Ptap116 - Musculoskeletal Final

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Ptap116 - Musculoskeletal Final - Quiz

Practice for the final :)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the name for the middle portion of the sternum?

    • A.

      Body

    • B.

      Xiphoid

    • C.

      Manubrium

    • D.

      Clavicle

    Correct Answer
    A. Body
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Body." The sternum is divided into three parts: the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process. The body is the middle portion of the sternum, located between the manubrium and the xiphoid process. It is the longest part of the sternum and connects to the ribs. The manubrium is the upper portion of the sternum, while the xiphoid process is the lower, pointed portion. The clavicle is a separate bone that connects the sternum to the shoulder.

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  • 2. 

    The dens is also called the _________ process and is located on _________.

    • A.

      Transverse, C1

    • B.

      Odontoid, C1

    • C.

      Spinous, C2

    • D.

      Odontoid, C2

    Correct Answer
    D. Odontoid, C2
    Explanation
    The dens, also known as the odontoid process, is located on the second cervical vertebrae, which is C2.

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  • 3. 

    An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine is called:

    • A.

      Lordosis

    • B.

      Scoliosis

    • C.

      Kyphosis

    • D.

      Spondylosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Scoliosis
    Explanation
    Scoliosis is the correct answer because it refers to an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. This condition causes the spine to curve sideways, resulting in an "S" or "C" shape. Lordosis refers to an excessive inward curvature of the spine, kyphosis refers to an excessive outward curvature of the spine, and spondylosis refers to degenerative changes in the spine.

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  • 4. 

    • A.

      Semispinalis

    • B.

      Longus capitis and colli

    • C.

      Scalenes

    • D.

      Longissimus

    Correct Answer
    C. Scalenes
  • 5. 

    Identify the structure not found on the thoracic vertebrae.

    • A.

      Pedicle

    • B.

      Ventral foramen

    • C.

      Transverse foramen

    • D.

      Lamina

    Correct Answer
    C. Transverse foramen
    Explanation
    The transverse foramen is not found on the thoracic vertebrae. The transverse foramen is a structure that is present in the cervical vertebrae, not the thoracic vertebrae. The transverse foramen is a hole on each side of the cervical vertebrae that allows for the passage of the vertebral artery and vein.

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  • 6. 

    The nucleus pulposis is:

    • A.

      Hardened outer ring of the vertebral disc

    • B.

      None of the above

    • C.

      Core of the vertebral body

    • D.

      Gelatinous substance in the center of the disc

    Correct Answer
    D. Gelatinous substance in the center of the disc
    Explanation
    The nucleus pulposus refers to the gelatinous substance located in the center of the vertebral disc. It acts as a shock absorber, providing cushioning and allowing flexibility between the vertebrae. This gel-like material consists mainly of water and proteoglycans, which help maintain the disc's structure and function.

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  • 7. 

    What muscle is used when frowning?

    • A.

      Zygomaticus

    • B.

      Lateral pterygoid

    • C.

      Depressor anguli oris

    • D.

      Buccinator

    Correct Answer
    C. Depressor anguli oris
    Explanation
    The depressor anguli oris muscle is responsible for pulling down the corners of the mouth, causing a frown. When this muscle contracts, it creates a downward movement of the lips, resulting in a frowning expression. The other muscles listed, such as the zygomaticus, lateral pterygoid, and buccinator, are not directly involved in the frowning movement.

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  • 8. 

    How many bones are in the skull?

  • 9. 

    What bone of the skull is shaped like a butterfly?

  • 10. 

    What two bones surround the atlas?

    • A.

      Occiput & C1

    • B.

      Occipital & C2

    • C.

      C1 & C2

    • D.

      Axis & C1

    Correct Answer
    B. Occipital & C2
    Explanation
    The atlas is the first cervical vertebra, and it is surrounded by the occipital bone and the second cervical vertebra (C2), also known as the axis. The occipital bone is located at the base of the skull and forms the back part of the skull, while C2 is the vertebra that allows the head to rotate. Therefore, the correct answer is occipital and C2.

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  • 11. 

    An increased curve in the thoracic vertebrae is known as:

    • A.

      Kyphosis

    • B.

      Scoliosis

    • C.

      None of the above

    • D.

      Lordosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Kyphosis
    Explanation
    Kyphosis refers to an increased curve in the thoracic vertebrae. It is a condition where the upper back becomes rounded, causing a hunchback appearance. This condition can be caused by various factors such as poor posture, osteoporosis, or certain medical conditions. Scoliosis, on the other hand, refers to an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine, while lordosis is an increased inward curve in the lower back. Therefore, the correct answer is kyphosis.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following muscles is innervated by the facial nerve?

