Psychology Study Guide Questions

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Psychology Study Guide Questions - Quiz

Russel Fordhardt and Helen Dust Study Guide to Psychology for Psychology by Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in philosophy and:

    • A.

      Anatomy

    • B.

      Logic

    • C.

      Dualism

    • D.

      Physiology

    Correct Answer
    D. Physiology
    Explanation
    The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in philosophy and physiology. This is because psychology emerged as a separate discipline from philosophy, with philosophers such as René Descartes and John Locke laying the groundwork for understanding the mind and human behavior. However, it was the advancements in physiology, particularly in the study of the nervous system and the brain, that provided a scientific basis for understanding the physiological processes underlying psychological phenomena. Thus, physiology played a crucial role in shaping the early development of psychology as a scientific discipline.

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  • 2. 

    Historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology as a science to:

    • A.

      Broca

    • B.

      Helmholtz

    • C.

      Wundt

    • D.

      Titchener

    Correct Answer
    C. Wundt
    Explanation
    Wilhelm Wundt is generally credited as the official emergence of psychology as a science because he established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Wundt's laboratory focused on studying the conscious experience through introspection and experimental methods, which laid the foundation for the scientific study of psychology. His work and teachings significantly influenced the development of psychology as a separate scientific discipline.

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  • 3. 

    Willam James is to                 as Wilhelm Wundt is to                

    • A.

      Functionalism; behaviorism

    • B.

      Functionalism; structuralism

    • C.

      Structuralism; behaviorism

    • D.

      Structuralism; functionalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Functionalism; structuralism
    Explanation
    William James is associated with functionalism, a psychological approach that focuses on the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior. Wilhelm Wundt, on the other hand, is associated with structuralism, which focuses on the structure and elements of the mind through introspection. Therefore, the correct answer is functionalism; structuralism.

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  • 4. 

    Structuralist psychologists' beliefs were diametrically opposed to what                psychologists believed.

    • A.

      Functionalist

    • B.

      Behavioral

    • C.

      Gestalt

    • D.

      Cognitive

    Correct Answer
    D. Cognitive
    Explanation
    Structuralist psychologists believed in the importance of breaking down mental processes into their basic components, while cognitive psychologists focused on understanding how these components work together to create complex cognitive processes. This contrast in beliefs reflects a fundamental opposition between the two perspectives.

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  • 5. 

    Humanistic psychologists accented the              , where as Freud's view of human nature was largely                .

    • A.

      Constructive; prospective

    • B.

      Negative; positive

    • C.

      Optimistic; pessimistic

    • D.

      Positive; negative

    Correct Answer
    C. Optimistic; pessimistic
    Explanation
    Humanistic psychologists emphasized the positive aspects of human nature, focusing on personal growth, self-actualization, and individual potential. On the other hand, Freud's view of human nature was largely pessimistic, emphasizing the negative aspects such as unconscious desires and conflicts, and the influence of past traumas on behavior.

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  • 6. 

    Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is best known for his: 

    • A.

      Experiments with salivating dogs

    • B.

      Experiments with head-bobbing pigeons

    • C.

      Work with clinically depressed clients

    • D.

      Experiments with rats and mazes

    Correct Answer
    A. Experiments with salivating dogs
    Explanation
    Ivan Pavlov is best known for his experiments with salivating dogs. He conducted a series of experiments where he conditioned dogs to associate the sound of a bell with the presentation of food. Over time, the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the bell alone, even without the presence of food. This discovery of classical conditioning revolutionized the field of psychology and laid the foundation for further research on learning and behavior.

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  • 7. 

    Sue's first-grade teacher gives yellow smiley faces for good work in the hopes of encouraging the children to do their best. According to principles of reinforcement, smiley faces would be:

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Stimuli

    • C.

