Psychology 101 - States Of Consciousness

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Psychology 101 (Spring 2011) on States of Consciousness


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is altered states of consciousness used for?

    Explanation
    Altered states of consciousness are used for pleasure, self-knowledge, and religious experience. These altered states, which can be induced through various methods such as meditation, hypnosis, or the use of psychoactive substances, allow individuals to explore different aspects of their mind and consciousness. They can provide a sense of pleasure and euphoria, allowing individuals to escape from their everyday reality. Additionally, altered states can lead to self-discovery and self-awareness, providing individuals with deeper insights into their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Lastly, religious experiences often involve altered states of consciousness, enabling individuals to connect with the divine, experience transcendence, and gain spiritual insights.

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  • 2. 

    What do some cultures see altered state of consciousness as? 

    Explanation
    In some cultures, altered states of consciousness are perceived as madness, possession by spirits, or enlightenment. This suggests that different societies have varying interpretations of altered states of consciousness. While some may view it as a form of mental illness, others believe it to be a spiritual phenomenon where individuals are taken over by supernatural entities. Additionally, certain cultures perceive altered states of consciousness as a pathway to spiritual awakening and enlightenment, emphasizing the transformative and transcendent nature of these experiences.

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  • 3. 

    Define consciousness?

    Explanation
    Consciousness refers to the ever-changing flow of awareness. It is the state of being aware of our surroundings, thoughts, emotions, and sensations. It encompasses our ability to perceive, think, reason, and make decisions. Consciousness is not a static entity but rather a dynamic process that continuously evolves and adapts. It allows us to experience and interact with the world around us, shaping our understanding and interpretation of reality.

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  • 4. 

    What are the two types of consciousness?

    Explanation
    The two types of consciousness are wakeful and altered. Wakeful consciousness refers to the state of being awake and aware of one's surroundings, thoughts, and actions. It is the normal state of consciousness experienced during the day. Altered consciousness, on the other hand, refers to any state of consciousness that deviates from the normal wakeful state. This can include states such as sleep, dreams, meditation, hypnosis, or the influence of substances like drugs or alcohol. Altered consciousness often involves a shift in perception, cognition, or self-awareness.

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  • 5. 

    What are examples of wakeful consciousness?

    Explanation
    The examples provided in the answer both demonstrate wakeful consciousness. Self-consciousness, in the context of an introspection exercise, refers to being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences. This requires a state of wakefulness and mindfulness. Similarly, focused consciousness during a shopping trip implies being fully present and attentive to one's surroundings, making deliberate choices, and being aware of the shopping task at hand. Both examples involve an active state of consciousness, indicating wakefulness.

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  • 6. 

    In the definition of consciousness what are the types of awareness?

    Explanation
    The types of awareness in the definition of consciousness include thoughts, perceptions, and sensations. Thoughts refer to the mental processes and cognitive activities happening in our minds. Perceptions involve the interpretation and understanding of sensory information from our surroundings. Sensations refer to the physical experiences and feelings we have through our senses. These three elements collectively contribute to our conscious experiences and our understanding of the world around us.

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  • 7. 

    Define: Altered state of consciousness

    Explanation
    The term "altered state of consciousness" refers to a significant shift in the way a person's mind functions, including both the quality and pattern of mental processes. This means that there is a noticeable difference in how the individual perceives and experiences their thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. It could involve various states such as trance, hypnosis, meditation, or drug-induced states. These altered states often involve a departure from the normal waking state of consciousness and can result in different levels of awareness, attention, and sensory perception.

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  • 8. 

    What are types of altered consciousness?

    Explanation
    The types of altered consciousness mentioned in the answer are sleep, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, and drug states. These are all states in which an individual's normal level of consciousness is altered or modified. During sleep, the person's awareness and perception of the external environment are reduced. Hypnosis involves a heightened state of suggestibility and focused attention. Sensory deprivation refers to the intentional reduction or removal of sensory stimuli, which can lead to altered perceptions and experiences. Drug states, induced by substances like alcohol or drugs, can alter consciousness by affecting brain function and perception.