    • A.

      Frontalis

    • B.

      Masseter

    • C.

      Temporalis

    • D.

      Lateral pterygoid

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontalis
    Explanation
    The frontalis muscle is innervated by the facial nerve. The facial nerve, also known as cranial nerve VII, is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression. The frontalis muscle is located in the forehead and is responsible for raising the eyebrows and creating forehead wrinkles. When the facial nerve is damaged or paralyzed, it can result in weakness or paralysis of the frontalis muscle, leading to an inability to raise the eyebrows or create forehead wrinkles on the affected side.

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  • 13. 

    A Patient is referred to physicl therapy by their dentist. The patient is having difficulty chewing. Which muscle(s) is weak?

    • A.

      Masseter

    • B.

      Temporlis

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      Lateral pterygoid

    Correct Answer
    C. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". The patient is referred to physical therapy because they are having difficulty chewing, which indicates a weakness in the muscles involved in chewing. The masseter and temporlis muscles are both responsible for chewing, so if they are weak, it would affect the patient's ability to chew. Additionally, the lateral pterygoid muscle is also involved in chewing and could be weak as well. Therefore, all of these muscles being weak would explain the patient's difficulty in chewing.

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  • 14. 

    The temporomandibular joint is a:

    • A.

      Amphiarthrodial

    • B.

      Hinge joint

    • C.

      Ball-in-socket joint

    • D.

      Saddle

    Correct Answer
    B. Hinge joint
    Explanation
    The temporomandibular joint is classified as a hinge joint because it primarily allows for movement in one plane, similar to the hinge of a door. This joint facilitates the opening and closing of the jaw, allowing for basic functions such as chewing and speaking. Unlike a ball-in-socket joint or a saddle joint, the temporomandibular joint has a more limited range of motion and primarily allows for flexion and extension movements.

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  • 15. 

    Which two muscles protract the mandible?

    • A.

      Temporalis, medial pterygoid

    • B.

      Medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid

    • C.

      Masseter, temporalis

    • D.

      Lateral pterygoid, masseter

    Correct Answer
    B. Medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid
    Explanation
    The correct answer is medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid. These two muscles are responsible for protracting the mandible, which means they move the lower jaw forward. The medial pterygoid muscle is located on the inner side of the jaw and helps in closing and protruding the jaw. The lateral pterygoid muscle is situated on the outer side of the jaw and assists in moving the jaw forward and sideways. Together, these muscles work to protract the mandible and aid in actions like chewing and speaking.

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  • 16. 

    Which statements are correct?

    • A.

      The mandibular fossa is found on the temporal bone. The mandibular condyle is found on the maxilla

    • B.

      The mandibular fossa is found on the temporal bone. The mandibular condyle is found on the mandible.

    • C.

      The mandibular fossa and the mandibular condyle are both found on the mandible

    • D.

      The mandibular fossa is found on the frontal is. The mandibular condyle is found on the mandible.

    Correct Answer
    B. The mandibular fossa is found on the temporal bone. The mandibular condyle is found on the mandible.
    Explanation
    The mandibular fossa is a depression on the temporal bone of the skull, specifically on the inferior surface. It serves as the articulation point for the mandibular condyle, which is a protrusion on the mandible (lower jaw bone). This allows for the movement of the lower jaw during activities such as chewing and speaking. Therefore, the correct statements are that the mandibular fossa is found on the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle is found on the mandible.

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  • 17. 

    Which ribs are considered floaing ribs?

    • A.

      None of the above

    • B.

      Ribs 8-12

    • C.

      Ribs 11-12

    • D.

      Ribs 1-7

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribs 11-12
    Explanation
    Ribs 11-12 are considered floating ribs because they are not attached to the sternum or any other ribs. Unlike the other ribs, which are connected to the sternum by cartilage, floating ribs only attach to the vertebrae in the back. This allows for more flexibility in the ribcage and helps protect the organs in the abdominal area.

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  • 18. 

    The thoracic nerve innervates the:

    • A.

      Rectus abdominis

    • B.

      Internal oblique

    • C.

      External oblique

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The thoracic nerve innervates the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles. This means that it provides the necessary nerve supply to these muscles, allowing them to receive signals from the central nervous system and contract. As a result, the thoracic nerve plays a crucial role in the movement and stability of the abdominal muscles. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 19. 