      Reactionary agents

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive reinforcement
    Explanation
    In this scenario, the yellow smiley faces given by Sue's first-grade teacher serve as positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a pleasant stimulus (in this case, the smiley faces) to increase the likelihood of a behavior (good work) being repeated. The teacher hopes that by giving smiley faces for good work, the children will be encouraged to continue doing their best.

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  • 8. 

    Willhelm Wundt is to structuralism as Jean Piaget is to

    • A.

      Functionalism

    • B.

      Humanism

    • C.

      Evolutionary psychology

    • D.

      Cognitive psychology

    Correct Answer
    D. Cognitive psychology
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cognitive psychology. This is because Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of structuralism, which focused on studying the basic elements of consciousness. Similarly, Jean Piaget is known for his work in cognitive psychology, which focuses on the study of mental processes such as perception, thinking, and problem-solving. Both Wundt and Piaget contributed significantly to their respective fields, emphasizing the importance of understanding the mind and its processes.

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  • 9. 

    Dr. Dixon studies what adolescents conform to the behaviors and opinions of other adolescents. Which are of psychology does her research best represent?

    • A.

      Cognitive psychology

    • B.

      Clinical psychology

    • C.

      Social psychology

    • D.

      Culturual psychology

    Correct Answer
    C. Social psychology
    Explanation
    Dr. Dixon's research focuses on understanding why adolescents conform to the behaviors and opinions of their peers. This suggests that her research is best represented by social psychology. Social psychology examines how individuals are influenced by social factors, such as social norms, group dynamics, and interpersonal relationships. In this case, Dr. Dixon is specifically studying the social influence on adolescent behavior and opinions, which aligns with the core principles of social psychology.

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  • 10. 

    The American Psychological Association was formed in:

    • A.

      1892 on the campus of Clark University

    • B.

      1939 at the beginning of World War II

    • C.

      At the turn of the century in 1900

    Correct Answer
    A. 1892 on the campus of Clark University
    Explanation
    The American Psychological Association was formed in 1892 on the campus of Clark University. This indicates that the organization has a long history and was established during the late 19th century. The mention of Clark University suggests that it played a significant role in the formation of the association.

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  • 11. 

    Nurture is to nature as experience is to:

    • A.

      Nativism

    • B.

      Adaptation

    • C.

      Behaviorism

    • D.

      Phrenology

    Correct Answer
    A. Nativism
    Explanation
    The analogy presented in the question is comparing the relationship between "nurture" and "nature" to the relationship between "experience" and the correct answer, "nativism". In this context, "nurture" refers to the environmental factors that shape an individual's development, while "nature" refers to their innate characteristics. Similarly, "experience" relates to the external influences that shape an individual's understanding, while "nativism" refers to the belief that certain knowledge or abilities are innate. Therefore, "nativism" is the most appropriate choice to complete the analogy.

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  • 12. 

    The first lab devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in 

    • A.

      Berlin in 1879

    • B.

      Berlin in 1889

    • C.

      Leipzig in 1889

    • D.

      Leipzig in 1879

    Correct Answer
    D. Leipzig in 1879
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Leipzig in 1879. Leipzig is known for being the location of the first laboratory dedicated solely to psychology as an independent field of study. This lab, established in 1879, marked a significant milestone in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline.

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  • 13. 

    Which school of psychology was most concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes?

    • A.

      Structualism

    • B.

      Behaviorism

    • C.

      Functionalism

    • D.

      Empiricism

    Correct Answer
    C. Functionalism
    Explanation
    Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused on the adaptive significance of mental processes. It emphasized the purpose and function of mental processes in helping individuals adapt to their environment. Functionalists believed that mental processes such as perception, memory, and consciousness served a purpose in helping individuals survive and thrive. This perspective contrasted with structuralism, which focused on the structure and elements of consciousness, and behaviorism, which emphasized observable behavior rather than mental processes. Empiricism, on the other hand, is a philosophical perspective that emphasizes the importance of sensory experience and observation in acquiring knowledge, but it is not specifically concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes.

