Psych 1012 Final Exam (History Of Psychology)

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Psych 1012 Final Exam (History Of Psychology) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pre-civilized humans thought most about 

    • A.

      Naturalism; Physical properties can explain all life

    • B.

      Animism; Nature is alive

    • C.

      Humanism; Natural explanation for anything that happens

    • D.

      Mathematics; Math and reason leads to knowledge

    Correct Answer
    B. Animism; Nature is alive
    Explanation
    Animism is the correct answer because pre-civilized humans believed that nature was alive. They attributed spirits or souls to natural objects such as trees, rivers, and animals, believing that these entities possessed consciousness and could interact with humans. This belief in the living nature of the world around them influenced their understanding of the environment and their relationship with it.

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  • 2. 

    The Ancient Greeks brought us: 

    • A.

      Biological view

    • B.

      Faith view

    • C.

      Naturalistic view

    • D.

      Mathematical view

    • E.

      Rational view

    • F.

      Humanistic view

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Biological view
    C. Naturalistic view
    D. Mathematical view
    F. Humanistic view
    Explanation
    The Ancient Greeks contributed to the development of a naturalistic view by emphasizing observation and empirical evidence in understanding the world. They also introduced a biological view by studying anatomy and physiology, laying the foundation for modern medicine. The Greeks made significant advancements in mathematics, developing concepts such as geometry and the Pythagorean theorem, which led to a mathematical view of the world. They also placed great importance on humanism, valuing human potential and achievements, thus promoting a humanistic view. However, there is no mention of a faith view or a rational view in the given options.

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  • 3. 

    Plato was a large supporter of Hippocrates biological view, while Aristotle was a large supporter of empirical studies 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Plato was a large supporter of Pythagoras' mathematical view, he very much doubted sensation

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  • 4. 

    Aristotle proposed the ideas of:

    • A.

      Hierarchy of souls

    • B.

      Monism

    • C.

      Laws of Association

    • D.

      Four elements

    • E.

      Scala Naturae

    • F.

      Self-reflection

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hierarchy of souls
    C. Laws of Association
    E. Scala Naturae
    Explanation
    Aristotle proposed the ideas of hierarchy of souls, scala naturae, and laws of association. The hierarchy of souls suggests that there are different levels of souls in living beings, with humans having the highest level. Scala naturae, also known as the great chain of being, is the concept that all living things are arranged in a hierarchical order, with humans at the top. Laws of association refer to the principles that govern how humans learn and remember information. These ideas are all part of Aristotle's philosophy and understanding of the natural world.

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  • 5. 

    Christianity proposed the idea that 

    • A.

      Bodily urges are greater than the soul

    • B.

      Thoughts should be human-centered

    • C.

      Faith is above reason

    • D.

      Humans are not unique

    Correct Answer
    C. Faith is above reason
    Explanation
    Christianity proposed the idea that faith is above reason. This means that in Christianity, belief and trust in God should take precedence over logical reasoning and evidence. It emphasizes the importance of having faith in God's teachings and accepting them even when they may not align with human understanding or logic. This belief in the supremacy of faith over reason is a fundamental aspect of Christian theology and is central to the practice of Christianity.

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  • 6. 

    The Renaissance followed the fall of Rome

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Dark Ages followed the fall of Rome

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  • 7. 

    The Renaissance ended the Dark Ages 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Renaissance is considered to be a period of cultural and intellectual rebirth that occurred in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It marked the end of the Dark Ages, a period characterized by decline and stagnation in various aspects of society. The Renaissance brought about significant advancements in art, literature, science, and philosophy, leading to a renewed interest in learning and a shift towards humanism. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Renaissance indeed ended the Dark Ages.

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  • 8. 

    The Renaissance proposed the idea of 

    • A.

      Tabula rasa; we all begin with a blank slate

    • B.

      The body is like a machine; minus the brain which is not of the body

    • C.

      Faith comes before reason and the soul is above bodily urges

    • D.

      Human-centered thoughts and art/beauty

    Correct Answer
    D. Human-centered thoughts and art/beauty
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Human-centered thoughts and art/beauty". This answer aligns with the concept of the Renaissance, which emphasized the importance of humanism and the individual. During this period, there was a shift towards human-centered thinking, focusing on human potential, achievements, and the importance of human experience. This also led to a renewed interest in art and beauty, with artists and thinkers exploring new ideas and techniques to portray the human form and express human emotions.

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  • 9. 

    Aristotle's works and ideas were predominantly rediscovered during

    • A.

