Psychology Study Guide Questions

59 Questions | Total Attempts: 143

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Psychology Study Guide Questions

Russel Fordhardt and Helen Dust Study Guide to Psychology for Psychology by Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in philosophy and:
    • A. 

      Anatomy

    • B. 

      Logic

    • C. 

      Dualism

    • D. 

      Physiology

  • 2. 
    Historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology as a science to:
    • A. 

      Broca

    • B. 

      Helmholtz

    • C. 

      Wundt

    • D. 

      Titchener

  • 3. 
    Willam James is to                 as Wilhelm Wundt is to                
    • A. 

      Functionalism; behaviorism

    • B. 

      Functionalism; structuralism

    • C. 

      Structuralism; behaviorism

    • D. 

      Structuralism; functionalism

  • 4. 
    Structuralist psychologists' beliefs were diametrically opposed to what                psychologists believed.
    • A. 

      Functionalist

    • B. 

      Behavioral

    • C. 

      Gestalt

    • D. 

      Cognitive

  • 5. 
    Humanistic psychologists accented the              , where as Freud's view of human nature was largely                .
    • A. 

      Constructive; prospective

    • B. 

      Negative; positive

    • C. 

      Optimistic; pessimistic

    • D. 

      Positive; negative

  • 6. 
    Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is best known for his: 
    • A. 

      Experiments with salivating dogs

    • B. 

      Experiments with head-bobbing pigeons

    • C. 

      Work with clinically depressed clients

    • D. 

      Experiments with rats and mazes

  • 7. 
    Sue's first-grade teacher gives yellow smiley faces for good work in the hopes of encouraging the children to do their best. According to principles of reinforcement, smiley faces would be:
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • B. 

      Stimuli

    • C. 

      Reactionary agents

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

  • 8. 
    Willhelm Wundt is to structuralism as Jean Piaget is to
    • A. 

      Functionalism

    • B. 

      Humanism

    • C. 

      Evolutionary psychology

    • D. 

      Cognitive psychology

  • 9. 
    Dr. Dixon studies what adolescents conform to the behaviors and opinions of other adolescents. Which are of psychology does her research best represent?
    • A. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • B. 

      Clinical psychology

    • C. 

      Social psychology

    • D. 

      Culturual psychology

  • 10. 
    The American Psychological Association was formed in:
    • A. 

      1892 on the campus of Clark University

    • B. 

      1939 at the beginning of World War II

    • C. 

      At the turn of the century in 1900

  • 11. 
    Nurture is to nature as experience is to:
    • A. 

      Nativism

    • B. 

      Adaptation

    • C. 

      Behaviorism

    • D. 

      Phrenology

  • 12. 
    The first lab devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in 
    • A. 

      Berlin in 1879

    • B. 

      Berlin in 1889

    • C. 

      Leipzig in 1889

    • D. 

      Leipzig in 1879

  • 13. 
    Which school of psychology was most concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes?
    • A. 

      Structualism

    • B. 

      Behaviorism

    • C. 

      Functionalism

    • D. 

      Empiricism

  • 14. 
    Edward Titcherner is to Sigmund Freud as                 is to                .
    • A. 

      Inner sensations; the unconscious

    • B. 

      Psychoanalysis; functionalism

    • C. 

      Empiricisim; structuralism

    • D. 

      Structuralism; functionalism

  • 15. 
    The branch of psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings is called:
    • A. 

      Humanistic psychology

    • B. 

      Gestalt psychology

    • C. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • D. 

      Idealistic psychology

  • 16. 
    Which psychologists insisted that psychology focus entirely on the study of behavior-what people do- rather than what people experience?
    • A. 

      Functionalists

    • B. 

      Behaviorists

    • C. 

      Structuralists

    • D. 

      Gestalt psychologists

  • 17. 
    B.F. Skinner used a "conditioning chamber" in his research with:
    • A. 

      Rats

    • B. 

      Sea slugs

    • C. 

      Cats

    • D. 

      Dogs

  • 18. 
    The advent of                        in the 1950s had an enormous conceptual impact on the development of cognitive psychology.
    • A. 

      Statistical programming

    • B. 

      Stimulus-response

    • C. 

      Conditioning

    • D. 

      Computers

  • 19. 
    The study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior is called:
    • A. 

      Interpersonal psychology

    • B. 

      Cause and effect

    • C. 

      Behavioral psychology

    • D. 

      Social psychology

  • 20. 
    Some psychologists believe that newborn babies turn away from noxious odors because this behavior increases their chance of survival. This perspective would be typical of                  psychologists. 
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Social

  • 21. 
    Aristotle is to philosophical empiricism as Plato is to:
    • A. 

      Philosophical structuralism

    • B. 

      Nativism

    • C. 

      Phrenology

    • D. 

      Physiology

  • 22. 
    Which of the following people used the method of introspection to scientifically focus on basic elements of the mind?
    • A. 

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • B. 

      William James

    • C. 

      John Watson

    • D. 

      Rene Descartes

  • 23. 
    Wundt set up the first psychology research lab in Europe in 1879;                      set up the first research lab in the United States in 1881.
    • A. 

      William James

    • B. 

      Charles Darwin

    • C. 

      Willhelm Wundt

    • D. 

      G. Stanley Hall

  • 24. 
    When his parents put him in his car seat and start up the truck, 2-year old Mark almost immediately goes to sleep. The sound of the truck engine is a:
    • A. 

      Response

    • B. 

      Stimulus

    • C. 

      Reinforcement

    • D. 

      Reactionary agent

  • 25. 
    Jean Piaget is to                        as Edward Titchener is to                 .
    • A. 

      Cognitive psychology; structuralism

    • B. 

      Humanism; functionalism

    • C. 

      Cognitive psychology; functionalism

    • D. 

      Humanism; structualism

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