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  • 14. 

    Edward Titcherner is to Sigmund Freud as                 is to                .

    • A.

      Inner sensations; the unconscious

    • B.

      Psychoanalysis; functionalism

    • C.

      Empiricisim; structuralism

    • D.

      Structuralism; functionalism

    Correct Answer
    A. Inner sensations; the unconscious
    Explanation
    The correct answer draws a parallel between Edward Titchener and Sigmund Freud, suggesting that they are similar in some way. Edward Titchener was a psychologist known for his work on structuralism, which focused on analyzing the basic elements of consciousness. Similarly, Sigmund Freud was a psychologist known for his work on the unconscious mind and psychoanalysis. Therefore, the parallel being made is that Titchener's focus on inner sensations is comparable to Freud's focus on the unconscious.

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  • 15. 

    The branch of psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings is called:

    • A.

      Humanistic psychology

    • B.

      Gestalt psychology

    • C.

      Cognitive psychology

    • D.

      Idealistic psychology

    Correct Answer
    A. Humanistic psychology
    Explanation
    Humanistic psychology is the correct answer because it is the branch of psychology that focuses on the positive aspects of human beings, such as their capacity for personal growth, self-actualization, and the pursuit of happiness. It emphasizes the importance of individual experiences, personal values, and the potential for self-improvement. Humanistic psychologists believe in the inherent goodness of people and aim to understand and enhance their subjective experiences and well-being. This approach contrasts with other branches of psychology, such as cognitive psychology, which focus more on cognitive processes and behavior, or Gestalt psychology, which focuses on perception and the organization of sensory information. Idealistic psychology is not a recognized branch of psychology.

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  • 16. 

    Which psychologists insisted that psychology focus entirely on the study of behavior-what people do- rather than what people experience?

    • A.

      Functionalists

    • B.

      Behaviorists

    • C.

      Structuralists

    • D.

      Gestalt psychologists

    Correct Answer
    B. Behaviorists
    Explanation
    Behaviorists insisted that psychology should focus entirely on the study of behavior-what people do-rather than what people experience. They believed that behavior could be objectively observed and measured, unlike subjective experiences such as thoughts and emotions. Behaviorists emphasized the importance of studying observable behaviors and the environmental factors that influence them, and they rejected the use of introspection and subjective methods in psychology. They believed that by studying behavior, they could understand and predict human actions and reactions.

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  • 17. 

    B.F. Skinner used a "conditioning chamber" in his research with:

    • A.

      Rats

    • B.

      Sea slugs

    • C.

      Cats

    • D.

      Dogs

    Correct Answer
    A. Rats
    Explanation
    B.F. Skinner used a "conditioning chamber" in his research with rats. This suggests that his experiments and studies were focused on understanding the behavior and learning processes of rats specifically. The conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner box, was a controlled environment where Skinner could manipulate certain stimuli and rewards to observe how rats responded and learned through operant conditioning. By using rats in his research, Skinner aimed to gain insights into the principles of behavior and develop theories applicable to human behavior as well.

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  • 18. 

    The advent of                        in the 1950s had an enormous conceptual impact on the development of cognitive psychology.

    • A.

      Statistical programming

    • B.

      Stimulus-response

    • C.

      Conditioning

    • D.

      Computers

    Correct Answer
    D. Computers
    Explanation
    The advent of computers in the 1950s had an enormous conceptual impact on the development of cognitive psychology. Computers allowed researchers to simulate cognitive processes and test theories in a way that was not previously possible. They provided a tool for modeling and understanding complex mental processes, such as memory, attention, and problem-solving. This technological advancement revolutionized the field of cognitive psychology and greatly advanced our understanding of the human mind.

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  • 19. 

    The study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is called:

    • A.

      Interpersonal psychology

    • B.

      Cause and effect

    • C.

      Behavioral psychology

    • D.