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  • 9. 

    What are the three aspects of sleep?

    Explanation
    Sleep can be divided into different stages, each with its own characteristics. These stages include non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep can also be classified into different states, such as light sleep, deep sleep, and dream sleep. Lastly, sleep patterns refer to the regularity and duration of sleep, including the amount of time spent in each stage and the overall sleep-wake cycle. These three aspects, stages, states, and patterns, provide a comprehensive understanding of the different dimensions of sleep.

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  • 10. 

    Define: Sleep States

    • A.

      Ordering and duration (When do we sleep?, How long do we sleep?)

    • B.

      While sleeping, you are either dreaming (REM) or not dreaming (NREM)

    • C.

      EEG Brain wave activity changes before and during sleep

    Correct Answer
    B. While sleeping, you are either dreaming (REM) or not dreaming (NREM)
    Explanation
    Sleep states refer to the different stages of sleep that individuals experience. These stages are characterized by various factors such as ordering and duration of sleep, dreaming (REM) or not dreaming (NREM), and changes in EEG brain wave activity. During sleep, individuals can either be in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is associated with dreaming, or in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep, where dreaming is less likely to occur. These sleep states alternate throughout the night in cycles, with each stage serving different functions in the restorative process of the body and mind.

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  • 11. 

    Define: Sleep Stages

    • A.

      While sleeping, you are either dreaming (REM) or not dreaming (NREM)

    • B.

      Ordering and duration (When do we sleep?, How long do we sleep?)

    • C.

      EEG Brain wave activity changes before and during sleep

    Correct Answer
    C. EEG Brain wave activity changes before and during sleep
    Explanation
    During sleep, the brain goes through different stages characterized by distinct patterns of brain wave activity. EEG (electroencephalogram) is a technique used to measure these brain wave patterns. Before falling asleep, the brain wave activity slows down and becomes more synchronized. As sleep progresses, the brain enters different stages, including NREM (non-rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. NREM sleep is further divided into different stages, each with its own characteristic brain wave patterns. REM sleep, on the other hand, is associated with vivid dreaming and a different pattern of brain wave activity. Therefore, EEG brain wave activity changes both before and during sleep.

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  • 12. 

    Define: Sleep Patterns

    • A.

      EEG Brain wave activity changes before and during sleep

    • B.

      Ordering and duration (When do we sleep?, How long do we sleep?)

    • C.

      While sleeping, you are either dreaming (REM) or not dreaming (NREM)

    Correct Answer
    B. Ordering and duration (When do we sleep?, How long do we sleep?)
    Explanation
    Sleep patterns refer to the ordering and duration of sleep, answering questions such as when do we sleep and how long do we sleep. It involves changes in EEG brain wave activity before and during sleep. Additionally, sleep patterns are categorized into two main stages: REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, during which dreaming occurs, and NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep, when dreaming does not occur.

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  • 13. 

    How long do most adults sleep for?

    Correct Answer
    7 to 8 hours
    7-8 hours
    seven to eight hours
    Explanation
    Most adults require an average of 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night. This duration allows for proper rest and rejuvenation, enabling individuals to function optimally during the day. While slight variations in sleep needs may exist among individuals, this range is generally recommended for maintaining good physical and mental health.

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  • 14. 

    What is the development of sleep patterns?

    Correct Answer
    short cycles of sleep and waking gradually become the night-day cycle
    Explanation
    As infants grow and develop, their sleep patterns evolve from short cycles of sleep and waking to eventually align with the night-day cycle. This means that initially, babies may sleep for short periods and wake up frequently throughout the day and night. However, as they mature, their sleep patterns become more consolidated and synchronized with the natural day-night rhythm. This development allows them to establish a regular sleep schedule and sleep for longer stretches during the night, promoting healthy sleep habits.

