Piaget believed that people go through four stages in understanding the world.
Piaget believed that people go through six stages in understanding the world.
Each of Piaget's stages represents a different way of understanding the world.
Each of Piaget's stages is age-related.
Rewards and punishments shape behavior
A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is likely to be repeated.
A behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.
A behavior that is ignored will be repeated.
They assume that a person's behavior is consistent and stable
They do not provide any information about differences among people
They assume that people will perform differently depending on the setting of the test
They do not allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other people.
Radioactive glucose, brain
Electrical activity levels, heart
Radio waves, brain
Experimental design uses experimental control groups
Experimental design uses experimental groups only
All experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable
Experiments must demonstrate cause and effect.
People must be paid for their time
People may be too relaxed in a laboratory setting
People who are willing to come to a laboratory might not be representative of the general population
People behave more naturally when they are away from the stresses of the "real world."
Emerging old age
Beginning of symbolic thought
Beginning of sensorimotor skills 3
Extreme dependence on adults
Development is elastic
Development is contextual
Development is multidisciplinary
Development is multicultural
Nonnormative life events
Normative history-graded influence
Normative age-graded influences
Nonnormative age-graded influence
Normative age-graded influence
Are an example of a broad ethnic group in the United States
Are not an ethnic group since they are too broad a category
Do not form an ethnic group, because there is a lack of diversity within this group
Are an example of a broad ethnic group in the United States
Socialized equity programs
Socialized equity programs
Less likely to be living alone
More likely to be married
Less likely to be living alone
More likely to be childless
They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness
They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging
They show considerable loss in cognitive skills
They are people between 60 and 70 years of age.
Chronological age is becoming irrelevant in the US
Developmental age is becoming more irrelevant in the US
Social age is becoming irrelevant in the US
Chronological age is becoming increasingly relevant in the US
Tend to align themselves rigidly with certain positions
Do not take extreme positions
Give primacy to the first issue
Refuse to consider the opposite position.
Overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual's development
Proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions
Overemphasized sexual instincts
Underestimated the role of the unconscious in determining development
Span from conception to adulthood
Span from birth to 15 years of age
Span from conception to death
Start at birth and continue through adulthood
In the first half of life
Over the first year of life
Within the first 2 years
Biology, cognitive influences
Most social contexts, consequences of behavior
Social contexts beyond the family, critical periods
Connections between environment settings; cognitive processes
Migration to rural areas
Increase in mothers' employment
Greater family mobility
Physical and oxygen theraphy, synthetic enzymes, and antibiotics
Corrective surgery at birth, orthopedic devices
Over many generations
When the species is ready for it
After active attempts at change on the part of the species
The number of males
The number of females
Genes work together to specify our characteristics
Each gene programs one protein
Genes are influences by their environment
Events inside and outside of the cell can excite or inhibit gene expression.
Parents suggest music lessons for their musically talented children.
A nervous adolescent displays anxiety at school
A highschool student bound for an agricultural college signs up for courses in plant biology
Musical parents buy a piano for their children.
A nature versus nurture
Physical and psychological consequences for children
Couples' motivation to terminate a pregnancy
Causing mental retardation in fetuses.
Adoptees were no more likely to be using mental health serices than their nonadopted counterparts.
Children who are adopted very early in their lives are more likely to have positive outcomes than children adopted later in life
Nonadopted children are likely to experience more school-related problems than adopted children
Adopted adolescents were more likely to be withdrawn.
Nonshared genetic traits
Nonshared environmental experiences
Shared genetic traits
Shared environmental traits
General purpose devices
Hard work and practice; genes have little or nothing to do with his ability
His genetically inherited ability to accurately throw a ball
A combination of heredity and environment
Environment is much more important than genetics in development of personality
Shared environment accounts for most of the variation in adolescent personality and interests
There is no relationship between genetics and environment
Heredity influences the nonshared environment of siblings.
24 to 30 weeks
38 to 40 weeks
20 to 28 weeks
28 to 33 weeks
11 to 15
6 to 8
8 to 10
14 to 16
Umbilical cord, placenta, and amnion
Circulatory, nervous, and digestive systems.
Digestive system, umbilical cord, amnion.