      Social psychology

    Correct Answer
    D. Social psychology
    Explanation
    Social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior. It focuses on understanding how individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others. This field examines various social factors such as social perception, social influence, attitudes, and group dynamics. By studying social psychology, researchers aim to gain insights into how individuals interact with one another, form relationships, and navigate social situations. Therefore, social psychology is the correct answer as it specifically encompasses the study of interpersonal behavior and its underlying causes and consequences.

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  • 20. 

    Some psychologists believe that newborn babies turn away from noxious odors because this behavior increases their chance of survival. This perspective would be typical of                  psychologists. 

    • A.

      Cultural

    • B.

      Psychoanalytic

    • C.

      Evolutionary

    • D.

      Social

    Correct Answer
    C. Evolutionary
    Explanation
    The perspective that newborn babies turn away from noxious odors because it increases their chance of survival aligns with the evolutionary approach in psychology. This perspective focuses on how behaviors and traits have evolved over time to enhance an organism's chances of survival and reproduction. In this case, the behavior of turning away from noxious odors can be seen as an adaptive response that helps newborn babies avoid potential dangers in their environment.

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  • 21. 

    Aristotle is to philosophical empiricism as Plato is to:

    • A.

      Philosophical structuralism

    • B.

      Nativism

    • C.

      Phrenology

    • D.

      Physiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Nativism
    Explanation
    Aristotle is known for his philosophical empiricism, which emphasizes the importance of observation and experience in acquiring knowledge. Similarly, Plato is associated with nativism, a philosophical view that suggests certain ideas and knowledge are innate and present at birth. This aligns with Plato's belief in the existence of a realm of Forms, where perfect and unchanging ideas exist independently of our sensory experiences. Nativism suggests that these innate ideas shape our understanding of the world and influence our learning and development.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following people used the method of introspection to scientifically focus on basic elements of the mind?

    • A.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • B.

      William James

    • C.

      John Watson

    • D.

      Rene Descartes

    Correct Answer
    A. Wilhelm Wundt
    Explanation
    Wilhelm Wundt used the method of introspection to scientifically focus on the basic elements of the mind. Introspection involves self-observation and self-reflection, where individuals analyze their own thoughts, feelings, and sensations. Wundt believed that by breaking down conscious experiences into their basic components, he could study the structure of the mind. He established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879, which marked the beginning of psychology as a formal scientific discipline. Wundt's approach influenced the development of structuralism, a school of thought that aimed to identify the fundamental components of mental processes.

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  • 23. 

    Wundt set up the first psychology research lab in Europe in 1879;                      set up the first research lab in the United States in 1881.

    • A.

      William James

    • B.

      Charles Darwin

    • C.

      Willhelm Wundt

    • D.

      G. Stanley Hall

    Correct Answer
    D. G. Stanley Hall
    Explanation
    G. Stanley Hall is the correct answer because he is the one who set up the first research lab in the United States in 1881. This information is stated directly in the given statement.

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  • 24. 

    When his parents put him in his car seat and start up the truck, 2-year old Mark almost immediately goes to sleep. The sound of the truck engine is a:

    • A.

      Response

    • B.

      Stimulus

    • C.

      Reinforcement

    • D.

      Reactionary agent

    Correct Answer
    B. Stimulus
    Explanation
    The sound of the truck engine serves as a stimulus for 2-year old Mark, causing him to go to sleep. A stimulus is any object or event that elicits a response or reaction from an organism. In this case, the sound of the truck engine is the stimulus that triggers the response of Mark falling asleep.

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  • 25. 

    Jean Piaget is to                        as Edward Titchener is to                 .

    • A.

      Cognitive psychology; structuralism

    • B.

      Humanism; functionalism

    • C.

      Cognitive psychology; functionalism

    • D.

      Humanism; structualism

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive psychology; structuralism
  • 26. 

    All of the following were cognitive psychologists EXCEPT: 

    • A.

      Sir Frederic Bartlett

    • B.

