States Of Consciousness Multiple Choice

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Quizzes Created: 12 | Total Attempts: 93,145
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States Of Consciousness Multiple Choice - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Nightmares occur in _______ and night terrors occur in _______.

    • A.

      NREM stage 1; NREM stage 2

    • B.

      NREM stage 2; NREM stage 1

    • C.

      NREM stage 3; NREM stage 4

    • D.

      REM; NREM stage 4

    • E.

      NREM stage 4; REM

    Correct Answer
    D. REM; NREM stage 4
    Explanation
    Nightmares occur in REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, which is the stage of sleep where most dreaming occurs. Night terrors, on the other hand, occur in NREM (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) stage 4 sleep, which is a deep stage of sleep characterized by slow brain waves and deep relaxation.

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  • 2. 

    Who stated that consciousness could be described as a "stream, although always changing it is percieved as unified and unbroken."

    • A.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • B.

      B.F. Skinner

    • C.

      Jean Piaget

    • D.

      Max Wertheimer

    • E.

      William James

    Correct Answer
    E. William James
    Explanation
    William James stated that consciousness could be described as a "stream, although always changing it is perceived as unified and unbroken." This means that according to James, our conscious experience is constantly changing, but we perceive it as a continuous and cohesive whole.

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  • 3. 

    Sleep spindles occur in which step stage?

    • A.

      NREM stage 1

    • B.

      NREM stage 2

    • C.

      NREM stage 3

    • D.

      NREM stage 4

    • E.

      REM

    Correct Answer
    B. NREM stage 2
    Explanation
    Sleep spindles occur in NREM stage 2. Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity that are characterized by a distinctive wave pattern on an electroencephalogram (EEG). They typically occur during the transition from light sleep to deeper sleep, which is NREM stage 2. NREM stage 2 is characterized by the presence of sleep spindles, as well as K-complexes and a further decrease in brain activity compared to NREM stage 1.

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  • 4. 

    REM sleep is described as

    • A.

      Total delta waves

    • B.

      When night terrors heightening

    • C.

      Paradoxical sleep, where the brain is awake, but the body is asleep

    • D.

      Non-dreaming sleep

    • E.

      Quiet sleep

    Correct Answer
    C. Paradoxical sleep, where the brain is awake, but the body is asleep
    Explanation
    During REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, the brain is highly active and resembles a state of wakefulness, while the muscles of the body are relaxed and inactive. This is why it is referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because it combines characteristics of both being awake and being asleep. In this stage, vivid dreaming occurs, and the eyes move rapidly beneath the eyelids. The term "total delta waves" is incorrect because delta waves are associated with deep sleep, not REM sleep. "Night terrors heightening" is unrelated to the description of REM sleep. "Non-dreaming sleep" and "quiet sleep" are also incorrect as REM sleep is characterized by intense brain activity and dreaming.

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  • 5. 

    A person who is awake, but very drowsy and ready to fall asleep would show _______waves on an EEG.

    • A.

      Beta

    • B.

      Alpha

    • C.

      Theta

    • D.

      Delta

    • E.

      Simple

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha
    Explanation
    When a person is awake but drowsy and ready to fall asleep, their brain activity slows down and becomes more relaxed. This is reflected in an EEG (electroencephalogram) by the presence of alpha waves. Alpha waves are low-frequency brain waves that are typically seen when a person is awake but in a relaxed state, such as when daydreaming or meditating. They are slower than beta waves, which are associated with alertness and active thinking. Theta and delta waves are even slower and are typically seen during sleep. The term "simple" is not relevant to brain waves and does not describe the state of being awake and drowsy.

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  • 6. 

    Fluctuation of body temperature within a day would be an axample of

    • A.

      Delta waves

    • B.

      Circadian rhythms

    • C.

      Cyclic rhythms

    • D.

      Bipolar

    • E.

      Alpha waves

    Correct Answer
    B. Circadian rhythms
    Explanation
    Circadian rhythms refer to the natural, internal processes that regulate the sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions in a 24-hour period. Fluctuations in body temperature throughout the day are a clear example of circadian rhythms, as body temperature tends to be lowest during sleep and gradually rises as we wake up and go about our day. This daily pattern of temperature variation is regulated by our internal biological clock, which is influenced by factors such as light exposure and hormone release.

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  • 7. 

    Ernest Hilgrad in his Divided Consciousness theory, that the hidden observer refers to

    • A.

      As an altered state of consciousness that the person being hypnotized is unaware of

    • B.

      As an altered state of consciousness that the person being hypnotized is fully aware of

    • C.

      As a suggestion to be carried out after hypnosis

    • D.