      The dark ages

    • B.

      The renaissance

    • C.

      The crusades

    • D.

      The mordern era

    Correct Answer
    C. The crusades
    Explanation
    During the Crusades, which took place between the 11th and 13th centuries, there was a renewed interest in ancient Greek philosophy and literature. This led to the rediscovery of Aristotle's works and ideas, as they were translated from Arabic into Latin and reintroduced to Western Europe. The Crusades brought about a cultural exchange between the Islamic world and Europe, allowing for the transmission of knowledge and the revival of classical learning. Therefore, it was during the Crusades that Aristotle's works and ideas were predominantly rediscovered.

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  • 10. 

    How do we acquire knowledge: Empiricism 

    • A.

      Predominantly began with Descortes, looked at doubt and dualistic thinking; more specifically the machine-like body

    • B.

      Predominantly began with Locke, thought we began with a blank slate, and thoughts went from simple to complex

    • C.

      Predominantly began with Darwin, evolution through natural selection, had functional and comparative views

    • D.

      Predominantly began with Galton, studies fingerprints and more specifically Eugenics

    Correct Answer
    B. Predominantly began with Locke, thought we began with a blank slate, and thoughts went from simple to complex
    Explanation
    Locke's theory of empiricism suggests that knowledge is acquired through experience and observation. He believed that the mind is a blank slate, or tabula rasa, at birth, and that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences. According to Locke, our thoughts start off as simple ideas and then develop into more complex ones as we gain more experiences and information from the world around us. This theory contrasts with other options mentioned in the question, such as Descartes' focus on doubt and dualistic thinking, Darwin's emphasis on evolution through natural selection, and Galton's studies on fingerprints and eugenics.

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  • 11. 

    Hierarchy of Souls model proposed by Aristotle includes:

    • A.

      Sensitive

    • B.

      Anatomical

    • C.

      Rational

    • D.

      Deceptive

    • E.

      Vegetative

    • F.

      Irrational

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sensitive
    C. Rational
    E. Vegetative
    Explanation
    The Hierarchy of Souls model proposed by Aristotle includes three levels: Sensitive, Rational, and Vegetative. The Sensitive soul refers to the ability to perceive and respond to sensory stimuli. The Rational soul is associated with higher cognitive functions such as reasoning and intellect. The Vegetative soul is responsible for the basic life functions of growth, nutrition, and reproduction. This model suggests that different organisms possess different levels of souls, with humans being the only ones possessing all three levels. The terms Anatomical, Deceptive, and Irrational are not mentioned in the given model.

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  • 12. 

    How do we acquire knowledge: Rationalism 

    • A.

      Predominantly began with Locke, thought we began with a blank slate, and thoughts went from simple to complex

    • B.

      Predominantly began with Galton, studies fingerprints and more specifically Eugenics

    • C.

      Predominantly began with Descortes, looked at doubt and dualistic thinking; more specifically the machine-like body

    • D.

      Predominantly began with Darwin, evolution through natural selection, had functional and comparative views

    Correct Answer
    C. Predominantly began with Descortes, looked at doubt and dualistic thinking; more specifically the machine-like body
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Predominantly began with Descartes, looked at doubt and dualistic thinking; more specifically the machine-like body." This explanation suggests that Descartes played a significant role in the acquisition of knowledge by focusing on doubt and dualistic thinking. He emphasized the separation of mind and body, viewing the body as a machine-like entity. This perspective influenced the understanding of knowledge acquisition by highlighting the importance of skepticism and rational analysis.

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  • 13. 

    Eugenics is best described by: 

    • A.

      The study of Ancient psychology and how Aristotles works contributed to modern-day psychology

    • B.

      Finding good humans and allowing them to reproduce and preventing those who are not-so-good from not reproducing

    • C.

      Looking at how everything that has a function, has a purpose

    • D.

      A view supported by the idea that humans are not unique, humans are related to many breeds of animals and have similar characteristics

    Correct Answer
    B. Finding good humans and allowing them to reproduce and preventing those who are not-so-good from not reproducing
    Explanation
    Eugenics is best described as the practice of selectively breeding humans in order to improve the genetic quality of the population. This involves encouraging individuals who are considered to have desirable traits to reproduce, while discouraging or preventing those with undesirable traits from reproducing. The aim is to create a population with more desirable characteristics and to eliminate or reduce the presence of undesirable traits.

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  • 14. 