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  • 15. 

    What is Micro Sleep?

    Correct Answer
    Momentary shift in the brain activity to that of sleep
    10-5
    105
    1010
    10-10
    Explanation
    Micro sleep refers to a brief period of time where the brain temporarily shifts its activity to that of sleep. It is characterized by a momentary loss of consciousness, usually lasting for a few seconds. During micro sleep, individuals may experience a decrease in alertness and responsiveness, which can be dangerous, especially when engaged in tasks that require attention, such as driving. The number "105" mentioned in the answer choice is unrelated and does not provide any relevant information to the concept of micro sleep.

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  • 16. 

    Three types of sleep disturbances:

    Correct Answer
    insomnia, narcolepsy, apnea
    Explanation
    Insomnia, narcolepsy, and apnea are three types of sleep disturbances. Insomnia refers to the difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep, resulting in inadequate sleep. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks. Apnea is a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, leading to disrupted sleep patterns and daytime fatigue. These three sleep disturbances represent different disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle and can have various causes and impacts on an individual's overall well-being.

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  • 17. 

    Define: Insomnia

    • A.

      Can't get to sleep

    • B.

      Sudden sleep attacks

    • C.

      Can't sleep and breathe

    Correct Answer
    A. Can't get to sleep
    Explanation
    Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep. It is a condition where individuals have difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, leading to inadequate or poor-quality sleep. The given answer, "can't get to sleep," accurately describes one of the main symptoms of insomnia, which is the inability to fall asleep despite having the opportunity to do so.

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  • 18. 

    Define: Narcolepsy

    • A.

      Can't get to sleep

    • B.

      Sudden sleep attacks (most dangerous)

    • C.

      Can't sleep and breathe

    Correct Answer
    B. Sudden sleep attacks (most dangerous)
    Explanation
    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable sleep attacks. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and can fall asleep at any time, often without warning. These sleep attacks can occur in inappropriate situations, such as while driving or operating machinery, making them particularly dangerous. Other symptoms of narcolepsy include cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone), sleep paralysis, and hallucinations. However, the most dangerous aspect of narcolepsy is the sudden sleep attacks, which can put individuals and those around them at risk of accidents and injuries.

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  • 19. 

    Define: Apnea

    • A.

      Can't get to sleep

    • B.

      Sudden sleep attacks (most dangerous)

    • C.

      Can't sleep and breathe (maybe related to SIDS)

    Correct Answer
    C. Can't sleep and breathe (maybe related to SIDS)
    Explanation
    Apnea is a medical condition characterized by the inability to sleep and breathe properly. This condition may be related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), a condition in which infants suddenly stop breathing during sleep and may result in death. Therefore, the given answer correctly identifies that apnea is associated with the inability to sleep and breathe, which could potentially be related to SIDS.

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  • 20. 

    What are the two types of insomnia?

    Correct Answer
    Temporary and chronic
    Explanation
    Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. Temporary insomnia refers to a short-term sleep disturbance that may last for a few days or weeks, often caused by stress, jet lag, or a change in sleep schedule. On the other hand, chronic insomnia is a long-term condition that persists for at least three nights a week for three months or more. It can be caused by underlying medical conditions, mental health disorders, or certain medications. Therefore, the two types of insomnia are temporary and chronic.

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  • 21. 

    What is the best cure for temporary insomnia?

    Correct Answer
    get up and do something
    Explanation
    Getting up and doing something is the best cure for temporary insomnia because it helps to break the cycle of lying in bed and worrying about not being able to sleep. Engaging in a different activity can distract the mind and promote relaxation, making it easier to fall asleep when returning to bed. It also helps to avoid associating the bed with sleeplessness, creating a better sleep environment.

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  • 22. 

    What is sleep restriction?