      As a heightened state of memory awareness

    • E.

      As a bad dream not remembered

    Correct Answer
    A. As an altered state of consciousness that the person being hypnotized is unaware of
    Explanation
    Ernest Hilgrad's Divided Consciousness theory proposes that the hidden observer refers to an altered state of consciousness that the person being hypnotized is unaware of. This means that during hypnosis, individuals may experience a separation of their conscious awareness, with one part being aware of the hypnotic suggestions and instructions, while another part remains unaware of these suggestions. The hidden observer represents this unconscious part of the mind that is influenced by the hypnotic state without the person's conscious knowledge.

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  • 8. 

    Jimmy feels pressure to act a certain way during hypnosis. He starts to act the way he thinks he should behave based on what the hypnotist has told him he may experience, and what others have stated about their experience. Which theory of hypnosis would account for Jimmy's behavior?

    • A.

      Divided Consciousness theory

    • B.

      State theory

    • C.

      Role/ Social influence theory

    • D.

      Altered consciousness theory

    • E.

      Posthypnotic suggestions

    Correct Answer
    C. Role/ Social influence theory
    Explanation
    The Role/Social influence theory of hypnosis suggests that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state of consciousness, but rather they are playing the role of a hypnotized person based on social expectations and influence. In this case, Jimmy feels pressure to act a certain way during hypnosis because of what the hypnotist and others have told him about the experience. He is conforming to the role he believes he should play during hypnosis, which aligns with the Role/Social influence theory.

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  • 9. 

    Depressants like acohol increase ______ the neurotransmitter designed to inhibit brain activity.

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Norepinephrine

    • D.

      GABA

    • E.

      Endorphins

    Correct Answer
    D. GABA
    Explanation
    Depressants like alcohol increase the levels of GABA, which is a neurotransmitter designed to inhibit brain activity. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it reduces the activity of neurons in the brain. Increased levels of GABA induced by depressants like alcohol can lead to sedation, relaxation, and reduced anxiety.

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  • 10. 

    REM rebound occurs when

    • A.

      A person does not get enough that enters right into REM sleep instead of the normal sleep cycle

    • B.

      A person does not dream

    • C.

      A person has often terrifiying dreams that can't be remembered

    • D.

      A person walks in his or her sleep

    • E.

      A person wets the bed

    Correct Answer
    A. A person does not get enough that enters right into REM sleep instead of the normal sleep cycle
    Explanation
    REM rebound occurs when a person does not get enough REM sleep during their normal sleep cycle. This means that they may have shorter periods of REM sleep or may not enter REM sleep at all. When they finally have the opportunity to sleep uninterrupted, their body compensates for the lack of REM sleep by increasing the amount and intensity of REM sleep. This can result in vivid dreams, longer periods of REM sleep, and a deeper overall sleep experience.

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  • 11. 

    If a person flew to California, who lived in Michigan, he or she may have problems adjusting to the new time zone. In this example a person's _______, would not match the new enviromental cues.

    • A.

      Circadian rhythms

    • B.

      Belta waves

    • C.

      Delta waves

    • D.

      State of consciousness

    • E.

      Hormone production

    Correct Answer
    A. Circadian rhythms
    Explanation
    When a person travels across different time zones, their circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological processes that regulate sleep-wake cycles, may be disrupted. These rhythms are influenced by environmental cues such as light and darkness, which help synchronize the body's internal clock with the external world. Therefore, if a person flew from Michigan to California, they would experience a time difference, and their circadian rhythms would not match the new environmental cues in California, leading to problems adjusting to the new time zone.

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  • 12. 

    If a drug is to have an effect on the brain and alter function and perception then that drug passed through the

    • A.

      Barrier of no return

    • B.

      Blood-brain barrier

    • C.

      Brain defense system

    • D.

      Brain semiperable coating

    • E.

      Grey matter

    Correct Answer
    B. Blood-brain barrier
    Explanation
    The blood-brain barrier is a protective mechanism that prevents harmful substances from entering the brain. It is a specialized system of blood vessels that selectively allows certain molecules to pass through while blocking others. If a drug is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, it means that it can enter the brain and potentially have an effect on its function and perception.

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  • 13. 

    Stage 4 NREM is characterized by 100% ______ waves as indicated on an EEG

    • A.

      Beta

    • B.

      Alpha

    • C.

      Delta

    • D.

      Theta

    • E.

      Reada

    Correct Answer
    C. Delta
    Explanation
    Stage 4 NREM is characterized by 100% Delta waves as indicated on an EEG. Delta waves are the slowest and highest amplitude brain waves, typically occurring during deep sleep. They are associated with restorative processes in the body, such as physical healing and growth. During this stage, it is difficult to wake someone up as they are in a deep sleep state.

