Quiz 3 Ch. 5,6

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| By Born2play4ever
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 18,814
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Molecule Quizzes & Trivia

Quiz over chapters 5 and 6 in Campbell and Reece book. Missing questions 9 and 14-25 because they had pictures of molecules way too complex for me to waste my time trying to draw!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

    • A.

      Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks them down

    • B.

      Hydrolysis occurs during th day, and dehydration reactions happen at night.

    • C.

      Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.

    • D.

      Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions destroy them

    • E.

      Dehydration reactions accur in plants, and hydrolysis happens in animals

    Correct Answer
    A. Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks them down
    Explanation
    Dehydration reactions involve the removal of water molecules to form larger molecules, such as polymers. On the other hand, hydrolysis is the process of breaking down larger molecules into smaller units by adding water molecules. Therefore, the correct answer states that dehydration reactions assemble polymers, while hydrolysis breaks them down.

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  • 2. 

    Carbohydrates normally function in animals as

    • A.

      The functional units of lipids

    • B.

      Enzymes in the regulation of metabolic processes

    • C.

      A component of triglycerides

    • D.

      Energy-storage molecules

    • E.

      Sites of protein synthesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Energy-storage molecules
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates serve as energy-storage molecules in animals. They are broken down during metabolism to release energy that can be used by the body for various physiological processes. This energy is stored in the form of glucose molecules, which can be readily accessed when needed. Carbohydrates are a major source of fuel for the body and play a crucial role in providing energy for activities and maintaining proper bodily functions.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?

    • A.

      They are both polymers of glucose

    • B.

      They are geometric isomers of each other

    • C.

      They can both be digested by humans

    • D.

      They are both used for energy storage in plants

    • E.

      They are both structural components of the plant cell wall

    Correct Answer
    A. They are both polymers of glucose
    Explanation
    Starch and cellulose are both polymers of glucose. This means that they are made up of repeating units of glucose molecules bonded together. Starch is a storage form of glucose in plants, while cellulose is a structural component of the plant cell wall. Both starch and cellulose are composed of glucose molecules, but they have different types of bonds between the glucose units, which gives them different properties and functions.

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  • 4. 

    What is a fat or triacylglycerol

    • A.

      A protein with tertiary structure

    • B.

      A lipid made of three fatty acids and glycerol

    • C.

      A kind of lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane

    • D.

      A molecule formed from three alcohols

    • E.

      A carbohydrate with three sugars

    Correct Answer
    B. A lipid made of three fatty acids and glycerol
    Explanation
    A fat or triacylglycerol is a lipid made of three fatty acids and glycerol. Lipids are a class of biomolecules that are insoluble in water and include fats, oils, and waxes. Triacylglycerols are the main form of stored energy in the body and are also important for insulation and protection of organs. They consist of a glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid molecules through ester linkages. This structure allows for the storage of large amounts of energy in a compact form.

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  • 5. 

    The hydrogenation of vegetable oil would result in

    • A.

      A decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil molecules

    • B.

      An increase in the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil molecules

    • C.

      The oil being a solid at room temperature

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The hydrogenation of vegetable oil involves adding hydrogen atoms to the oil molecules, which results in a decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil molecules. This process also increases the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil molecules. Additionally, hydrogenation can cause the oil to become a solid at room temperature, transforming it into a more saturated fat. Therefore, all of the given options are correct explanations for the result of hydrogenation of vegetable oil.

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  • 6. 

    The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and physical properties because of different

    • A.

      Carboxyl groups

    • B.

      Amino groups

    • C.

      Side chains (R groups)

    • D.

      Tertiary structure

    • E.

      Both A and B are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Side chains (R groups)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is side chains (R groups). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and they are characterized by having an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a unique side chain or R group. The side chain varies for each amino acid and determines its specific chemical and physical properties. It can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic, acidic, basic, or have other functional groups. These differences in side chains contribute to the diversity of amino acids and their ability to form different interactions within a protein, such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and electrostatic interactions.

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  • 7. 