    Correct Answer
    restrict sleep to normal hours
    restricting sleep to normal hours
    Explanation
    Sleep restriction refers to the practice of limiting the amount of time spent sleeping to normal or regular hours. This means adhering to a consistent sleep schedule and avoiding excessive or irregular sleep patterns. By restricting sleep to normal hours, individuals can establish a healthy sleep routine and improve the quality and efficiency of their sleep. This can be beneficial for managing sleep disorders, improving overall sleep health, and promoting daytime alertness and productivity.

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  • 23. 

    What do sleeping pills decrease?

    Correct Answer
    REM and stage 4
    Explanation
    Sleeping pills decrease the amount of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep and stage 4 sleep. REM sleep is the stage of sleep where most dreaming occurs and is important for cognitive function and memory consolidation. Stage 4 sleep, also known as deep sleep, is the stage of sleep where the body repairs and rejuvenates itself. By decreasing these stages of sleep, sleeping pills can help induce sleep but may also disrupt the natural sleep cycle and lead to potential side effects.

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  • 24. 

    How should you cure chronic insomnia (steps 1 - 4)

    Correct Answer
    Establish normal schedule, eliminate caffeine/nicotine, treat depression/anxiety, use behavioral techniques
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that in order to cure chronic insomnia, there are four steps that need to be followed. The first step is to establish a normal schedule, which means going to bed and waking up at the same time every day. The second step is to eliminate caffeine and nicotine, as these substances can interfere with sleep. The third step is to treat any underlying depression or anxiety, as these conditions can contribute to insomnia. Finally, the fourth step is to use behavioral techniques, such as relaxation exercises or sleep hygiene practices, to promote better sleep.

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  • 25. 

    Define: Dream work

    Correct Answer
    remembering and using dreams
    Explanation
    Dream work refers to the process of recalling and utilizing dreams for personal growth, self-reflection, and problem-solving. It involves actively engaging with the content of dreams, analyzing symbols, emotions, and themes, and applying the insights gained from dreams to waking life. Dream work can include techniques such as dream journaling, dream interpretation, and exploring the subconscious mind. By remembering and using dreams, individuals can gain deeper self-awareness, tap into their unconscious thoughts and desires, and potentially find solutions to personal or psychological issues.

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  • 26. 

    What is the best way to remember your dreams?

    Correct Answer
    dream diary
    Explanation
    Keeping a dream diary is the best way to remember your dreams. By writing down your dreams immediately after waking up, you can capture the details and emotions of the dream while they are still fresh in your mind. This practice helps to improve dream recall over time, as it trains your brain to pay more attention to your dreams and increases your overall dream awareness. Additionally, a dream diary allows you to analyze recurring themes or patterns in your dreams, providing insights into your subconscious mind and aiding in personal growth and self-discovery.

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  • 27. 

    What should you do prior to sleeping? (Dream work)

    Correct Answer
    concentrate on a problem you are trying to solve
    lighter
    heavier
    equal in weight
    none of the above
  • 28. 

    What do dreams free us from?

    Correct Answer
    inhibitions
    Explanation
    Dreams have the power to free us from our inhibitions. In the dream world, we are not bound by the limitations and fears that hold us back in reality. Our subconscious mind takes over, allowing us to explore and experience things that we might not have the courage or opportunity to do in waking life. Dreams provide a safe space where we can let go of our inhibitions and fully express ourselves, giving us a sense of freedom and liberation.

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  • 29. 

    According to Freud, dreams are means of....

    Correct Answer
    wish fulfillment
    Explanation
    Freud believed that dreams serve as a way for individuals to fulfill their unconscious desires and wishes. In dreams, repressed thoughts and desires can be expressed and satisfied, providing a release for the unconscious mind. These wishes may be ones that are socially unacceptable or repressed in waking life, and dreams allow them to be experienced without consequences. Freud argued that dreams contain symbols and imagery that represent these hidden desires, and through dream analysis, individuals can gain insight into their subconscious motivations and conflicts.

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  • 30. 

    According to Freud, dreams are disguised to ....