      Jean Piaget

    • C.

      Kurt Lewin

    • D.

      William James

    Correct Answer
    D. William James
    Explanation
    The question asks for a cognitive psychologist who is not included in the given options. William James is not a cognitive psychologist, as he was a philosopher and psychologist who focused more on functionalism and pragmatism rather than cognitive psychology.

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  • 27. 

    All of the following contributed to the rise of cognitive neuroscience EXCEPT:

    • A.

      The developmental of noninvasive brain-scanning techniques

    • B.

      Increased use of introspection techniques

    • C.

      The advent of PET scans

    • D.

      The use of MRI scanners

    Correct Answer
    B. Increased use of introspection techniques
    Explanation
    The correct answer is increased use of introspection techniques. The other options all contributed to the rise of cognitive neuroscience. The development of noninvasive brain-scanning techniques allowed researchers to study the brain's activity without invasive procedures. The advent of PET scans enabled the visualization of brain function by measuring blood flow and metabolism. The use of MRI scanners provided detailed images of the brain's structure and activity. However, increased use of introspection techniques, which rely on individuals' subjective reports of their own thoughts and experiences, is not a major factor in the rise of cognitive neuroscience.

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  • 28. 

    Dr. Coblentz believes that most women prefer to choose young, physically health men for their life partners because this boosts their chances for producing healthy offspring. This outlook illustrates the                     perspective.

    • A.

      Cultural

    • B.

      Evolutionary

    • C.

      Behavioral

    • D.

      Developmental

    Correct Answer
    B. Evolutionary
    Explanation
    The perspective illustrated in this scenario is the evolutionary perspective. This is because Dr. Coblentz's belief that women prefer young, physically healthy men for their life partners is based on the idea that this choice increases the chances of producing healthy offspring. This aligns with the principles of evolutionary theory, which suggests that individuals are more likely to select mates who possess traits that increase the likelihood of successful reproduction and the survival of their offspring.

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  • 29. 

    Today about half of all members of the APA are American women, quite a contrast to the late 1800s when nearly all members were: 

    • A.

      European males

    • B.

      Majority and minority males

    • C.

      European females

    • D.

      White males

    Correct Answer
    D. White males
    Explanation
    In the late 1800s, the American Psychological Association (APA) was predominantly composed of white males. However, over time, the demographics within the APA have changed significantly. Today, approximately half of all members are American women, representing a stark contrast to the organization's composition in the past.

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  • 30. 

    The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Associations was:

    • A.

      Mary Calkins

    • B.

      Karen Horney

    • C.

      Margaret Floy Washburn

    • D.

      Mary Clark

    Correct Answer
    A. Mary Calkins
    Explanation
    Mary Calkins was the first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association. She was a pioneering psychologist and philosopher who made significant contributions to the field of psychology. Calkins conducted research on memory and developed a system of self-psychology. She also challenged the prevailing gender norms of her time by advocating for women's rights and equality in the field of psychology. Calkins' presidency marked a significant milestone in the history of the American Psychological Association and paved the way for future women leaders in the field.

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  • 31. 

    The belief that accurate knowledge of the world can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people is called:

    • A.

      Empiricism

    • B.

      Methodology

    • C.

      Dogmatism

    • D.

      Pragmatism

    Correct Answer
    C. Dogmatism
    Explanation
    Dogmatism refers to the belief that accurate knowledge can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people. This belief suggests that there is a fixed set of truths or principles that should be accepted without question or critical thinking. Dogmatism often involves a rigid adherence to established beliefs or doctrines, without considering alternative perspectives or evidence. It can hinder the pursuit of knowledge and hinder intellectual growth.

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  • 32. 

    The property of measuring device to measure the same way each time is is used is called:

    • A.

      Accuracy

    • B.

      Validity

    • C.

      Infallibility

    • D.