    At which level of protein structure are interactions between R groups most important?

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Secondary

    • C.

      Tertiary

    • D.

      Quaternary

    • E.

      They are equally important at alll levels

    Correct Answer
    C. Tertiary
    Explanation
    At the tertiary level of protein structure, the interactions between R groups (also known as side chains) are most important. This is because the tertiary structure involves the folding of the polypeptide chain into a 3D shape, and the interactions between R groups determine the specific folding pattern and overall structure of the protein. These interactions can include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions, and disulfide bonds, among others. The tertiary structure is crucial for the protein's function and stability.

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  • 8. 

    A change in a protein's three-dimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, and ionic bonds is termed

    • A.

      Hydrolysis

    • B.

      Stabilization

    • C.

      Destabilization

    • D.

      Renaturation

    • E.

      Denaturation

    Correct Answer
    E. Denaturation
    Explanation
    Denaturation refers to a change in the three-dimensional shape or conformation of a protein caused by the disruption of various chemical bonds, such as hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, and ionic bonds. This disruption leads to the loss of the protein's functional structure and can occur due to factors like heat, pH changes, or exposure to certain chemicals. Denaturation can result in the loss of a protein's biological activity, rendering it non-functional.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following are nitrogen bases of the pyrimidine type?

    • A.

      Guanine and glucose

    • B.

      Cytosine and sucrose

    • C.

      Thymine and cytosine

    • D.

      Ribose and deoxyribose

    • E.

      Glycerol and glycogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Thymine and cytosine
    Explanation
    Thymine and cytosine are nitrogen bases of the pyrimidine type. Pyrimidines are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being purines. Thymine is found only in DNA and pairs with adenine, while cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA and pairs with guanine. Guanine and glucose, cytosine and sucrose, ribose and deoxyribose, glycerol and glycogen are not nitrogen bases of the pyrimidine type.

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  • 10. 

    Metabolism is best described as

    • A.

      Synthesis of macromolecules

    • B.

      Breakdown of macromolecules

    • C.

      Control of enxyme activity

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      A,B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A,B, and C
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the biochemical processes that occur within an organism to maintain life. It involves both the synthesis and breakdown of macromolecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Additionally, metabolism also includes the control of enzyme activity, which regulates the speed at which these processes occur. Therefore, the correct answer is A, B, and C, as all three options accurately describe different aspects of metabolism.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is true regarding catabolic pathways?

    • A.

      They do not depend on enzymes

    • B.

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

    • C.

      They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers

    • D.

      They lead to the synthesis of catabolic compunds

    • E.

      Both A and B are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers
    Explanation
    Catabolic pathways involve the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones, such as polymers into monomers. This process releases energy, which can be used by the cell for various metabolic activities. Enzymes are essential for catalyzing these reactions and facilitating the breakdown of molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is "They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers."

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  • 12. 

    Anabolic pathways

    • A.

      Do not depend on enzymes

    • B.

      Depend on enzymes

    • C.

      Consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

    • D.

      Release energy as they degrade polumers to monomers

    • E.

      Both B and C are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and C are correct
    Explanation
    Anabolic pathways involve the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones, which requires the use of enzymes. Enzymes are essential for catalyzing the chemical reactions involved in building up polymers from monomers. Additionally, this process requires energy input, as indicated by the statement that anabolic pathways consume energy. Therefore, both options B and C are correct.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is part of the first law of thermodynamics?

    • A.

      Energy cannot be created or destroyed

    • B.

      The entropy of the universe is decreasing

    • C.

      The entropy of the universe is constant

    • D.

      Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter

    • E.

      Energy cannot be fransferred or transformed

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy cannot be created or destroyed
    Explanation
    The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. This means that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant. Energy can only be transferred or transformed from one form to another. This principle is fundamental in understanding the behavior of energy in various physical and chemical processes.

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  • 14. 

    According to the second law of thermodynamics

    • A.

      The entropy of the universe is constantly increasing

    • B.

      For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

    • C.

      Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment

    • D.

