AP Psych. Consciousness / Drugs

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AP Psych. Consciousness / Drugs - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following provides the clearest indication of a drug addiction?

    • A.

      Physical dependence

    • B.

      Hallucinations

    • C.

      Narcolepsy

    • D.

      Alpha waves

    • E.

      REM rebound

    Correct Answer
    A. Physical dependence
    Explanation
    Physical dependence is the most clear indication of a drug addiction. When someone is physically dependent on a drug, their body has adapted to the presence of the drug and they experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop using it. This can include physical symptoms such as cravings, tremors, nausea, and sweating. Physical dependence is a strong indicator that someone has developed a psychological and physiological reliance on a drug, which is a key characteristic of addiction.

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  • 2. 

    Research on dreaming indicates that:

    • A.

      Some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming.

    • B.

      Dreams cannot be confused with reality.

    • C.

      About half the dreams reported by young men have sexual overtones.

    • D.

      Most dreams are unrelated to actual daily events.

    • E.

      It is possible to perceive color in dream images.

    Correct Answer
    A. Some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming.
    Explanation
    Research on dreaming indicates that some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming. This means that certain individuals have the ability to become aware that they are dreaming while still in the dream state. This phenomenon is known as lucid dreaming. Through various techniques and practices, such as reality checks and keeping dream journals, individuals can develop the skill to recognize and control their dreams. This finding suggests that the experience of dreaming is not always a passive one, but can be actively explored and manipulated by some individuals.

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  • 3. 

    Sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus are called:

    • A.

      Night terrors

    • B.

      Neuroadaptations

    • C.

      Dissociations

    • D.

      Hallucinations

    • E.

      Stressors

    Correct Answer
    D. Hallucinations
    Explanation
    Hallucinations are sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus. They can involve seeing, hearing, smelling, or feeling something that is not actually present. Hallucinations can be caused by various factors such as mental health disorders, drug use, or neurological conditions. They are different from other options provided in the question. Night terrors are a type of sleep disorder, neuroadaptations refer to changes in the nervous system due to repeated exposure to a stimulus, dissociations refer to a disconnection between thoughts, feelings, and memories, and stressors are external events or situations that cause stress.

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  • 4. 

    Sleepwalking may occur during:

    • A.

      Stage 1 sleep

    • B.

      Stage 2 sleep

    • C.

      REM sleep

    • D.

      Stage 4 sleep

    • E.

      Any stage of sleep

    Correct Answer
    E. Any stage of sleep
    Explanation
    Sleepwalking can occur during any stage of sleep because it is a disorder that involves complex motor behaviors during sleep. It is most commonly associated with non-REM sleep stages, particularly stages 3 and 4, which are deep sleep stages. However, sleepwalking can also occur during lighter stages of sleep, such as stage 1 and stage 2, as well as during REM sleep. The exact cause of sleepwalking is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an imbalance in the brain's arousal and sleep systems.

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  • 5. 

    Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to:

    • A.

      Occur slowly

    • B.

      Be limited in its capacity

    • C.

      Contribute to effective problem solving

    • D.

      Occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions

    • E.

      Relate to childhood events

    Correct Answer
    D. Occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions
    Explanation
    Unconscious information processing refers to the mental processes that occur without our awareness or conscious control. This type of processing is believed to happen simultaneously on several parallel dimensions, meaning that multiple cognitive processes can occur simultaneously and independently. This allows for the brain to process and integrate information from different sources at the same time, leading to a more comprehensive understanding and potentially more effective problem solving. Conscious processing, on the other hand, is typically limited in its capacity and occurs sequentially, focusing on one task or thought at a time.

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  • 6. 

    The large, slow brainwaves associated with deep sleep are called:

    • A.

      Alpha waves

    • B.

      Beta waves

    • C.

      Delta waves

    • D.

      Theta waves

    • E.

      Sleep spindles

    Correct Answer
    C. Delta waves
    Explanation
    Delta waves are large, slow brainwaves that are associated with deep sleep. During this stage of sleep, the brain is less responsive to external stimuli and the body is in a state of rest and restoration. Delta waves are typically seen in the EEG (electroencephalogram) recordings of individuals who are in a deep sleep state. These waves are important for promoting restful and restorative sleep, and disruptions in delta wave activity can lead to sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.

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  • 7. 

    Deep sleep appears to play an important role in:

    • A.

      Narcolepsy

    • B.

      Sleep apnea

    • C.

      Paradoxical sleep

    • D.

      Posthypnotic amnesia

    • E.

