Psychology: Chapter 4- Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, And Drugs

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Psychology: Chapter 4- Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, And Drugs - Quiz

When it comes to dealing with some of the issues that people go to psychologist hoping to fix or understand they can either get solutions through some select methods. Some of the methods we discussed under chapter four on consciousness in class this week include drugs, hypnosis, dreams, and sleep. See how attentive you were by taking up the test below.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Most of our time awake is spent in a state called _____, in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and we feel alert.

    • A.

      Altered state of consciousness

    • B.

      Waking consciousness

    • C.

      Unconsciousness

    • D.

      Working consciousness

    Correct Answer
    B. Waking consciousness
    Explanation
    Waking consciousness refers to the state in which we are fully aware and alert. It is the state in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized. This is the state we experience during most of our waking hours when we are fully engaged with the world around us.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?

    • A.

      You are daydreaming

    • B.

      You have been drinking beer

    • C.

      You are concentrating hard on a math test

    • D.

      You are asleep

    Correct Answer
    C. You are concentrating hard on a math test
    Explanation
    Concentrating hard on a math test is not considered an altered state of consciousness. Altered states of consciousness typically involve a shift in awareness or perception, such as daydreaming, being under the influence of alcohol, or being asleep. While intense concentration may alter one's focus and cognitive processes, it does not fundamentally change one's state of consciousness.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is NOT an example of a circadian rhythm?

    • A.

      Menstrual cycle

    • B.

      Sleep-wake cycle

    • C.

      Blood pressure changes

    • D.

      Body temperature changes

    Correct Answer
    A. Menstrual cycle
    Explanation
    The menstrual cycle is not an example of a circadian rhythm because it does not follow a 24-hour cycle. Circadian rhythms are biological processes that occur on a daily basis, such as the sleep-wake cycle, blood pressure changes, and body temperature changes. The menstrual cycle, on the other hand, typically lasts around 28 days and is influenced by hormonal changes rather than daily cycles.

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  • 4. 

    When light begins to fade at the end of the day, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the ______ signals the pineal gland to release _______.

    • A.

      Hippocampus; melatonin

    • B.

      Hippocampus; serotonin

    • C.

      Hypothalamus; melatonin

    • D.

      Hypothalamus; serotonin

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus; melatonin
    Explanation
    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is a small region in the hypothalamus that regulates the body's internal clock and responds to changes in light. When light begins to fade at the end of the day, the suprachiasmatic nucleus signals the hypothalamus to release melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is responsible for making us feel sleepy at night. The hippocampus is not involved in the regulation of melatonin or the sleep-wake cycle, and serotonin is not released in response to changes in light.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following was NOT listed as one of the factors involved in the ability to go to sleep?

    • A.

      Body mass

    • B.

      Body temperature

    • C.

      Serotonin levels

    • D.

      Melatonin levels

    Correct Answer
    A. Body mass
    Explanation
    The factors listed in the question are body temperature, serotonin levels, and melatonin levels. Body mass is not listed as one of the factors involved in the ability to go to sleep.

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  • 6. 

    The symptoms of sleep deprivation include all but which of the following?

    • A.

      Trembling hands

    • B.

      Inability to concentrate

    • C.

      Feeling on general discomfort

    • D.

      Hypnic jerk

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypnic jerk
    Explanation
    Sleep deprivation can cause a range of symptoms, including trembling hands, inability to concentrate, and a feeling of general discomfort. A hypnic jerk, on the other hand, is a sudden involuntary muscle twitch or jerk that occurs just as a person is falling asleep. While it can be a common occurrence, it is not typically associated with sleep deprivation.

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  • 7. 

    You hear about an accident that took place at 3:00 A.M. The car was traveling along and them seemed to drift into the opposing lane of traffic, hitting an oncoming car head on. Given the early morning time, you suspect that the driver of the car that drifted over the center line most likely experienced a ______.

    • A.

      Lapse in judgement

    • B.

      Microsleep episode

    • C.

      Hypnogogic episode

    • D.