      The total amount of energy in the universe is conserved or constant

    • E.

      Energy can be transgerred or transformed, but it can be neither created nor destroyed

    Correct Answer
    A. The entropy of the universe is constantly increasing
    Explanation
    The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe is constantly increasing. Entropy is a measure of disorder or randomness in a system. This law implies that in any energy transfer or transformation, the overall disorder of the system and its surroundings will always increase. This means that over time, the universe tends to move towards a state of maximum disorder or equilibrium. Therefore, the correct answer is that the entropy of the universe is constantly increasing.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following would decrease the entropy within a system?

    • A.

      Dehydration reactions

    • B.

      Hydrolysis

    • C.

      Respiration

    • D.

      Digestion

    • E.

      Catabolism

    Correct Answer
    A. Dehydration reactions
    Explanation
    Dehydration reactions involve the removal of water molecules from a system, resulting in the formation of larger molecules. This process leads to a decrease in the number of possible microstates or arrangements of molecules, thus reducing the entropy within the system.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is true for exergonic reactions?

    • A.

      The products have more free energy than the reactants

    • B.

      The products have less free energy than the reactants

    • C.

      Reactants will always be completely converted to products

    • D.

      A net input of energy from the surroundings in required for the reactions to proceed

    • E.

      The reactions upgrade the free energy in the products at the expense of energy from the surroundings

    Correct Answer
    B. The products have less free energy than the reactants
    Explanation
    Exergonic reactions release energy, meaning that the products have less free energy than the reactants. This is because the reaction proceeds in a way that energy is released and transferred to the surroundings. The reactants do not need to be completely converted to products, and a net input of energy from the surroundings is not required for the reaction to proceed. Therefore, the correct answer is that the products have less free energy than the reactants.

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  • 17. 

    When a protein forms from amino acids, the following chages apply:

    • A.

      +/\H, -/\S, +/\G

    • B.

      +/\H, -/\S, -/\G

    • C.

      +/\H, +/\S, +/\G

    • D.

      -/\H, -/\S, +/\G

    • E.

      -/\H, +/\S, +/\G

    Correct Answer
    A. +/\H, -/\S, +/\G
  • 18. 

    ATP generally energizes a cellular process by

    • A.

      Releasing heat upon hydrolysis

    • B.

      Acting as a catalyst

    • C.

      Direct chemical transfer of a phosphate group

    • D.

      Releasing ribose electrons to drive reactions

    • E.

      Emitting light flashes

    Correct Answer
    C. Direct chemical transfer of a phosphate group
    Explanation
    ATP generally energizes a cellular process by directly transferring a phosphate group to another molecule. This transfer of a phosphate group can result in a change in the structure or function of the molecule, which in turn provides energy for various cellular processes. This process is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism by which ATP functions as an energy currency in cells.

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  • 19. 

    This question and the question below both follow the following supplied information:A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X->Y->Z->A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.Substance X is

    • A.

      A coenzyme

    • B.

      An allosteric inhibitor

    • C.

      A substrate

    • D.

      An intermediate

    • E.

      The product

    Correct Answer
    C. A substrate
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, substance X is classified as a substrate. It is the initial substance that undergoes a series of reactions catalyzed by enzymes to ultimately produce product A. The fact that product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y, decreasing its activity, suggests that X is not the product itself but rather a precursor or starting material in the reaction pathway. Therefore, the correct answer is that substance X is a substrate.

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  • 20. 

    Substance A functions as

    • A.

      A coenzyme

    • B.

      An allosteric inhibitor

    • C.

      The substrate

    • D.

      An intermediate

    • E.

      A competitive inhibitor

    Correct Answer
    B. An allosteric inhibitor
    Explanation
    Substance A is classified as an allosteric inhibitor because it binds to a site on the enzyme that is separate from the active site. This binding causes a conformational change in the enzyme, which leads to a decrease in its activity. Unlike competitive inhibitors, which directly compete with the substrate for binding to the active site, allosteric inhibitors modulate enzyme activity by binding to a different site.

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