      Reliability

    Correct Answer
    D. Reliability
    Explanation
    Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of measurements obtained from a measuring device. A reliable measuring device will produce the same results each time it is used under similar conditions. This means that the device can be trusted to provide accurate and consistent measurements, making it a reliable tool for gathering data. Accuracy, on the other hand, refers to how close the measurements are to the true value, while validity refers to the extent to which a measuring device actually measures what it is intended to measure. Infallibility means being incapable of making mistakes, which is not a realistic expectation for any measuring device. Therefore, the correct answer is reliability.

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  • 33. 

    When measuring large samples of people, psychologists usually examine:

    • A.

      Selected cases chosen at random

    • B.

      The most extreme score

    • C.

      Average scores within the group

    • D.

      Each score individually

    Correct Answer
    C. Average scores within the group
    Explanation
    Psychologists usually examine average scores within the group when measuring large samples of people. This is because looking at the average scores provides a more representative and reliable measure of the overall performance or behavior of the group. By calculating the average, psychologists can account for individual differences and fluctuations in scores, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the group as a whole. This approach helps to minimize the impact of outliers or extreme scores that may not accurately reflect the majority of the sample.

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  • 34. 

    Correlation is:

    • A.

      A way of explaining observations.

    • B.

      A pattern of covariation between two variables.

    • C.

      An explanation for cause-and-effect relationships

    • D.

      The sum of observations made on a sample of participants.

    Correct Answer
    B. A pattern of covariation between two variables.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a pattern of covariation between two variables." Correlation refers to the relationship between two variables, where they tend to change together in a consistent manner. It does not provide an explanation for cause-and-effect relationships, but rather shows the strength and direction of the association between the variables. Correlation is not the sum of observations made on a sample of participants, but rather a statistical measure that quantifies the extent to which two variables are related.

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  • 35. 

    The third-variable problem refers to:

    • A.

      The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between two variables

    • B.

      The fact that correlations can only be caused by another variable

    • C.

      The fact that each variable in correlation exerts a causal influence on the other.

    • D.

      The fact that third variable act causally on some other variables, but not all other variables.

    Correct Answer
    A. The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between two variables
    Explanation
    The third-variable problem refers to the fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between two variables. This means that even if two variables are strongly correlated, it does not necessarily mean that one variable is causing the other. There could be a third variable, known as a confounding variable, that is actually causing the observed correlation between the two variables. Therefore, it is important to consider other potential factors before concluding a causal relationship based solely on correlation.

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  • 36. 

    The outcome that gets measured in an experiment is called the:

    • A.

      Independent variable

    • B.

      Control variable

    • C.

      Dependent variable

    Correct Answer
    C. Dependent variable
    Explanation
    The dependent variable is the outcome that is measured in an experiment. It is the variable that is expected to change as a result of manipulating the independent variable. In other words, it is the variable that is dependent on the independent variable. The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher, while the control variable is a variable that is kept constant in order to minimize its influence on the dependent variable.

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  • 37. 

    In a study in which college students are punished (given large amounts of homework, 8:00 a.m. classes, and a steady diet of cafeteria food) to see whether this will affect their scores in their psychology course, what is the independent variable?

    • A.

      Whether students were punished or not

    • B.

      Students' scores on the next psychology midterm

    • C.

      Students' previous scores (or baseline) on psychology midterms

    • D.

      Students' scores on the next midterm minus the baseline score

    Correct Answer
    A. Whether students were punished or not
    Explanation
    The independent variable in this study is whether students were punished or not. This is because it is the variable that is being manipulated by the researchers to observe its effect on the students' scores in their psychology course. The other options mentioned are either dependent variables (students' scores on the next psychology midterm, students' scores on the next midterm minus the baseline score) or baseline variables (students' previous scores on psychology midterms).

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  • 38. 

    Ideally, a measurement process should have                , reliability, and power in order for scientists to use it.

    • A.

      Definition

    • B.

      Stability

    • C.

      Validity

    • D.