      Hypnopompic episode

    Correct Answer
    B. Microsleep episode
    Explanation
    The correct answer is microsleep episode. A microsleep episode refers to a brief period of sleep that occurs involuntarily and lasts for a few seconds. It can happen when a person is sleep-deprived or fatigued, especially during monotonous activities like driving. In this case, the driver of the car that drifted into the opposing lane most likely experienced a microsleep episode, causing them to lose consciousness momentarily and resulting in the accident.

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  • 8. 

    It might be best to say that adaptice theory explains _____ whereas restorative theory explains _______.

    • A.

      Why we NEED to sleep; WHEN we sleep

    • B.

      WHERE we sleep; why we NEED to sleep

    • C.

      Why we NEED to sleep; WHERE we sleep

    • D.

      WHEN we sleep; why we NEED to sleep

    Correct Answer
    D. WHEN we sleep; why we NEED to sleep
    Explanation
    Adaptive theory explains WHEN we sleep, as it suggests that sleep is a result of an evolutionary adaptation to protect us during periods of vulnerability. Restorative theory, on the other hand, explains why we NEED to sleep, as it proposes that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore and repair themselves.

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  • 9. 

    What is the first stage of sleep in which, if awakened, you will realize that you were asleep?

    • A.

      Stage One

    • B.

      Stage Two

    • C.

      Stage Three

    • D.

      Stage Four

    Correct Answer
    B. Stage Two
    Explanation
    Stage Two is the first stage of sleep in which, if awakened, you will realize that you were asleep. This stage is characterized by a decrease in brain activity and the appearance of sleep spindles and K-complexes on an EEG. It is a transitional stage between wakefulness and deeper sleep stages. In this stage, people may still have some awareness of their surroundings and can easily be awakened. Therefore, if awakened during stage two, individuals will be able to recognize that they were asleep.

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  • 10. 

    In which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?

    • A.

      Stage One

    • B.

      Stage Two

    • C.

      Stage Three

    • D.

      Stage Four

    Correct Answer
    D. Stage Four
    Explanation
    Night terrors occur in stage four of sleep. This stage is also known as the deep sleep stage or the slow-wave sleep stage. During this stage, the brain produces slow delta waves and the body is in a state of deep relaxation. Night terrors are characterized by sudden awakenings with intense fear, screaming, and physical agitation. They typically occur in children and can be quite distressing for both the child and the parents. Night terrors are different from nightmares as they are not associated with dreams and the child usually has no recollection of the episode upon waking up.

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  • 11. 

    Sleepwalking _______.

    • A.

      Is partly hereditary

    • B.

      Occurs more frequently in girls than in boys

    • C.

      Occurs in about 50 percent of the population

    • D.

      Lasts well into late adulthood in most people

    Correct Answer
    A. Is partly hereditary
    Explanation
    Sleepwalking is partly hereditary, meaning that it can be passed down from parents to their children. This suggests that genetics play a role in the occurrence of sleepwalking. While other factors such as sleep deprivation and certain medications can also contribute to sleepwalking, the hereditary component indicates that there is a genetic predisposition to this behavior.

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  • 12. 

    Night terrors ______.

    • A.

      Are the same thing as nightmares

    • B.

      Are always vividly remembered afterward

    • C.

      Are more common in children

    • D.

      Take place in one of the lighter stages of sleep.

    Correct Answer
    C. Are more common in children
    Explanation
    Night terrors are more common in children. Night terrors are a type of sleep disorder that usually occurs in children, typically between the ages of 3 and 8. During a night terror, the child may suddenly wake up in a state of extreme fear, often accompanied by screaming, thrashing, and a rapid heart rate. Unlike nightmares, night terrors are not remembered in detail afterward. While night terrors can also occur in adults, they are much more prevalent in children.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements about REM sleep is FALSE?

    • A.

      The eyes move rapidly back and forth under the eyelids

    • B.

      Most people report that they were dreaming if awakened

    • C.

      The body is aroused and brain waves resemble waking beta waves

    • D.