Nervous system, digestive system, and umbilical cord
Second and third trimester of prenatal development
First two trimesters of prenatal development
Third trimester of prenatal development
First trimester of prenatal development
Food rich in vitamin C
Food less in mercury
Adequate amounts of the B vitamin Folic acid
6 to 24
1 to 8
3 to 12
4 to 15
Maternal back pain
During the embryonic period
During the germinal period
During the fetal period
Facial and limb deformities
Sudden infant death syndrome
Tremors and increase general irritability
Increased head circumference and lower excitability
Less effective self-regulation
Lower quality of reflexes at one month of age
Impaired motor development at 2 years of age
Research has concluded that marijuana use by pregnant women is associated with memory deficits in their offspring.
Research has shown that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant risk that their offspring will use marijuana by age 14.
Research has indicated that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant have higher risk of having a child who develops depression by age 10
Research has concluded that controlled doses of marijuana is associated with increased memory in the developing offspring.
Marijuana exposure is related to higher intelligence in children.
Infants whose mothers are addicted to heroin show several behavioral difficulties at birth including withdrawal symptoms.
Babies born to mothers who use methamphetamine during pregnancy are at risk of high infant mortality
Children born to cocaine addicted mothers exhibit impaired motor development at 2 years of age
After birth through breastfeeding
During delivery through contact with maternal blood or fluids
During gestation across the placenta
During sperm/egg adhesion in the fertilization process
They are more likely to be born to mothers who are below 35 years of age
They are more likely to have HIV positive mothers
They are more likely to be born to mothers who have a history of substance abuse
They are more likely to have diabetic mothers
Admission to the NICU
Neonatal diabetes mellitus
Itrauterine fetal death
Swordfish is not recommended for pregnant women because it can contain high levels of mercury
Swordfish is not one of the fish that Tammy should avoid
Swordfish is a great source of protein and she should continue to consume it
Swordfish is not as good for her as kin mackerel; she should try to eat more mackerel.
The baby will not be affected
The baby is more likely to be malformed
The baby will develop Down Syndrome
The baby might be affected during the early, but not the later, months of gestation.
18 years or younger
Between 18 and 25
Between 19 and 30 years
Emergence of the child's head; delivery of the placenta
Opening of the cervix; delivery of the placenta
Emergence of the child's head; delivery of the child out of the mother
Opening of the cervix; delivery of the child out of the mother
The final stage is the shortest of the three birth stages
For women having the second or later child, the first stage is usually longer than the first birth
Uterine contractions are usually five minutes apart
The first stage terminates when the baby completely emerges from the mother's body
The pregnant woman's partner serves as a coach
Midwife to assist in the process of childbirth
Detailed education about anatomy and physiology
Special breathing technique to control pushing
Called a breach position
Called a precipitate position
Normal for delivery
The newborn's lactose intolerance
The newborn's immunity to congenital infections
Identifying newborn's susceptibility to common postnatal complications
The newborn's ability to respond to stress of delivery
Infant IQ test
Brazleton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale
Low birth weight
Normal and average for babies born today
Normal and average
Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus
Jasmine has type A blood, whereas her fetus has type B
The fetus will need a blood transfusion immediately after birth
The fetus' immune system will attack the mother's blood during the fetal stage
Bottle feeding; music therapy
Massage therapy; kangaroo care
Breast feeding; raccoon care
Bottle feeding; kangaroo care
Low heart rate
High blood pressure
Low respiratory capacity
Indicate that the newborn's condition is good.
Signal that there may be some developmental difficulties
Signal an emergency because the baby's survival is in doubt
Indicate that the evaluator has not made a proper reading.
Her partner was a heavy smoker
Her partner was overweight
Her partner is deficient in Vitamin C
Her partner was undergoing severe emotional stress
The risks associated with Rh incompatibility are miscarriage or stillbirth, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth.
Babies affected by Rh incompatibility can be given blood transfusions before or right after birth
If the fetus' blood is Rh-positive and the mother's is Rh-negative, the mother's immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.
With each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of complications for an Rh-positive baby of an Rh-negative mother is reduced.
At the second week after conception, the developing organism is just over 1 inch long.
In the third week after conception, the neural tube that eventually becomes the spinal cord forms.