      Consistency

    Correct Answer
    C. Validity
    Explanation
    Validity refers to the extent to which a measurement tool accurately measures what it claims to measure. In the context of the given question, validity is important because scientists need to be confident that the measurement process they are using is actually measuring the variable of interest accurately. Without validity, the measurements obtained may not be reliable or meaningful, leading to inaccurate conclusions and unreliable scientific findings. Therefore, validity is a crucial criterion for a measurement process to be considered ideal.

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  • 39. 

    The law of larger numbers urges researchers to:

    • A.

      Collect many small samples of research participants if they can't collect one large sample

    • B.

      Take larger samples from a population, rather than smaller ones, when studying a question of interest

    • C.

      Use large numbers of scientists to verify a claim independently in their laboratories

    • D.

      Avoid measuring samples, and measure populations directly.

    Correct Answer
    B. Take larger samples from a population, rather than smaller ones, when studying a question of interest
    Explanation
    The law of larger numbers states that as the sample size increases, the sample mean will approach the population mean. Therefore, taking larger samples from a population allows researchers to obtain more accurate and reliable results when studying a question of interest. By increasing the sample size, researchers can reduce the impact of random variation and increase the likelihood of obtaining a representative sample that reflects the characteristics of the population being studied.

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  • 40. 

    Simple observation can tell us what happened, but                  invokes knowing why an event happened.

    • A.

      Explanation

    • B.

      Inferential statistics

    • C.

      A population

    • D.

      Double-blind observation

    Correct Answer
    A. Explanation
  • 41. 

    You've noticed that there is a correlation of -.95 between talking speed and the number of questions answered by your professor. What is the most likely explanation for this correlation?

    • A.

      Increased talking speed causes decreased question-answering.

    • B.

      Increased question-answering causes decreased talking speed.

    • C.

      A third variable causes both increased talking speed and decreased question-answering

    • D.

      Any of these explanations could be correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Any of these explanations could be correct
    Explanation
    The given correlation of -.95 suggests a strong negative relationship between talking speed and the number of questions answered by the professor. This means that as talking speed increases, the number of questions answered decreases, and vice versa. The most likely explanation for this correlation is that any of the provided explanations could be correct. It is possible that increased talking speed causes decreased question-answering, or increased question-answering causes decreased talking speed. Additionally, there could be a third variable that influences both talking speed and question-answering. Without further information, it is not possible to determine which explanation is the most accurate.

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  • 42. 

    The variable that gets manipulated in an experiment is called the:

    • A.

      Dependent variable

    • B.

      Covariance variable

    • C.

      Independent variable

    • D.

      Experimental variable

    Correct Answer
    C. Independent variable
    Explanation
    The independent variable is the variable that is deliberately manipulated or changed by the researcher in an experiment. It is the factor that is believed to have an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the variable that is being measured or observed and is expected to change in response to the manipulation of the independent variable. In this case, the correct answer is the independent variable, as it is the variable that gets manipulated in an experiment.

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  • 43. 

    When research participants have an equal chance of ending up in the experimental group or the control group of a study, the process of                     has been used. 

    • A.

      Self-selection

    • B.

      Matched selection

    • C.

      Correlation matching

    • D.

      Randomization

    Correct Answer
    D. Randomization
    Explanation
    Randomization is the process of assigning research participants to either the experimental group or the control group in a study. It ensures that each participant has an equal chance of ending up in either group, eliminating any bias or preconceived notions. This helps to control for confounding variables and increases the internal validity of the study. Randomization is commonly used in experimental research to ensure that the groups are comparable and any differences observed between them can be attributed to the treatment or intervention being studied.

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  • 44. 

    A                   is what gets tested directly when a scientific study is conducted.

    • A.

      Hypothesis

    • B.

      Theory

    • C.

      Prediction

    • D.