      Lack of REM sleep produces psychological disorders

    Correct Answer
    D. Lack of REM sleep produces psychological disorders
    Explanation
    The statement "lack of REM sleep produces psychological disorders" is false. In reality, it is the opposite. Lack of REM sleep has been associated with various health issues, including mood disorders, memory problems, and decreased cognitive function. REM sleep is essential for emotional regulation and consolidation of memories, so a lack of it can have detrimental effects on mental health.

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  • 14. 

    If you are in REM sleep but are able to move around and act out your dreams, you may have a rare condition called _______.

    • A.

      REM behavior disorder

    • B.

      Somnambulism

    • C.

      Nightmare disorder

    • D.

      Narcolepsy

    Correct Answer
    A. REM behavior disorder
    Explanation
    REM behavior disorder is a rare condition where individuals are able to physically act out their dreams during REM sleep. Normally, during REM sleep, the body is paralyzed to prevent movement while dreaming. However, in individuals with REM behavior disorder, this paralysis is absent, allowing them to physically act out their dreams. This can result in potentially dangerous behaviors such as kicking, punching, or jumping out of bed. It is important to note that REM behavior disorder is different from somnambulism (sleepwalking), nightmare disorder, and narcolepsy, which are separate sleep disorders with their own distinct symptoms and characteristics.

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  • 15. 

    If you suddenly and without warning slip into REM sleep during the day, often falling down as you do so, you may have a condition called _____.

    • A.

      Sleep apnea

    • B.

      Insomnia

    • C.

      Narcolepsy

    • D.

      Epilepsy

    Correct Answer
    C. Narcolepsy
    Explanation
    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day, often accompanied by muscle weakness or paralysis. This condition can cause individuals to slip into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without warning, leading to sudden and involuntary loss of muscle tone and potentially causing them to fall down. Sleep apnea is a different sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, insomnia refers to difficulty falling or staying asleep, and epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.

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  • 16. 

    A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ______.

    • A.

      Sleep apnea

    • B.

      Insomnia

    • C.

      Narcolepsy

    • D.

      Cataplexy

    Correct Answer
    A. Sleep apnea
    Explanation
    Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that causes interruptions in breathing during sleep. It often occurs when the muscles in the back of the throat fail to keep the airway open, leading to brief pauses in breathing. To treat sleep apnea, a machine called a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine is used to deliver a gentle flow of air into the nasal passages, helping to keep the airway open and prevent interruptions in breathing. Therefore, sleep apnea is the correct answer as it is the sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages.

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  • 17. 

    Randall tells his therapist that he had a dream about riding on a train that went through a tunnel. The therapist tells Randall that his dream was most likely about sexual intercourse, as the tunnel represents a woman's vagina. Randall's therapist is using the _______ theory of dreams to explain Randall's dream.

    • A.

      Activation-synthesis

    • B.

      Dreams-for-survival

    • C.

      Hobson/McCarley

    • D.

      Freudian

    Correct Answer
    D. Freudian
    Explanation
    Freudian theory of dreams suggests that dreams are a representation of unconscious desires and wishes. According to this theory, the content of dreams is symbolic and can be interpreted to reveal repressed thoughts and emotions. In this case, the therapist is interpreting Randall's dream of riding on a train through a tunnel as a symbol for sexual intercourse, based on Freud's belief that tunnels represent a woman's vagina.

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  • 18. 

    Hypnosis has been shown to do all of the following BUT ______.

    • A.

      Induce amnesia for what happens during the hypnotic state

    • B.

      Provide pain releif without medication

    • C.

      Alter sensory perceptions

    • D.

      Regress people back to their early childhood experiences

    Correct Answer
    D. Regress people back to their early childhood experiences
    Explanation
    Hypnosis has been shown to induce amnesia for what happens during the hypnotic state, provide pain relief without medication, and alter sensory perceptions. However, it has not been proven to regress people back to their early childhood experiences.

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  • 19. 

    Jackie used Esctasy while she was in college, but now that she has a government job she has avoided using any recreational drugs. Although she had no problem quitting, she still finds that every now and then she gets a strong craving to use Ecstasy again. Her craving si most likely the result of ______.

    • A.

      Psychological dependence

    • B.

      Physical dependence

    • C.