    Correct Answer
    protect sleep
    Explanation
    Freud believed that dreams serve a protective function by disguising the true desires and thoughts of the dreamer. This disguise allows the dreamer to safely express their unconscious wishes and conflicts without waking up or facing the consequences of their actions. By disguising the content of dreams, the mind is able to protect sleep and prevent the dreamer from being disturbed or awakened by the potentially disturbing or conflicting thoughts and desires that arise during sleep.

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  • 31. 

    According to Freud, dreams are symbols to represent ....

    Correct Answer
    unconscious desires
    Explanation
    Freud believed that dreams serve as a way for the unconscious mind to express and fulfill repressed desires and wishes. He argued that the content of dreams is often symbolic and represents these unconscious desires in disguised forms. By analyzing the symbols and elements in dreams, Freud believed that one could gain insight into the hidden desires and conflicts of the individual. Therefore, the correct answer is "unconscious desires."

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  • 32. 

    According to research, what are dreams most often about?

    Correct Answer
    everyday events
    Explanation
    Dreams are most often about everyday events according to research. This suggests that our dreams are influenced by our daily experiences and the things that occupy our minds during waking hours. Dreams may serve as a way for our brains to process and make sense of the events and emotions we encounter in our daily lives. This finding aligns with the idea that dreams are a reflection of our subconscious thoughts and concerns.

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  • 33. 

    What are the four dream processes?

    Correct Answer
    Condensation, displacement, symbolization, secondary elaboration
    Explanation
    The four dream processes are condensation, displacement, symbolization, and secondary elaboration. Condensation refers to the combination of multiple thoughts or images into one dream element. Displacement involves the transfer of emotional significance from one person or object to another in the dream. Symbolization is the representation of thoughts or feelings through symbolic images in the dream. Secondary elaboration is the process of the mind creating a coherent narrative out of the fragmented and symbolic elements of the dream.

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  • 34. 

    Define: Condensation

    • A.

      People, objects, events combined into single dream image

    • B.

      Redirecting emotions towards safe images

    • C.

      Non-literal expression (nakedness = vulnerability)

    • D.

      Make dream seem more logical and complete

    Correct Answer
    A. People, objects, events combined into single dream image
    Explanation
    Condensation in the context of dreams refers to the process by which multiple elements such as people, objects, and events are merged or combined into a single image. This can occur when the dreamer's mind consolidates various thoughts, emotions, and experiences into a cohesive and symbolic representation. Through condensation, complex ideas or feelings can be condensed into a singular dream image, allowing for a more efficient and symbolic expression of the dreamer's subconscious thoughts and desires.

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  • 35. 

    Define: Symbolization

    • A.

      People, objects, events combined into single dream image

    • B.

      Redirecting emotions towards safe images

    • C.

      Non-literal expression (nakedness = vulnerability)

    • D.

      Make dream seem more logical and complete

    Correct Answer
    C. Non-literal expression (nakedness = vulnerability)
    Explanation
    Symbolization in dreams refers to the use of non-literal expressions to represent certain concepts or emotions. In this context, the correct answer states that symbolization involves the non-literal expression of nakedness as a symbol for vulnerability. This means that in dreams, the act of being naked may not be a literal representation of being without clothes, but rather a symbolic representation of feeling exposed or vulnerable in some way. Symbolization allows the dream to convey deeper meanings and emotions by using symbols that may not have a direct, literal connection to the subject matter.

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  • 36. 

    Define: Displacement

    • A.

      People, objects, events combined into single dream image

    • B.

      Redirecting emotions towards safe images

    • C.

      Non-literal expression (nakedness = vulnerability)

    • D.

      Make dream seem more logical and complete

    Correct Answer
    B. Redirecting emotions towards safe images
    Explanation
    Displacement refers to the psychological mechanism of redirecting emotions towards safe images or objects. It involves expressing feelings or desires through symbols or representations that are less threatening or more acceptable. This allows individuals to cope with their emotions in a more manageable way, as they can channel their feelings towards something that is not directly related to the source of their emotions. By doing so, displacement helps individuals maintain emotional stability and avoid potential conflicts or negative consequences.