      Physical growth

    Correct Answer
    E. Physical growth
    Explanation
    Deep sleep is known to be crucial for physical growth and development. During deep sleep, the body releases growth hormones that stimulate tissue growth and repair. This is especially important for children and adolescents who are still growing. Deep sleep allows the body to replenish energy, repair muscles, and strengthen the immune system. Therefore, it can be concluded that deep sleep plays an important role in physical growth.

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  • 8. 

    Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was attempting to make use of :

    • A.

      Age regression

    • B.

      Posthypnotic suggestion

    • C.

      Hypnagogic sensations

    • D.

      REM rebound

    • E.

      A hidden observer

    Correct Answer
    B. Posthypnotic suggestion
    Explanation
    The therapist was attempting to make use of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion is a technique used in hypnosis where the hypnotist suggests to the subject that they will experience certain thoughts, feelings, or behaviors after they have been brought out of the hypnotic state. In this case, the therapist suggested to Chinua that he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette in the following days. This is done in order to help the subject overcome a certain habit or behavior.

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  • 9. 

    Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more:

    • A.

      Fearful

    • B.

      Aggressive

    • C.

      Self-conscious

    • D.

      Sexually daring

    • E.

      Self-disclosing

    Correct Answer
    C. Self-conscious
    Explanation
    Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more self-conscious because alcohol tends to lower inhibitions and decrease self-awareness. It often leads to a relaxed state of mind where individuals are less concerned about how they are perceived by others. This can result in a decreased level of self-consciousness and an increased willingness to engage in social interactions without overthinking or feeling self-conscious.

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  • 10. 

    Alpha waves are associated with:

    • A.

      REM sleep

    • B.

      Stage 2 sleep

    • C.

      Stage 3 sleep

    • D.

      Stage 4 sleep

    • E.

      A relaxed but awake state

    Correct Answer
    E. A relaxed but awake state
    Explanation
    Alpha waves are low-frequency brain waves that are typically observed when a person is in a relaxed but awake state. These waves are commonly seen when an individual is daydreaming, meditating, or engaged in light relaxation activities. They are characterized by a regular and rhythmic pattern, indicating a state of calmness and relaxation. Alpha waves are not associated with any stage of sleep, including REM sleep, stage 2 sleep, stage 3 sleep, or stage 4 sleep.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commerical bus driver?

    • A.

      Night terrors

    • B.

      Insomnia

    • C.

      Sleepwalking

    • D.

      Narcolepsy

    • E.

      Sleep apnea

    Correct Answer
    D. Narcolepsy
    Explanation
    Narcolepsy would be the most incapacitating sleep disorder for a commercial bus driver. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. This can be extremely dangerous for a bus driver as they need to stay alert and focused while operating a vehicle. The sudden onset of sleepiness could lead to accidents and put the lives of passengers and other drivers at risk.

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  • 12. 

    The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:

    • A.

      Withdrawal

    • B.

      Dissociation

    • C.

      Resistance

    • D.

      Tolerance

    • E.

      Narcolepsy

    Correct Answer
    D. Tolerance
    Explanation
    Tolerance is the correct answer because it refers to the need to take larger doses of a drug in order to achieve the same effects. This occurs when the body becomes accustomed to the drug and requires higher amounts to produce the desired response. Tolerance is a common phenomenon in drug use and can lead to increased risk of dependency and addiction.

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  • 13. 

    The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates:

    • A.

      REM rebound

    • B.

      Monism

    • C.

      Dissociation

    • D.

      Narcolepsy

    • E.

      Dualism

    Correct Answer
    E. Dualism
    Explanation
    The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates dualism. Dualism is the philosophical belief that the mind and body are separate entities, with the mind or soul being immortal and separate from the physical body. This belief suggests that death is the separation of the soul from the physical body, allowing it to be free from the constraints of the physical world.

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  • 14. 

    Research indicates that memories retrieved during a hypnosis are:

    • A.

      Forgotten again as soon as the person awakens from the hypnotic state

    • B.

      Accurate recollections of information previously learned

    • C.

      Experienced as being inaccurate even when they are true

    • D.

      Often a combination of fact and fiction

    • E.

      Often accurate indicators of childhood sexual abuse

    Correct Answer
    D. Often a combination of fact and fiction
    Explanation
    Research has shown that memories retrieved during hypnosis are often a combination of fact and fiction. This means that while some aspects of the memories may be accurate recollections of previously learned information, there is also a likelihood of incorporating false or distorted details. Hypnosis can enhance suggestibility and imagination, leading to the creation of false memories or the mixing of accurate and inaccurate information. Therefore, it is important to approach memories retrieved during hypnosis with caution and consider them as potentially unreliable.