    Which muscle originates from the posterior iliac crest and inserts on the 12th rib and the transverse processes of L1-L4?

    • A.

      Quadratus lumborum

    • B.

      External oblique

    • C.

      Rectus abdominis

    • D.

      Transverse abdominis

    Correct Answer
    A. Quadratus lumborum
    Explanation
    The muscle that originates from the posterior iliac crest and inserts on the 12th rib and the transverse processes of L1-L4 is the quadratus lumborum.

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  • 20. 

    The atlas is also known as:

    • A.

      T1

    • B.

      C2

    • C.

      T2

    • D.

      C1

    Correct Answer
    D. C1
    Explanation
    The atlas is the first cervical vertebra (C1) in the vertebral column. It is responsible for supporting the skull and allowing for the nodding motion of the head. The atlas is also known as C1 because it is the first cervical vertebra, and it is called the atlas due to its role in supporting the weight of the head, just like the mythical titan Atlas who held up the world.

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  • 21. 

    What muscle(s) is(are) responsible for elevation of the mandible?

    • A.

      Masseter

    • B.

      Temporalis

    • C.

      Medial pterygoid

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The muscles responsible for the elevation of the mandible are the masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid. These muscles work together to close the jaw and bring the mandible upwards. The masseter muscle is the strongest muscle of mastication and is located in the jaw area. The temporalis muscle is located above the ear and helps in the movement of the jaw. The medial pterygoid muscle is located deep in the jaw and aids in the elevation and sideways movement of the mandible. Therefore, all of the above muscles contribute to the elevation of the mandible.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following best describes the diaphragm?

    • A.

      Increases the volume of the thoracic cavity during inhalation

    • B.

      Relaxes during exhalation allowing the lungs to deflate

    • C.

      Contracts during inhalation drawing down the central tendon of the diaphragm

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the thoracic cavity. It plays a crucial role in the process of breathing. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity and allowing the lungs to expand. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes, returning to its dome shape and allowing the lungs to deflate. Additionally, during inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and pulls down the central tendon, further aiding in the expansion of the thoracic cavity. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following muscles is innervated by the trigeminal nerve?

    • A.

      Temporalis

    • B.

      Frontalis

    • C.

      Orbicularis oculi

    • D.

      Zygomaticus major

    Correct Answer
    A. Temporalis
    Explanation
    The temporalis muscle is innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for providing sensory and motor innervation to the face, including the muscles of mastication. The temporalis muscle is one of the major muscles of mastication, which is involved in jaw movement during chewing. Therefore, it is innervated by the trigeminal nerve.

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  • 24. 

    The scalenes are found:

    • A.

      On the sternum and clavicle

    • B.

      Mastoid process, first rib

    • C.

      First and second rib

    • D.

      Second and fourth rib

    Correct Answer
    C. First and second rib
    Explanation
    The scalenes are found on the first and second rib.

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  • 25. 

    What are the primary actions of the serratus posterior superior?

    • A.

      Depresses the ribs during inhalation

    • B.

      Depresses the ribs during exhalation

    • C.

      Elevates the ribs during exhalation

    • D.

      Elevates the ribs during inhalation

    Correct Answer
    D. Elevates the ribs during inhalation
    Explanation
    The serratus posterior superior is a muscle located in the upper back. Its primary action is to elevate the ribs during inhalation. This muscle contracts to lift the ribs upwards, expanding the thoracic cavity and allowing for increased lung capacity. By doing so, it assists in the process of inhalation and helps in the expansion of the chest during breathing.

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  • 26. 

    The zygomatic arch is formed by:

    • A.

      Parietal and temporal bones

    • B.

      Temporal and zygomatic bones

    • C.

      Frontal and temporal bones

    • D.

      Frontal and zygomatic bones

    Correct Answer
    B. Temporal and zygomatic bones
    Explanation
    The zygomatic arch is a bony structure that forms the prominence of the cheekbone. It is composed of two bones: the temporal bone, which is located at the side of the skull, and the zygomatic bone, which is commonly known as the cheekbone. These two bones articulate together to create the zygomatic arch.

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  • 27. 

    The bridge between the transverse process and the spinous process is known as:

    • A.

      Lamina

    • B.

      Pedicle

    • C.

      Inferior articulating facet

    • D.