      Explanation

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothesis
    Explanation
    A hypothesis is what gets tested directly when a scientific study is conducted. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction based on observations and prior knowledge. It is a testable statement that can be supported or refuted through experimentation or data analysis. In a scientific study, researchers design experiments or gather data to test the validity of their hypothesis. The results of the study will either support or reject the hypothesis, leading to further investigation or the formulation of a new hypothesis.

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  • 45. 

    The ethical principle of                     means that research participants are given enough information about a study to make a reasonable decision about whether they will participate.

    • A.

      Freedom form coercion

    • B.

      Informed consent

    • C.

      Debriefing

    • D.

      Protection from harm

    Correct Answer
    B. Informed consent
    Explanation
    Informed consent is the ethical principle that ensures research participants are provided with sufficient information about a study, allowing them to make an informed decision on whether or not to participate. This principle emphasizes the importance of transparency and respect for the autonomy of individuals, ensuring they have the necessary knowledge to understand the purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits of the research. By obtaining informed consent, researchers uphold the ethical responsibility of respecting participants' rights and protecting their well-being.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research?

    • A.

      Informed consent

    • B.

      Debriefing

    • C.

      Risk-benefit analysis

    • D.

      All of these are principles a researcher must follow

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these are principles a researcher must follow
    Explanation
    Psychologists must adhere to several major ethical principles when conducting research. Informed consent is one such principle, which involves obtaining voluntary and informed agreement from participants before they take part in the study. Debriefing is another important principle, where researchers provide participants with a comprehensive explanation of the study's purpose, procedures, and any potential deception used. Lastly, risk-benefit analysis is crucial, as researchers must carefully assess the potential risks and benefits associated with the study to ensure that the benefits outweigh any potential harm to participants. Therefore, all of these principles are essential for researchers to follow to maintain ethical standards in their research.

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  • 47. 

    Generalizability is synonymous with the concept of:

    • A.

      Internal validity

    • B.

      External validity

    • C.

      Experimental manipulation

    • D.

      Causality

    Correct Answer
    B. External validity
    Explanation
    External validity refers to the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized or applied to other populations, settings, or conditions. It is about the generalizability of the results beyond the specific study context. Therefore, external validity is synonymous with the concept of generalizability.

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  • 48. 

    A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs is called a(n).

    • A.

      Hypothesis

    • B.

      Explanation

    • C.

      Experimental result

    • D.

      Theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Theory
    Explanation
    A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs is called a theory. A theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a body of evidence and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through experimentation and observation. It provides a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of the phenomenon in question. Unlike a hypothesis, which is a proposed explanation that is yet to be tested, a theory is a more comprehensive and widely accepted explanation that has withstood rigorous scrutiny and is supported by a substantial amount of evidence.

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  • 49. 

    The ethical principle of                   means that participants must be told the true purpose and nature of an experiment after it is over. 

    • A.

      Protection from harm

    • B.

      Freedom from coercion

    • C.

      Debriefing

    • D.

      Informed consent

    Correct Answer
    C. Debriefing
    Explanation
    Debriefing is the correct answer because it refers to the ethical principle that participants must be informed about the true purpose and nature of an experiment after it is over. During the debriefing process, participants are provided with information about the study, including any deception that may have been involved, and have the opportunity to ask questions or express any concerns they may have. This allows participants to fully understand their involvement in the study and ensures transparency and respect for their autonomy.

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  • 50. 

    A description of a property in measurable terms is called a(n).

    • A.

      Operational definition

    • B.

      Hypothesis

    • C.

      Theory

    • D.

      Rule set

    Correct Answer
    A. Operational definition
    Explanation
    An operational definition is a description of a property in measurable terms. It provides clear and specific criteria for measuring or observing a particular concept or phenomenon. This allows researchers to objectively assess and quantify variables, making it easier to conduct experiments and gather empirical data. Hypotheses, theories, and rule sets are different concepts and do not specifically refer to the measurement or description of a property in measurable terms.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 10, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Deguz91
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