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  • 37. 

    Define: Secondary Elaboration

    • A.

      People, objects, events combined into single dream image

    • B.

      Redirecting emotions towards safe images

    • C.

      Non-literal expression (nakedness = vulnerability)

    • D.

      Make dream seem more logical and complete

    Correct Answer
    D. Make dream seem more logical and complete
    Explanation
    Secondary elaboration refers to the process in which various elements such as people, objects, and events are combined into a single dream image. This helps to make the dream appear more logical and complete. It involves redirecting emotions towards safe images and using non-literal expressions, such as representing nakedness as vulnerability. By incorporating these elements, the dream becomes more coherent and easier to understand.

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  • 38. 

    What are hypnogogic images?

    Correct Answer
    vivid, dream-like mental pictures
    Explanation
    Hypnagogic images refer to vivid, dream-like mental pictures that occur during the transitional state between wakefulness and sleep. These images can be experienced as hallucinations or visualizations that are often highly detailed and realistic. They are commonly associated with hypnagogic hallucinations, which can also include auditory, tactile, or other sensory experiences. These phenomena are believed to be a result of the brain's transition from the conscious state to sleep, and they can occur spontaneously or be induced through techniques like meditation or hypnosis.

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  • 39. 

    Define: Psychoactive Drug

    Correct Answer
    A substance capable of altering attention, mood, perception, and consciousness
    Explanation
    The correct answer defines a psychoactive drug as a substance that has the ability to change or modify an individual's attention, mood, perception, and consciousness. This means that when consumed or ingested, the drug can have an impact on a person's mental state and cognitive functions, leading to changes in their thoughts, feelings, and overall awareness. Psychoactive drugs can include substances such as caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogens, among others. These drugs can have varying effects on individuals, ranging from stimulant or depressant effects to hallucinations or altered states of consciousness.

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  • 40. 

    Define: Addiction

    • A.

      Drug is necessary to maintain emotional wellbeing

    • B.

      If drug is stopped, there is a negative physical reaction (withdrawal)

    • C.

      It takes greater amounts to produce the same effect

    Correct Answer
    B. If drug is stopped, there is a negative physical reaction (withdrawal)
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that addiction is defined by the occurrence of a negative physical reaction, known as withdrawal, when the drug is stopped. This implies that the individual's body has become dependent on the drug, and stopping its use leads to uncomfortable or distressing symptoms. This characteristic of addiction highlights the physical aspect of addiction and the need for the drug to avoid experiencing withdrawal symptoms. The other mentioned factors, such as the drug being necessary for emotional wellbeing and requiring greater amounts for the same effect, may also be present in addiction but are not specifically mentioned in the given answer.

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  • 41. 

    Define: Psychological dependence

    • A.

      Drug is necessary to maintain emotional wellbeing

    • B.

      If drug is stopped, there is a negative physical reaction (withdrawal)

    • C.

      It takes greater amounts to produce the same effect

    Correct Answer
    A. Drug is necessary to maintain emotional wellbeing
    Explanation
    Psychological dependence refers to a condition where an individual relies on a drug to maintain their emotional wellbeing. This means that the person believes that they need the drug in order to feel emotionally stable or to cope with their emotions. If the drug is abruptly stopped, the person experiences negative physical reactions known as withdrawal symptoms. Moreover, over time, the person may develop a tolerance to the drug, requiring greater amounts to achieve the same desired effect.

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  • 42. 

    Define: Tolerance

    • A.

      Drug is necessary to maintain emotional wellbeing

    • B.

      If drug is stopped, there is a negative physical reaction (withdrawal)

    • C.

