1.
Cause and effect relationships can be determined by using:
Correct Answer
B. Controlled expiriments
Explanation
Controlled experiments are a reliable method to determine cause and effect relationships because they involve manipulating variables and controlling all other factors. In a controlled experiment, the researcher can systematically vary one factor (independent variable) while keeping all other factors constant. This allows for a clear understanding of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. By comparing the results of different conditions, researchers can establish a cause and effect relationship. This method provides more control and eliminates confounding variables, making it a powerful tool in scientific research.
2.
Correlations are an improvement over case studies because from correlations we can determine:
Correct Answer
A. The reliability of a relationship
Explanation
Correlations are an improvement over case studies because they allow us to determine the reliability of a relationship. By analyzing the correlation coefficient, we can assess the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. A strong correlation indicates a more reliable relationship, while a weak correlation suggests a less reliable relationship. Therefore, correlations provide a quantitative measure of the extent to which two variables are related, offering more robust evidence compared to case studies which often rely on qualitative observations and individual cases.
3.
A correlation coefficient can be used to determine whether:
Correct Answer
D. The relationship between two variables due to a third variable
Explanation
A correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. It indicates how closely the variables are related to each other. In this case, the answer suggests that the correlation coefficient can be used to determine the relationship between two variables, but specifically, when that relationship is influenced or caused by a third variable. It implies that the correlation coefficient can help identify whether the relationship between two variables is direct or if there is another variable playing a role in their association.
4.
Levels and education and income are generally
Correct Answer
A. Positively correlated
Explanation
The term "positively correlated" indicates a relationship where two variables tend to increase or decrease together. In the context of levels of education and income, a positive correlation suggests that as the level of education increases, the income level also tends to increase. This means that individuals with higher levels of education generally have higher incomes.
5.
Which of the following correlations indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
Correct Answer
C. -.74
Explanation
The correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. A correlation coefficient of -.74 indicates a strong negative relationship between the variables. As the absolute value of the correlation coefficient increases, the strength of the relationship also increases. Therefore, the correlation coefficient of -.74 indicates the strongest relationship among the given options.
6.
In experiments, participants are randomly assigned to conditions to avid:
Correct Answer
B. Differences between the gruops that are due to the independent variable
Explanation
In experiments, random assignment of participants to conditions helps to avoid differences between the groups that are due to the independent variable. By randomly assigning participants, any potential confounding variables or differences between the groups can be minimized. This ensures that any observed differences between the groups can be attributed to the independent variable being studied, rather than any other factors. Random assignment helps to create comparable groups, increasing the internal validity of the experiment.
7.
A good way to study the effects of genetic factors on aggression would be to:
Correct Answer
C. Compare the levels of agression in adopted children to the levels of agression in their biological and their non biological parents
Explanation
To study the effects of genetic factors on aggression, comparing the levels of aggression in adopted children to both their biological and non-biological parents would be a good approach. This would allow researchers to assess the influence of genetics by comparing the levels of aggression in children with their biological parents who share genetic similarities, as well as their non-biological parents who do not share genetic similarities. By comparing these different groups, researchers can determine the extent to which genetic factors contribute to aggression.
8.
The__________ effect is the result of expectations.
Correct Answer
C. Validity
Explanation
Validity is the extent to which a study accurately measures or predicts what it is intended to measure or predict. In this context, the "expectations" mentioned in the question refer to the validity effect. This effect occurs when participants' expectations or beliefs about a study or treatment influence their responses or outcomes. Therefore, the correct answer is validity.
9.
A distribution has scores of 5, 6, 10, 10, 10, 14, and 40. In this distribution, what two measures of central tendency are the same?
Correct Answer
B. Median and mode
Explanation
In this distribution, the median is 10 because it is the middle value when the scores are arranged in ascending order. The mode is also 10 because it is the most frequently occurring value. Therefore, the measures of central tendency that are the same in this distribution are the median and mode.
10.
Increases in arousal are stimulated by the ______ branch of the nervous system, whereas decreases in arousal are stimulated by the _____ branch of the nervous system.
Correct Answer
B. Sympathetic, parasympathetic
Explanation
Increases in arousal are stimulated by the sympathetic branch of the nervous system, whereas decreases in arousal are stimulated by the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system. The sympathetic branch is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action and increases arousal. On the other hand, the parasympathetic branch is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, which promotes relaxation and decreases arousal.