    Trephination is the drilling into a skull to release pressure within the brain 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Trephination is a surgical procedure that involves drilling or cutting a hole into the skull to relieve pressure within the brain. This procedure has been practiced for thousands of years and was used to treat various conditions such as head injuries, skull fractures, and certain neurological disorders. By creating an opening in the skull, trephination allows excess fluid or blood to drain, reducing pressure and potentially preventing further damage to the brain. Therefore, the statement "Trephination is the drilling into a skull to release pressure within the brain" is true.

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  • 15. 

    The moral treatment of mentally-ill patients was first encouraged by ______ and their retreat in York. 

    • A.

      Tuke

    • B.

      Pinel

    • C.

      Dixon

    • D.

      Kraepelin

    • E.

      Moniz

    Correct Answer
    A. Tuke
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Tuke. The moral treatment of mentally-ill patients was first encouraged by Tuke and their retreat in York. This suggests that Tuke played a significant role in promoting a more humane and compassionate approach towards the treatment of mentally-ill individuals. The retreat in York likely refers to the York Retreat, a pioneering institution founded by Tuke in the 18th century, which focused on providing moral and therapeutic care for those suffering from mental illnesses.

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  • 16. 

    Animal magnetism was the defining feature of _____ research 

    • A.

      Galen

    • B.

      Emil Kraepelin

    • C.

      James Braid

    • D.

      Anton Mesmer

    Correct Answer
    D. Anton Mesmer
    Explanation
    Animal magnetism refers to a concept developed by Anton Mesmer, a German physician, in the 18th century. Mesmer believed that there was a magnetic fluid in the human body that could be manipulated to treat various illnesses. He conducted extensive research on this theory and became known for his use of mesmerism, a form of hypnotism, in his medical practice. Therefore, the correct answer is Anton Mesmer.

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  • 17. 

    Hypnosis was first discovered by 

    • A.

      William Tuke

    • B.

      James Braid

    • C.

      Anton Mesmer

    • D.

      Egas Moniz

    Correct Answer
    B. James Braid
    Explanation
    James Braid is credited with discovering hypnosis. He was a Scottish surgeon and is considered one of the pioneers in the field of hypnotherapy. Braid initially referred to hypnosis as "nervous sleep" and later coined the term "hypnosis" from the Greek word "hypnos," meaning sleep. Braid's research and experiments laid the foundation for the modern understanding and practice of hypnosis.

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  • 18. 

    ______ was the first psychologist to distinguish the difference between Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. (depressive psychosis from dementia praecox) 

    • A.

      William Tuke

    • B.

      Anton Mesmer

    • C.

      Emil Kraepelin

    • D.

      Egas moniz

    Correct Answer
    C. Emil Kraepelin
    Explanation
    Emil Kraepelin was the first psychologist to distinguish the difference between Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. He made significant contributions in the field of psychiatry and is considered one of the founders of modern scientific psychiatry. Kraepelin's work involved extensive research and classification of mental disorders, and he classified schizophrenia as "dementia praecox" and distinguished it from other disorders such as Bipolar disorder. His work laid the foundation for understanding and diagnosing various psychiatric conditions, including the differentiation between Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

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  • 19. 

    _______ was the first scientist to propose the lobotomy technique 

    • A.

      Emil Kraepelin

    • B.

      William Tuke

    • C.

      James Braid

    • D.

      Egas moniz

    Correct Answer
    D. Egas moniz
    Explanation
    Egas Moniz was the first scientist to propose the lobotomy technique. He developed the procedure in the 1930s as a treatment for mental disorders, particularly severe cases of schizophrenia and depression. Moniz believed that by severing the connections between the prefrontal cortex and other parts of the brain, he could alleviate symptoms and improve patients' mental health. Although lobotomy was initially seen as a breakthrough in psychiatric treatment, its use declined over time due to ethical concerns and the development of more effective and less invasive therapies.

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  • 20. 

    Phrenology; studied by Gall and Spurzheim is the study of depressions and gaps in the skull to diagnose internal problems within the brain. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phrenology, studied by Gall and Spurzheim, is indeed the study of depressions and gaps in the skull to diagnose internal problems within the brain. This pseudoscience was popular in the 19th century, proposing that specific areas of the brain are responsible for different personality traits and abilities. Phrenologists believed that by examining the shape and size of these skull irregularities, they could determine a person's character and mental faculties. However, modern science has discredited phrenology as it lacks empirical evidence and is based on unfounded assumptions.

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  • 21. 

    The idea that specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific functions 

    • A.

      Functional theory

    • B.