      It takes greater amounts to produce the same effect

    Correct Answer
    C. It takes greater amounts to produce the same effect
    Explanation
    Tolerance refers to the phenomenon where an individual requires higher doses of a drug to achieve the same desired effect. In this context, the answer suggests that due to tolerance, the individual needs to consume larger amounts of the drug in order to experience the same emotional well-being. This indicates that over time, the body has adapted to the drug, reducing its effectiveness and requiring higher doses for the desired outcome.

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  • 43. 

    Sensory deprivation is most frequently used means of?

    Correct Answer
    altering perception
    Explanation
    Sensory deprivation is commonly utilized as a method to alter perception. By depriving individuals of external sensory stimuli such as light, sound, or touch, their perception can be significantly altered. This deprivation can lead to hallucinations, altered states of consciousness, and heightened sensitivity to any remaining sensory input. Therefore, sensory deprivation is an effective means of altering perception.

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  • 44. 

    Sensory deprivation causes a major reduction in?

    Correct Answer
    stimulation
    Explanation
    Sensory deprivation refers to the absence or reduction of sensory input to the brain. This lack of sensory stimulation can lead to a major reduction in overall stimulation. Without the usual sensory input from the environment, such as sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touch, individuals may experience a decrease in overall stimulation, potentially leading to various psychological and physiological effects.

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  • 45. 

    What can sensory deprivation produce?

    Correct Answer
    hypnogogic images
    Explanation
    Sensory deprivation can produce hypnagogic images. Hypnagogic images are visual hallucinations that occur during the transitional state between wakefulness and sleep. When the brain is deprived of external sensory input, it can create its own internal stimuli, leading to the experience of hypnagogic images. This phenomenon is commonly observed in individuals who undergo sensory deprivation, such as being in a dark and quiet room for an extended period of time.

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  • 46. 

    What is the primary characteristic of dreaming?

    Correct Answer
    REM
    Explanation
    REM (Rapid Eye Movement) is the correct answer because it is the primary characteristic of dreaming. During REM sleep, our eyes move rapidly, and this is when most of our vivid and memorable dreams occur. REM sleep is also associated with increased brain activity and muscle paralysis, which prevents us from acting out our dreams physically. Therefore, REM is the defining characteristic of dreaming.

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  • 47. 

    What does REM cause?

    Correct Answer
    emotional and sexual arousal but major muscles are paralyzed
    Explanation
    REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement, vivid dreaming, and physiological changes. During REM sleep, the brain becomes highly active, leading to emotional and sexual arousal. However, the body experiences muscle atonia, a state of temporary paralysis that prevents us from acting out our dreams and potentially causing harm to ourselves or others. This paralysis is a protective mechanism that ensures safety during sleep.

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  • 48. 

    What does REM stay for?

    Correct Answer
    Rapid eye movement
    Explanation
    REM stands for Rapid Eye Movement. This refers to a stage of sleep characterized by rapid and random movements of the eyes. During REM sleep, the brain is highly active and dreams often occur. This stage is important for cognitive function, memory consolidation, and emotional regulation. It is also associated with paralysis of the major voluntary muscles, preventing individuals from acting out their dreams.

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  • 49. 

    What does NREM stand for?

    Correct Answer
    non-rapid eye movement
    Explanation
    NREM stands for non-rapid eye movement. This refers to the sleep stage characterized by the absence of rapid eye movements. During NREM sleep, the brain waves are typically slower and more synchronized compared to REM sleep. This stage is important for restorative processes in the body, such as tissue repair, hormone regulation, and memory consolidation.

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  • 50. 

    How many times do you enter REM during a 8 hour sleep cycle?

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    During a typical 8-hour sleep cycle, a person usually enters the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage of sleep around 4 to 5 times. REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements, increased brain activity, and vivid dreaming. It is an important stage for memory consolidation, learning, and emotional processing. Each REM period lasts for about 90-120 minutes and becomes longer as the night progresses. Therefore, it is likely that a person would enter REM sleep 4 to 5 times during an 8-hour sleep cycle.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Feb 07, 2011
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