      Superior articulating facet

    Correct Answer
    A. Lamina
    Explanation
    The bridge between the transverse process and the spinous process is known as the lamina. The lamina is a thin, flat bone that connects the transverse process, which extends laterally from the vertebral arch, to the spinous process, which projects posteriorly from the vertebral arch. It forms the posterior portion of the vertebral arch and helps protect the spinal cord.

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  • 28. 

    Lordosis is a term used to describe an increased curvature in the:

    • A.

      Thoracic spine

    • B.

      Lumbar spine

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      Sacral spine

    Correct Answer
    B. Lumbar spine
    Explanation
    Lordosis is a term used to describe an increased curvature in the lumbar spine. This refers to an exaggerated inward curve in the lower back. It is a normal part of the spine's curvature, but excessive lordosis can lead to lower back pain and discomfort. The thoracic spine refers to the upper and middle back, while the sacral spine is the lowest part of the spine. Therefore, the correct answer is lumbar spine, as lordosis specifically pertains to the curvature in this region.

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  • 29. 

    The pedicle is located between the:

    • A.

      Body and transverse process

    • B.

      Body and spinous process

    • C.

      Spinous process and transverse process

    • D.

      Superior and inferior articulating facet

    Correct Answer
    A. Body and transverse process
    Explanation
    The pedicle is a bony structure that connects the vertebral body to the transverse process in the spine. It forms a bridge between these two structures, providing stability and support to the spine. Therefore, the correct answer is "body and transverse process."

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  • 30. 

    Identify the muscles responsible for trunk flexion

    • A.

      Rectus abdominis, external oblique, transversospinalis

    • B.

      Erector spinae, external oblique, internal oblique

    • C.

      Rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique

    • D.

      Erector spinae, rectus abdominus, external oblique

    Correct Answer
    C. Rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique
    Explanation
    The muscles responsible for trunk flexion are the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. These muscles work together to bend the trunk forward, bringing the chest closer to the pelvis. The rectus abdominis is the main muscle involved in flexion, while the external and internal obliques assist in the movement by contracting and rotating the trunk. The erector spinae muscles are actually responsible for trunk extension, not flexion. Therefore, the correct answer is rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique.

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  • 31. 

    Identify the muscle that rotates the trunk to the same side when contracting unilateraly

    • A.

      External oblique

    • B.

      Internal oblique

    • C.

      Transverse abdominus

    • D.

      Rectus abdominus

    Correct Answer
    B. Internal oblique
    Explanation
    The internal oblique muscle is responsible for rotating the trunk to the same side when contracting unilaterally. This muscle is located on the sides of the abdomen and helps with lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk. When contracted on one side, it assists in rotating the trunk towards that side. The external oblique muscle, on the other hand, rotates the trunk to the opposite side when contracting unilaterally. The transverse abdominus muscle helps with stabilizing the trunk, while the rectus abdominus muscle is responsible for flexing the trunk.

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  • 32. 

    Identify the muscle that rotates the head and neck to the opposite side

    • A.

      None of the above

    • B.

      Splenius capitis & cervicis

    • C.

      Sternocleidomastoid

    • D.

      Semispinalis

    Correct Answer
    C. Sternocleidomastoid
    Explanation
    The sternocleidomastoid muscle is responsible for rotating the head and neck to the opposite side. It is a large muscle located in the front of the neck and connects the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the skull. When one side of the sternocleidomastoid contracts, it causes the head and neck to rotate towards the opposite side. This muscle also helps with flexion and extension of the neck and aids in tilting the head to the same side.

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  • 33. 

    Identify the muscle(s) frequently resposnible for thoracic outlet syndrome.

    • A.

      Sternocleidomastoid

    • B.

      Iliocostalis

    • C.

      Longus colli

    • D.

      Scalenes

    Correct Answer
    D. Scalenes
    Explanation
    The scalene muscles are frequently responsible for thoracic outlet syndrome. These muscles are located in the neck and are responsible for various movements of the head and neck. When these muscles become tight or overused, they can compress the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet, resulting in thoracic outlet syndrome. This condition can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the arm and hand. Therefore, the scalene muscles are often identified as the culprits in cases of thoracic outlet syndrome.

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  • 34. 

    Primary curves, which include ____ and ______, are present at birth

    • A.

      Sacral, thoracic

    • B.

      Thoracic, lumbar

    • C.

      Lumbar, cervical

    • D.