By the time most women know they are pregnant, the major organs have begun forming
During the fourth week arm and leg buds emerge
After organogenesis is complete, teratogens are more likely to cause anatomical defects
The probability of a structural defect is greatest early in the germinal period
The critical period for the nervous system is earlier than for arms and legs
Exposure during the fetal period is less likely instead to stunt growth or to create problems in the way organs function
The effect of a teratogen is absent if the mother was exposed to it before conception
Male fetuses are far more likely to be affect by teratogens than female fetuses
Few fetuses are actually exposed to teratogens
Teratogenic factors related to the father do not affect the developing baby
Down syndrome, Tay-Sach's disease
Spina bifida; anencephaly
Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18
Germinal, embryonic, and fetal
Fertile, embryonic, postterm
Preterm, germinal, postnatal
Gestational, embryonic, fetal
Is having a normal reaction
Should relax and help herself adjust
Should seek professional counseling
Will score low on the Apgar scale
Avoid postpartum depression
Improve involution with the baby
Reduce her need for support from other people
Increase her chances of bonding with her new baby
Jessica's baby will stay in her room
Jessica will stay in the hospital in the first two months after pregnancy
Michael can stay overnight in Jessica's room
Jessica's hospital room will be more like a nursery
Myelination, the process of encasing axons with fat cells, begins prenatally and stops at birth.
The synaptic connections made at birth will last for the duration of the life-span of the individual
The synaptic connections that are used become strengthened and survive, while the unused ones are replaced
The human brain actually needs more than twice of the neural connections made in the first years of life
Older adults are the only group that spends more time in REM sleep than infants
When infants are three months old, the amount of time they spend in REM sleep begins to increase
Most infants spend about 70% of their sleeping time in REM sleep
REM sleep might promote the brain's development in infancy
Parents practice shared sleeping with their infants
Babies be fed on demand instead of on a schedule
Infants be placed to sleep on their backs
All fans in the room be turned off while putting the baby down to sleep
Many US parents are feeding their babies too many fruits and not enough vegetables
US parents are feeding their babies enough fruits and vegetables, and are not feeding them too much junk food.
By 1 year, bananas were the most common fruit that babies ate.
By 15 months, french fries were the most common vegetable that babies ate.
Bring her pre-pregnancy weight down to a healthy level
Bottle feed her baby
Control her own weight during pregnancy
Ensure that fruits are included in the baby's diet
Pedro will show better social development
Maria will show better social development
There will be no difference in the social development of the children
Pedro will develop faster socially, but Maria will eventually catch up.
Robert will walk sooner
They will both walk about the same time
Robert will crawl sooner, but they will both walk at the same time
Hermes will walk sooner
She is too young to distinguish between the three
No; most infants sink into a deep sleep right after surgery
Yes; recent research indicates that infants can feel pain
Maybe; research on the matter is inconclusive as of now
No, infants feed and interact normally with caregivers soon after surgery
Mimi; her mother smokes
Grace, she was born weighing more than most babies
Megumi, she uses a pacifier when she goes to sleep
Sylvia, she sleeps in firm bedding
Sleeps as much as a typical newborn
Is not sleeping as much as most babies her age
Sleeps longer than most newborns
Sleeps more like a premature infant than a full-term infant
Myelination varies in different areas of the brain
The effects of deprived environments on the brain is irreversible
The brain is both flexible and resilient
The brain can adapt and function only when whole
Registering spatial locations
Processing auditory information
Won't show any preference
Clean nursing pad
Depends whether she has been fed recently or not
She will prefer her mother's nursing pad
Mother's rate of post-pregnancy weight loss
Inclusion of fruits in the baby's diet
If the mother has active tuberculosis
If the mother plans to return to full-time work soon
If the baby is overweight
If the mother is 40 or older
Breast fed babies could be healthier because women who breast feed are wealthier, older, more educated, and likely more health-conscious.
Research findings highlighting a number of breast feeding benefits for children and mothers imply causality.
Breast versus bottle feeding studies are experimental and not correlational
Research undertaken in recent times have covered small sample sizes and cannot be seen as representing the whole population
Fine motor skills; gross motor skills
Their caregivers; their own experiences
Sensory stimulation remains constant but perception of the world changes.
Constant sensory stimulation receives a constant perceptual response
Sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains constant
Perception of the physical world remains constant owing to limited visual acuity.
There was no noticeable difference in the infants' response to the familiar and unfamiliar story.
Some children seemed to prefer the familiar story, while others did not.
Most infants recognized the familiar story for a week after birth
The infants recognized the pattern and tone of the familiar story
Amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds.
Amanda can hear soft sounds as well as adults
Amanda is more able to hear low-pitched sounds than high-pitched sounds
Amanda cannot determine the general location from where a sound is coming.
Babies coordinate their movements with perceptual information.
Perception and motor activity occur in isolation from each other for babies.
Children do not develop the concept of perceptual-motor coupling until age 2 to 3 years
Perceptual-motor coupling develops in children only by the age of 5