The writers and philosophers of the Enlightenment believed the government decisions should be based on

    • A.

      Fundamental religious beliefs

    • B.

      Traditional values

    • C.

      Laws of nature and reason

    • D.

      The concept of divine right of kings

    Correct Answer
    C. Laws of nature and reason
    Explanation
    Enlightenment thinkers weren't about religion, tradition, or absolutism...they were all about the use of reason to create equality and progress.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is associated with the term “federal system”?

    • A.

      A constitutional monarchy

    • B.

      The division of power between national and state governments

    • C.

      Direct democracy

    • D.

      An oligarchy

    Correct Answer
    B. The division of power between national and state governments
    Explanation
    A federal system is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority (national government) and regional or state governments. This allows for a sharing of power and responsibilities between the different levels of government, ensuring a balance of power and preventing any one entity from becoming too dominant. This system is often used in larger countries with diverse populations and different regional needs and interests.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is known for discovering that the orbits of the planets were elliptical, not circular?

    • A.

      Kepler

    • B.

      Galileo

    • C.

      Newton

    • D.

      Locke

    • E.

      Vesalius

    Correct Answer
    A. Kepler
    Explanation
    Johannes Kepler is known for discovering that the orbits of the planets were elliptical, not circular. He formulated three laws of planetary motion, known as Kepler's laws, which revolutionized our understanding of the movement of celestial bodies. Kepler's discoveries provided a crucial foundation for Isaac Newton's later work on universal gravitation.

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  • 12. 

    The term ______________ means to “let (the people) do (what they want)”, which was a doctrine of Adam Smith.

    Correct Answer
    laissez faire
    Explanation
    Learn how to spell it please.

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  • 13. 

    The War of ____________ broke out when Prussia invaded the Austrian territory Silesia.

    Correct Answer
    Austrian Succession
    Austrian succession
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Austrian Succession." This war occurred when Prussia invaded the Austrian territory of Silesia. The conflict was a result of the disputed succession to the Austrian throne after the death of Emperor Charles VI. Several European powers were involved in the war, which lasted from 1740 to 1748. The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which confirmed Prussia's control over Silesia.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following was NOT a major location of conflict during the Seven Years' War?

    • A.

      India

    • B.

      Europe

    • C.

      South America

    • D.

      North America

    Correct Answer
    C. South America
    Explanation
    During the Seven Years' War, South America was not a major location of conflict. The war primarily took place in Europe, North America, and India. Europe was the main theater of the war, with various European powers fighting for control over territories and resources. In North America, the conflict was known as the French and Indian War, as it involved British and French forces, as well as Native American allies. India was also a significant battleground, as the British and French East India Companies fought for dominance in the region. However, South America did not witness major conflict during this war.

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  • 15. 

    With which of the following statements would Adam Smith most agree?

    • A.

      The national government should fund public schools.

    • B.

      The government should stay out of economic issues whenever possible.

    • C.

      The government should provide unemployment benefits.

    • D.

      The government should provide tax breaks to cover childcare costs

    Correct Answer
    B. The government should stay out of economic issues whenever possible.
    Explanation
    See the definition of laissez faire and this will make sense.

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  • 16. 

    ____________ spread the ideas of the Enlightenment through the publication of his Encyclopedia.

    Correct Answer
    Diderot
    diderot
    Explanation
    Diderot is the correct answer because he spread the ideas of the Enlightenment through the publication of his Encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia, also known as Encyclopédie, was a comprehensive collection of knowledge that aimed to educate and enlighten people. Diderot, along with his collaborator Jean le Rond d'Alembert, compiled and edited this influential work, which covered a wide range of subjects including science, philosophy, arts, and politics. Through the Encyclopedia, Diderot played a significant role in disseminating Enlightenment ideals and promoting critical thinking, reason, and progress.

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  • 17. 

    With which of the following would an Enlightenment thinker MOST agree?

    • A.

      The right to rule comes from God

    • B.

      A strong military government is needed to keep the people in line

    • C.

      The only important part of a society is its economy

    • D.

      The right to rule comes from the consent of the people

    Correct Answer
    D. The right to rule comes from the consent of the people
    Explanation
    Again, we're talking about self government here. They MAY agree with "C" but it's not the BEST answer.

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  • 18. 

    How are the Enlightenment and the Renaissance similar?

    • A.

      Art of both eras are based on Impressionism

    • B.

      Advanced technology was crucial for both eras

    • C.

      Both eras relied on the use of the scientific method to discover universal truths

    • D.

      Both eras encouraged the questioning of tradition and traditional authority

    Correct Answer
    D. Both eras encouraged the questioning of tradition and traditional authority
    Explanation
    Both the Enlightenment and the Renaissance encouraged the questioning of tradition and traditional authority. During the Renaissance, there was a shift towards humanism and a focus on individualism, which led to a questioning of the authority of the Church and the traditional social order. Similarly, during the Enlightenment, thinkers emphasized reason and rationality, challenging the authority of monarchs and religious institutions. Both eras promoted critical thinking and a desire for intellectual freedom, leading to a questioning of long-standing traditions and authorities.

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  • 19. 

    What was the Seven Years' War called in North America?

    Correct Answer
    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War
    Explanation
    The Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in North America, was a conflict between the British and French, with their respective Native American allies, over territorial disputes in the American colonies. The war was primarily fought in North America, hence the name "French and Indian War." The term "The French and Indian War" is a repetition of the correct answer.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following was the only absolute despot (monarch) who wholeheartedly embraced the ideas and reforms of the Enlightenment.  (The ruler failed by implementing reform to quickly)

    • A.

      Frederick the Great

    • B.

      Catherine the Great

    • C.

      Joseph II

    • D.

      Maria Teresa

    Correct Answer
    C. Joseph II
    Explanation
    Joseph II was the only absolute despot who wholeheartedly embraced the ideas and reforms of the Enlightenment. Despite the fact that he failed to implement reforms quickly, he was known for his progressive policies and attempts to modernize Austria. Joseph II introduced religious toleration, abolished serfdom, and implemented legal reforms. He also sought to improve education and healthcare, and promoted the arts and sciences. While his reforms faced resistance and were not always successful, Joseph II's commitment to Enlightenment ideals sets him apart from the other rulers mentioned.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following documents was MOST influenced by the ideas of Montesquieu?

    • A.

      The Bill of Rights

    • B.

      The Constitution

    • C.

      The Declaration of Independence

    • D.

      The Articles of Confederation

    Correct Answer
    B. The Constitution
    Explanation
    The Constitution was most influenced by the ideas of Montesquieu because it incorporated his concept of separation of powers. Montesquieu believed in dividing governmental power among different branches to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. The Constitution reflects this idea by establishing three separate branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. This system of checks and balances ensures that no single branch has too much authority, which aligns with Montesquieu's philosophy.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 25, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 06, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Kevhugh
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