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  • 15. 

    Paradoxical sleep is to slow wave sleep as ____________ sleep is to ____________ sleep.

    • A.

      REM; Stage 1

    • B.

      Stage 1; REM

    • C.

      REM; Stage 2

    • D.

      Stage 2; REM

    • E.

      REM; Stage 4

    Correct Answer
    E. REM; Stage 4
    Explanation
    The correct answer is REM; Stage 4. Paradoxical sleep is another term for REM sleep, which is characterized by rapid eye movement and vivid dreaming. Slow wave sleep refers to Stage 4 sleep, which is the deepest stage of non-REM sleep characterized by slow brain waves. Therefore, the relationship between paradoxical sleep and slow wave sleep is analogous to the relationship between REM sleep and Stage 4 sleep.

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  • 16. 

    About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. His pulse races and he gasps for breath. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from:

    • A.

      Night terrors

    • B.

      Narcolepsy

    • C.

      Sleep spindles

    • D.

      Sleep apnea

    • E.

      Insomnia

    Correct Answer
    A. Night terrors
    Explanation
    Bobby's symptoms of sitting up in bed screaming incoherently, racing pulse, and gasping for breath, followed by no memory of the incident the next morning, indicate that he is experiencing night terrors. Night terrors are a type of sleep disorder characterized by sudden episodes of extreme fear, panic, and agitation during sleep. These episodes usually occur during the first few hours of sleep and are often accompanied by physiological arousal. Unlike nightmares, individuals experiencing night terrors are usually not fully awake and have no recollection of the event afterwards.

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  • 17. 

    Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ____________ content.

    • A.

      Manifest

    • B.

      Latent

    • C.

      Dissociated

    • D.

      Paradoxical

    • E.

      Delusional

    Correct Answer
    A. Manifest
    Explanation
    Freud referred to the remembered story line of a dream as its manifest content. This term is used to describe the surface-level events, actions, and images that are recalled by the dreamer upon waking. It represents the literal content of the dream that can be easily recalled and described. In contrast, the latent content of a dream refers to the hidden, symbolic meaning and unconscious desires that are being expressed through the manifest content.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?

    • A.

      LSD

    • B.

      Cocaine

    • C.

      Heroin

    • D.

      Caffeine

    • E.

      Nicotine

    Correct Answer
    A. LSD
    Explanation
    LSD is a psychedelic drug because it alters perception, cognition, and mood. It is a hallucinogenic substance that produces intense sensory experiences and can cause hallucinations, altered thinking, and profound changes in consciousness. This sets it apart from cocaine, heroin, caffeine, and nicotine, which do not have the same mind-altering effects.

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  • 19. 

    One theory suggest that the brain activity associated with ___________ is helpful for developing and preserving neural pathways in the brain.

    • A.

      Night terrors

    • B.

      Near-death experiences

    • C.

      Sleep apnea

    • D.

      Dreaming

    • E.

      Stage 4 sleep

    Correct Answer
    D. Dreaming
    Explanation
    Dreaming is believed to be helpful for developing and preserving neural pathways in the brain. During dreaming, the brain is highly active and engages in various cognitive processes such as memory consolidation, problem-solving, and emotional regulation. This activity stimulates the connections between different brain regions, strengthening neural pathways and promoting overall brain health. Additionally, dreaming is thought to play a role in creativity and learning, further supporting the idea that it contributes to the development and preservation of neural pathways.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?

    • A.

      Marijuana

    • B.

      Nembutal

    • C.

      Ecstasy

    • D.

      Heroin

    • E.

      LSD

    Correct Answer
    C. Ecstasy
    Explanation
    Ecstasy is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen. It is a commonly used recreational drug that produces a combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Ecstasy enhances the release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain, leading to feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and altered perception. It is often associated with heightened sensory perception and distorted time perception, making it a popular choice among partygoers and individuals seeking a euphoric experience.

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  • 21. 

    As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ____________ content of her dream.

    • A.

      Paradoxical

    • B.

      Manifest

    • C.

      Latent

    • D.

      Hypnagogic

    • E.

      Hallucionatory

    Correct Answer
    B. Manifest
    Explanation
    According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to the literal storyline or events that occur in the dream as recalled by the dreamer. In this case, Inge's account of dancing with a tall, dark gentleman represents the manifest content of her dream. The manifest content is the surface-level content that is accessible to the dreamer's conscious awareness. It is important to note that Freud believed that the manifest content of a dream is a disguise or representation of the underlying latent content, which consists of hidden desires, wishes, and unconscious thoughts.