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  • 14. 

    According to Sigmund Freud, the ______ content represents the symbolic ortion of a dream often indicated unconscious conflicts.

    • A.

      Manifest

    • B.

      Dark

    • C.

      Light

    • D.

      Latent

    • E.

      Potent

    Correct Answer
    D. Latent
    Explanation
    The latent content of a dream, according to Sigmund Freud, refers to the symbolic portion that represents unconscious conflicts. This means that the true meaning and significance of a dream are hidden beneath its surface, and it requires interpretation to understand the unconscious desires, fears, and conflicts that are being expressed symbolically.

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  • 15. 

    According to the restorative theory of sleep, REM sleep restores

    • A.

      Hunger

    • B.

      Thirst

    • C.

      Functioning of the brain

    • D.

      Functioning of the body

    • E.

      Repair of hormonal damage

    Correct Answer
    C. Functioning of the brain
    Explanation
    The restorative theory of sleep suggests that REM sleep is responsible for restoring the functioning of the brain. During REM sleep, the brain is highly active and engaged in activities such as dreaming and memory consolidation. This theory proposes that REM sleep is crucial for maintaining optimal cognitive functioning and overall brain health. Therefore, the correct answer is functioning of the brain.

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  • 16. 

    The ______located in the hypothalamus recieves information from the retinas concerning changes in light.

    • A.

      Tranduction nucleus

    • B.

      Supracharismatic nucleus

    • C.

      Midcluster nucleus

    • D.

      Ultradian nucleus

    • E.

      Hippocampus

    Correct Answer
    B. Supracharismatic nucleus
    Explanation
    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a small region located in the hypothalamus of the brain. It receives information from the retinas about changes in light, allowing it to regulate the body's internal clock and circadian rhythms. The SCN helps to synchronize various bodily functions with the natural light-dark cycle, allowing for proper sleep-wake cycles and other daily physiological processes.

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  • 17. 

    Which theory of sleep suggest that dreams are nothing more than neural bursts and our brain's attempt to make sense of these bursts through a type of story or dream?

    • A.

      Physiological function

    • B.

      Lucid dreaming

    • C.

      Latent material

    • D.

      Activation-synthesis

    • E.

      Restorative

    Correct Answer
    D. Activation-synthesis
    Explanation
    Activation-synthesis theory suggests that dreams are the result of random neural activity in the brain during sleep. According to this theory, the brain tries to make sense of these random bursts of neural activity by creating a story or dream. This theory proposes that dreams do not have any specific meaning or purpose, but are simply a byproduct of the brain's attempt to interpret and organize these neural bursts.

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  • 18. 

    When the hormone _____________ increases a peron would become ________________ .

    • A.

      Melatonin: tired

    • B.

      Insulin; tired

    • C.

      Adrenaline; awake

    • D.

      Melatonin: awake

    • E.

      Insulin: awake

    Correct Answer
    A. Melatonin: tired
    Explanation
    When the hormone melatonin increases, a person would become tired. Melatonin is a hormone that is released by the pineal gland in response to darkness and helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. As melatonin levels rise, it signals to the body that it is time to sleep, leading to feelings of tiredness and drowsiness. Therefore, an increase in melatonin would cause a person to feel tired.

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  • 19. 

    Opiate are agonists for the neurotransmitter ____________, which provides pleasure through pain relief.

    • A.

      Dopampine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      GABA

    • D.

      Endorphins

    • E.

      Norepinephirne

    Correct Answer
    D. Endorphins
    Explanation
    Endorphins are neurotransmitters that act as natural painkillers and provide pleasure by relieving pain. Opiates, such as morphine or heroin, are agonists for endorphins, meaning they bind to the same receptors and mimic their effects. By binding to endorphin receptors, opiates enhance the pain-relieving and pleasure-inducing properties of endorphins, leading to feelings of euphoria and analgesia.

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  • 20. 

    The neurotransmitter, dopamine, is increased by taking

    • A.

      Depressants

    • B.

      Alcohol

    • C.

      Stimulants

    • D.

      Opiates

    • E.

      Morphine

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimulants
    Explanation
    Stimulants increase the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical messenger in the brain that plays a role in motivation, reward, and pleasure. Stimulants like amphetamines and cocaine increase dopamine levels by blocking its reuptake, leading to an accumulation of dopamine in the synapses. This results in increased stimulation of the brain's reward pathway, leading to feelings of euphoria and increased alertness.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Oct 16, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 20, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Mmclane
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