      Withdrawal

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychological dependence
    Explanation
    Jackie's strong craving to use Ecstasy again, despite having no problem quitting, suggests that her craving is not due to physical dependence or withdrawal symptoms. Instead, it is more likely the result of psychological dependence. Psychological dependence refers to the emotional and mental reliance on a drug, where the individual may experience cravings or strong desires to use the drug again, even after quitting.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is NOT a naturally occuring substance?

    • A.

      Nicotine

    • B.

      Amphetamine

    • C.

      Caffeine

    • D.

      Cocaine

    Correct Answer
    B. Amphetamine
    Explanation
    Amphetamine is not a naturally occurring substance. It is a synthetic drug that is chemically similar to natural substances found in the body, such as adrenaline. Amphetamine is commonly used as a stimulant and is often prescribed for medical purposes, such as treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not found naturally in plants or other sources. Nicotine, caffeine, and cocaine, on the other hand, are all naturally occurring substances that can be found in various plants.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a depressant?

    • A.

      Alcohol

    • B.

      Valium

    • C.

      PCP

    • D.

      Barbiturate

    Correct Answer
    C. PCP
    Explanation
    PCP is not a depressant because it is a dissociative drug that acts as a hallucinogen and anesthetic. It produces stimulant effects such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as hallucinations and distorted perceptions. Depressants, on the other hand, slow down the central nervous system, leading to relaxation, sedation, and reduced brain activity. Examples of depressants include alcohol, valium, and barbiturates.

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  • 22. 

    Alcohol actually ______ the release of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many brain functions.

    • A.

      Depresses

    • B.

      Decreases

    • C.

      Stimulates

    • D.

      Prevents

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimulates
    Explanation
    Alcohol actually stimulates the release of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many brain functions. This means that alcohol enhances the inhibitory effects of GABA, leading to a decrease in brain activity and a feeling of relaxation or sedation.

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  • 23. 

    _________ was originally thought to be a more pure form of morphine, with fewer side effects.

    • A.

      Heroin

    • B.

      Laudanum

    • C.

      Paregoric

    • D.

      Methadone

    Correct Answer
    A. Heroin
    Explanation
    Heroin was originally thought to be a more pure form of morphine, with fewer side effects. This is because heroin is derived from morphine and was initially marketed as a non-addictive substitute for morphine. However, it was later discovered that heroin is actually more potent and addictive than morphine, leading to its classification as a highly dangerous and illegal drug.

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  • 24. 

    "Magic mushrooms" are the source of _______.

    • A.

      Marijuana

    • B.

      Psilocybin

    • C.

      Mescaline

    • D.

      Ecstacsy

    Correct Answer
    B. Psilocybin
    Explanation
    Psilocybin is the correct answer because "magic mushrooms" contain this psychoactive compound. Psilocybin is known to induce hallucinations and alter perception and is commonly found in certain species of mushrooms. Marijuana, mescaline, and Ecstasy are not directly derived from "magic mushrooms" and do not contain psilocybin.

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  • 25. 

    High doses of marijuana can lead to ____.

    • A.

      Death

    • B.

      Hallucinations and delusions

    • C.

      Extreme arousal

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Hallucinations and delusions
    Explanation
    High doses of marijuana can lead to hallucinations and delusions. This is because marijuana contains a psychoactive compound called THC, which can alter perception and cognition. When consumed in high amounts, THC can overstimulate the brain's cannabinoid receptors, leading to distorted sensory experiences and false beliefs. These hallucinations and delusions can be temporary but can cause significant distress and impairment in daily functioning. It is important to note that while marijuana overdose is rare, consuming excessive amounts can have adverse psychological effects.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following statements concerning sleep deprivation is FALSE?

    • A.

      Driving after 17 to 19 hours without sleep is less dangerous than having a blood alcohol level of .05

    • B.

      Sleep deprivation accounts for 30-40 percent of all accidents involving heavy trucks

    • C.

      Sleep deprivation accounts for 16-60 percent of all road accidents

    • D.

      Sleep deprivation can cause stress, anxiety, and depression and increase risky behavior

    Correct Answer
    A. Driving after 17 to 19 hours without sleep is less dangerous than having a blood alcohol level of .05

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