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  • 22. 

    Sleep apnea is a disorder involving:

    • A.

      The cessation of breathing during sleep

    • B.

      Periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness

    • C.

      Hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating weightlessly

    • D.

      The excessive use of sleeping pills or other sleep-inducing drugs

    • E.

      Screams and panic during deep sleep

    Correct Answer
    A. The cessation of breathing during sleep
    Explanation
    Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by the temporary pause or cessation of breathing during sleep. This means that individuals with sleep apnea experience interruptions in their breathing patterns while they are asleep. These pauses can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and can occur multiple times throughout the night. Sleep apnea can lead to various symptoms such as loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue. It is important to diagnose and treat sleep apnea as it can have negative impacts on overall health and well-being.

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  • 23. 

    By 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in:

    • A.

      Behavior genetics

    • B.

      Emotion

    • C.

      Socialization

    • D.

      Mental processes

    • E.

      Mental health

    Correct Answer
    D. Mental processes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mental processes" because psychologists became interested in studying consciousness again due to their renewed focus on understanding the inner workings of the mind, such as perception, memory, attention, and problem-solving. This shift in attention towards mental processes allowed researchers to explore the complexities of consciousness and its role in human behavior and cognition.

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  • 24. 

    Plato's belief that death involves the speraration of the mind from the body is known as:

    • A.

      The circadian rhythm

    • B.

      Age regression

    • C.

      Dissociation

    • D.

      Dualism

    • E.

      Hypnagogic state

    Correct Answer
    D. Dualism
    Explanation
    Plato's belief that death involves the separation of the mind from the body is known as dualism. Dualism is the philosophical concept that the mind and body are separate entities, with the mind being immaterial and eternal, while the body is material and mortal. This belief suggests that after death, the mind continues to exist independently from the physical body.

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  • 25. 

    Our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:

    • A.

      Dissociation

    • B.

      Narcolepsy

    • C.

      The circadian rhythm

    • D.

      Night terrors

    • E.

      Sleep apnea

    Correct Answer
    C. The circadian rhythm
    Explanation
    The circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates our sleep-wake cycle. It controls the timing of when we feel sleepy and when we feel awake. If we are unable to fall asleep early as planned, it is likely because our circadian rhythm is not aligned with our desired sleep schedule. This can happen due to factors such as exposure to bright light in the evening, irregular sleep patterns, or disruptions in our daily routine.

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  • 26. 

    Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of:

    • A.

      Narcolepsy

    • B.

      Psychological reactance

    • C.

      Dissociation

    • D.

      Physical dependence

    • E.

      REM rebound

    Correct Answer
    D. Physical dependence
    Explanation
    Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of physical dependence. Physical dependence occurs when the body becomes reliant on a substance or drug to function normally. When the drug is removed or reduced, the body experiences withdrawal symptoms as it adjusts to the absence of the substance. These symptoms can include cravings, anxiety, irritability, nausea, and other physical and psychological effects. Therefore, physical dependence is the most suitable explanation for the presence of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.

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  • 27. 

    Nightmares are to _____________ as night terrors are to ____________.

    • A.

      REM sleep; stage 4 sleep

    • B.

      Narcolepsy; sleep apnea

    • C.

      Delta waves; alpha waves

    • D.

      Stage 4 sleep; stage 1 sleep

    • E.

      Stage 1 sleep; REM sleep

    Correct Answer
    A. REM sleep; stage 4 sleep
    Explanation
    Nightmares and night terrors are both types of sleep disturbances. Nightmares occur during REM sleep, which is the stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and vivid dreaming. Night terrors, on the other hand, occur during stage 4 sleep, which is a deep sleep stage characterized by slow brain waves. Therefore, the correct answer is REM sleep; stage 4 sleep.

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  • 28. 

    SHane, a straight-A student. remembers dreaming that he failed an important chemistry test. According to Freud, Shane's account represents the _________ content of his dream.

    • A.

      Paradoxical

    • B.

      Manifest

    • C.

      Delusional

    • D.

      Latent

    • E.

      Dissociated

    Correct Answer
    B. Manifest
    Explanation
    According to Freud's theory of dream analysis, the manifest content of a dream refers to the actual events, images, and experiences that occur in the dream. It is the surface-level storyline that the dreamer remembers upon waking up. In this case, Shane's account of dreaming about failing a chemistry test represents the manifest content of his dream because it is the literal content that he recalls.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is true of alcohol?