      Cervical, sacral

    Correct Answer
    A. Sacral, thoracic
    Explanation
    Primary curves, which include sacral and thoracic, are present at birth. These curves are formed during fetal development and help to accommodate the shape of the developing fetus in the womb. The sacral curve is located in the lower back, while the thoracic curve is located in the upper back. These curves play a crucial role in maintaining balance, stability, and proper alignment of the spine. As the child grows and begins to sit, crawl, and walk, secondary curves, such as the lumbar and cervical curves, gradually develop to support the upright posture.

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  • 35. 

    Identify the actions of the external obliques when acting unilaterally.

    • A.

      Trunk extension

    • B.

      Trunk flexion

    • C.

      Rotation to same side

    • D.

      Rotation to opposite side

    Correct Answer
    D. Rotation to opposite side
    Explanation
    When the external obliques act unilaterally, they are responsible for rotating the trunk to the opposite side. This means that if the right external oblique contracts, it will rotate the trunk to the left, and vice versa. Trunk extension refers to the movement of the trunk straightening or arching backward, while trunk flexion refers to the movement of the trunk bending forward. Therefore, the correct answer is rotation to the opposite side.

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  • 36. 

    • A.

      Depressor anguli oris

    • B.

      Platysma

    • C.

      Orbicularis oris

    • D.

      Zygomaticus

    Correct Answer
    A. Depressor anguli oris
  • 37. 

    • A.

      Intertransversarii

    • B.

      Interspinales

    • C.

      Semispinalis

    Correct Answer
    A. Intertransversarii
  • 38. 

    List the three muscles in the transversospinalis group

  • 39. 

    Name the AOIN of the sternocleidomastoid

  • 40. 

    Name the AOIN for the rectus abdominis

  • 41. 

  • 42. 

  • 43. 

    ?

  • 44. 

    List one difference between the male & female pelvis according to the Trail Guide

  • 45. 

    Which nerve innervates the gluteus maximus?

    • A.

      Inferior gluteal

    • B.

      Superior gluteal

    • C.

      Obturator

    • D.

      Sciatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Inferior gluteal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the inferior gluteal nerve. The gluteus maximus muscle is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve, which is responsible for providing motor function to this muscle. The inferior gluteal nerve arises from the sacral plexus and specifically innervates the gluteus maximus, allowing it to perform actions such as hip extension and lateral rotation.

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  • 46. 

    What are the actions of the sartorius?

    • A.

      Flexes, abducts, externally rotates the hip

    • B.

      Extends, externally rotates, adducts the hip

    • C.

      Abducts, extends, internally rotates the hip

    • D.

      Flexes, adducts, internally rotates the hip

    Correct Answer
    A. Flexes, abducts, externally rotates the hip
    Explanation
    The sartorius muscle is responsible for flexing, abducting, and externally rotating the hip. Flexion refers to bending the hip joint, abduction refers to moving the leg away from the midline of the body, and external rotation refers to rotating the leg outward.

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  • 47. 

    Which muscle is responsible for hip external rotation?

    • A.

      Obturator internus

    • B.

      Obturator externus

    • C.

      Piriformis

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All of the muscles mentioned, including the obturator internus, obturator externus, and piriformis, are responsible for hip external rotation. These muscles work together to rotate the hip joint outward, allowing for movements such as turning the leg outward or crossing one leg over the other. Therefore, all of these muscles contribute to hip external rotation.

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  • 48. 

    The superior gluteal nerve innervates all of the following except:

    • A.

      Tensor fascia latae

    • B.

      Gluteus medius

    • C.

      Gluteus maximus

    • D.

      Gluteus minimus

    Correct Answer
    C. Gluteus maximus
    Explanation
    The superior gluteal nerve innervates the tensor fascia latae, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus muscles. However, it does not innervate the gluteus maximus muscle.

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  • 49. 

    Which muscle is innervated by the femoral nerve?

    • A.

      Biceps femoris

    • B.

      Sartorius

    • C.

      Semitendinosis

    • D.

      Tensor fascia latae

    Correct Answer
    B. Sartorius
    Explanation
    The sartorius muscle is innervated by the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, which includes the sartorius muscle. The sartorius muscle is a long, strap-like muscle that runs diagonally across the front of the thigh. It helps with flexing, abducting, and externally rotating the hip joint, as well as flexing the knee joint.

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  • 50. 

    Which muscle attaches to the pubic tubercle

    • A.

      Pectineus

    • B.

      Aductor brevis

    • C.

      Adductor longus

    • D.

      Gracilis

    Correct Answer
    C. Adductor longus
    Explanation
    The adductor longus muscle attaches to the pubic tubercle.

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