Science Quiz #2 Chapter 7

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Science Quiz #2 Chapter 7 - Quiz

This is another quiz that will help you study Chapter 7 in Life Science.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ___________ is the study of inheritance?

    Explanation
    Genetics is the study of inheritance, which involves the examination of genes and how they are passed from one generation to another. It focuses on understanding the mechanisms of heredity, including the transmission of traits and the variation observed in individuals. By studying genetics, scientists can gain insights into how genetic information is stored, replicated, and expressed, as well as its impact on the phenotype and overall health of organisms.

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  • 2. 

    What kind of plants did Mendel use in his experiments

    Explanation
    Mendel used pea plants in his experiments. Pea plants were ideal for his studies because they have easily distinguishable traits, such as flower color and seed shape, which allowed him to track the inheritance of these traits across generations. Mendel's experiments with pea plants laid the foundation for the understanding of genetics and the principles of inheritance.

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  • 3. 

    In Mendel's experiment, was the F¹ generation produced from a purebred or hybrid cross?  

    Explanation
    In Mendel's experiment, the F¹ generation was produced from a purebred cross. This means that both parent plants were homozygous for the trait being studied, meaning they had the same alleles for that particular trait. This allowed Mendel to observe the inheritance patterns more clearly and accurately.

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  • 4. 

    How did Mendel represent factors for dominant traits?

    Explanation
    Mendel represented factors for dominant traits using capital letters. This is because dominant traits are represented by uppercase letters, while recessive traits are represented by lowercase letters. By using capital letters, Mendel was able to distinguish and classify dominant traits in his experiments on inheritance.

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  • 5. 

    How many chromosomes does a normal human cell have?

    Explanation
    A normal human cell has 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain DNA and carry genetic information. In humans, chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from the mother and one from the father. These pairs are called homologous chromosomes. Therefore, a normal human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, totaling 46 chromosomes.

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  • 6. 

    What are Mendel's factors called today?

    Explanation
    Mendel's factors, which he called "factors of inheritance" or "hereditary units," are now referred to as genes. Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms. They determine various traits and characteristics, such as eye color or height, and are passed down from parents to offspring during reproduction. The term "genes" is widely used in modern genetics to describe these hereditary units, reflecting our current understanding of their role in inheritance and biological processes.

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  • 7. 

    What do the letters that are placed along the top and side of a Punnett square represent?

    Explanation
    The letters placed along the top and side of a Punnett square represent the alleles or genetic information of the parents. Each letter represents a different allele, and the combination of letters in each square of the Punnett square represents the possible genetic outcomes of the offspring.

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  • 8. 

    Explain the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance.

  • 9. 

    What does it mean when a trait is sex-linked?

    Explanation
    When a trait is sex-linked, it means that the gene responsible for that trait is located on the sex chromosome, specifically the X chromosome. This means that the trait can be passed down from parents to their offspring in a sex-specific manner. In the case of sex-linked traits, males only have one X chromosome, so if they inherit a gene for a sex-linked trait, they will express that trait regardless of whether it is dominant or recessive. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, so they can be carriers of the trait if they inherit the gene on one X chromosome but do not express it themselves.

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  • 10. 

    Name the Austrian monk whose work marks the beginning of modern genetics.

    Explanation
    Gregor Mendel is considered the father of modern genetics due to his groundbreaking work on pea plants in the 19th century. Through meticulous experiments, Mendel discovered the basic laws of inheritance, including the concepts of dominant and recessive traits, as well as the principles of segregation and independent assortment. His work laid the foundation for our understanding of genetic inheritance and paved the way for the field of genetics to develop into what it is today.

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  • 11. 

    How would you represent an organism that is purebred and dominant for a certain trait, using the letter A? Also using the letter A, write the representation of a hybrid organism.

    Explanation
    An organism that is purebred and dominant for a certain trait is represented by the letter A, which means that both alleles for that trait are the same and dominant. On the other hand, a hybrid organism is represented by Aa, indicating that it has one dominant allele (A) and one recessive allele (a) for the trait.

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  • 12. 

    What are the three ways to learn about a baby before it is born?

    • A.

      Its sex

    • B.

      Ultrasound

    • C.

      Amniocentesis

    • D.

      Galactosemia

    • E.

      Fetoscope

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Ultrasound
    C. Amniocentesis
    E. Fetoscope
    Explanation
    The three ways to learn about a baby before it is born are ultrasound, amniocentesis, and fetoscope. Ultrasound is a common method that uses sound waves to create images of the baby inside the womb. Amniocentesis is a procedure where a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted and analyzed for genetic abnormalities. Fetoscope is a specialized instrument that allows doctors to listen to the baby's heartbeat and assess its health. These methods provide valuable information about the baby's development, health, and gender.

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  • 13. 

    Explain the difference between an organism's phenotype and genotype.

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