    • A.

      In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.

    • B.

      In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a depressant.

    • C.

      In large doses, it is a hallucinogen; in small doses, it is a depressant.

    • D.

      In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.

    • E.

      In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a depressant.

    Correct Answer
    E. In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a depressant.
    Explanation
    Alcohol is a depressant, meaning that it slows down the central nervous system and reduces brain activity. In large doses, alcohol can cause sedation, drowsiness, and even unconsciousness. Even in small doses, alcohol still acts as a depressant, although the effects may be less pronounced. It can still impair judgment, coordination, and reaction time. Therefore, the correct answer is that in both large and small doses, alcohol is a depressant.

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  • 30. 

    When people are experiencing vivid dreams:

    • A.

      Their bodies often move in accordance with what they dream

    • B.

      Their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids

    • C.

      They are more likely to sleepwalk than during any other stage of sleep

    • D.

      Their slow brainwave patterns indicate that they are deeply asleep

    • E.

      They intermittently stop breathing

    Correct Answer
    B. Their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids
    Explanation
    During REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is the stage of sleep when people experience vivid dreams, their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids. This is because REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements, hence the name. These eye movements are believed to be associated with the visual activity that occurs during dreams. Therefore, when people are experiencing vivid dreams, it is common for their eyes to move even though their eyelids are closed.

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  • 31. 

    Consciousness is:

    • A.

      The ability to solve problems, reason, and remember

    • B.

      The sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

    • C.

      The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information

    • D.

      Effortless encoding of incidental information into memory

    • E.

      Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

    Correct Answer
    E. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
    Explanation
    Consciousness refers to our awareness of ourselves and our environment. It involves being cognizant of our thoughts, emotions, sensations, and surroundings. It is the state of being awake and perceiving the world around us, as well as having a sense of our own existence. Consciousness allows us to have subjective experiences and to reflect on our own thoughts and actions. It is a fundamental aspect of human cognition and plays a crucial role in our daily lives.

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  • 32. 

    After sleeping for about an hour and a half, Jose enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to:

    • A.

      Be easily awakened

    • B.

      Have slower, more regular breathing

    • C.

      Have slower brain waves

    • D.

      Talk in his sleep

    • E.

      Have very relaxed muscles

    Correct Answer
    A. Be easily awakened
    Explanation
    During the phase of paradoxical sleep, also known as REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, Jose is likely to be easily awakened. This is a defining characteristic of REM sleep where individuals are more responsive to sensory stimuli and can wake up relatively easily compared to other sleep stages.

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  • 33. 

    While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of:

    • A.

      Age regression

    • B.

      Posthypnotic suggestion

    • C.

      A hidden observer

    • D.

      Posthypnotic amnesia

    • E.

      Paradoxical sleep

    Correct Answer
    B. Posthypnotic suggestion
    Explanation
    The therapist was making use of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion is a technique used in hypnotherapy where the hypnotist suggests to the patient that they will experience certain thoughts, feelings, or behaviors after the hypnosis session has ended. In this case, the therapist suggested to Bev that she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals in the following days. This demonstrates the use of posthypnotic suggestion to influence and guide the patient's behavior even after they have come out of the hypnotic state.

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  • 34. 

    The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves:

    • A.

      Role playing

    • B.

      Dissociation

    • C.

      Age regression

    • D.

      Motivational conflict

    • E.

      Obedience to authority

    Correct Answer
    B. Dissociation
    Explanation
    The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis suggests that hypnosis involves dissociation. Dissociation refers to a state in which a person's consciousness is divided, leading to a separation between different aspects of their awareness. In the context of hypnosis, dissociation implies that individuals under hypnosis can experience a split in their consciousness, with one part of their mind being more responsive to suggestions and instructions while another part remains aware of their surroundings. This theory suggests that hypnosis creates a temporary separation between different levels of consciousness, allowing for altered perceptions and behaviors.

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  • 35. 

    28 year old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relieve his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of:

    • A.

      Hypnagogic sensations

    • B.

      Age regression

    • C.

      REM rebound

    • D.

      Temporal dissociation

    • E.

      The hidden observer

    Correct Answer
    B. Age regression
    Explanation
    The therapist is making use of age regression, which involves hypnotizing the patient and guiding them to mentally revisit their earliest childhood experience with a dog. This technique aims to uncover and address the root cause of Theodore's irrational fear of dogs by accessing memories from his past.

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  • Jan 12, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Nov 01, 2011
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