      Area of localization

    • C.

      Flourens theory

    • D.

      Structualism

    Correct Answer
    B. Area of localization
    Explanation
    Area of localization refers to the concept that specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific functions. This theory suggests that different regions of the brain have distinct roles and perform specific tasks. It contrasts with other theories such as Flourens theory, which proposed that the entire brain works as a whole and cannot be divided into specific functional areas. Functional theory and structuralism are also related to the study of brain functions but do not specifically address the concept of localization.

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  • 22. 

    Fritsch and Hitzig studied area of localization in dogs via electrical stimulations to the brain

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fritsch and Hitzig conducted a study to investigate the localization of brain functions in dogs. They used electrical stimulation to the brain as a method to gather data. Therefore, the statement that Fritsch and Hitzig studied the area of localization in dogs via electrical stimulations to the brain is true.

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  • 23. 

    _____ is the school of study most predominantly founded by Ernst Weber and Herman von Helmholtz and looks at how physical stimuli correlate to non-physical thoughts 

    • A.

      Psychophysics

    • B.

      Psychoanalysis

    • C.

      Voluntarism

    • D.

      Structualism

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychophysics
    Explanation
    Psychophysics is the correct answer because it is the school of study that primarily focuses on the correlation between physical stimuli and non-physical thoughts. Ernst Weber and Herman von Helmholtz were influential figures in the development of psychophysics, which explores the relationship between the mind and the physical world. This field examines how our sensory experiences, such as perception and cognition, are influenced by external stimuli. Psychoanalysis, voluntarism, and structuralism are not directly related to the study of physical stimuli and non-physical thoughts, making them incorrect options.

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  • 24. 

    The scientist that is most well known for the idea of "Just Noticeable Difference" is _____ 

    • A.

      Ernst Weber

    • B.

      Herman Von Helmholtz

    • C.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • D.

      William James

    Correct Answer
    A. Ernst Weber
    Explanation
    Ernst Weber is the correct answer because he is the scientist most well known for the idea of "Just Noticeable Difference." This concept, also known as Weber's Law, states that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus intensity is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus. Weber's work in psychophysics laid the foundation for the study of sensory perception and the understanding of thresholds in human perception.

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  • 25. 

    The scientist that is most well known for their Trichromatic colour theory is _______

    • A.

      Ernst Weber

    • B.

      William James

    • C.

      William Wundt

    • D.

      Hemran Von Helmholtz

    Correct Answer
    D. Hemran Von Helmholtz
    Explanation
    Hermann von Helmholtz is the correct answer because he is widely recognized for his Trichromatic color theory. This theory states that the human eye has three types of color receptors, each sensitive to a different range of wavelengths. Helmholtz's research and experiments on color vision greatly contributed to our understanding of how humans perceive and interpret colors. His work laid the foundation for the modern understanding of color vision and had a significant impact on the field of psychology.

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  • 26. 

    Wilhelm Wundt and William James are both arguably the founders of psychology 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Wilhelm Wundt and William James are widely recognized as the founders of psychology. Wundt, a German psychologist, established the first psychological laboratory in 1879, where he conducted experiments and emphasized the importance of introspection. James, an American psychologist, published "The Principles of Psychology" in 1890, which became a seminal work in the field. Both Wundt and James made significant contributions to the development of psychology as a scientific discipline, making the statement true.

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  • 27. 

    Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung both were great supporters of the ___________ school of psychology 

    • A.

      Behaviourism

    • B.

      Psychodynamics

    • C.

      Psychoanalysis

    • D.

      Psychophysics

    Correct Answer
    C. Psychoanalysis
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were both great supporters of the psychoanalysis school of psychology. Psychoanalysis is a psychological approach that focuses on the unconscious mind, childhood experiences, and the importance of dreams and fantasies in shaping behavior. Freud and Jung were influential figures in developing and promoting psychoanalytic theories and methods, such as dream analysis and the concept of the unconscious. They believed that understanding and resolving unconscious conflicts and desires were key to psychological well-being.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following was not one of Sigmund Freud's proposed ideas 

    • A.

      The role of the unconcious processes on the whole being

    • B.

      The important of dreams

    • C.

      Free association

    • D.

      Archetypes

    Correct Answer
    D. Archetypes
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud proposed several ideas, including the role of unconscious processes on the whole being, the importance of dreams, and free association. However, archetypes were not one of his proposed ideas. Archetypes are a concept developed by Carl Jung, a contemporary of Freud, and are not directly associated with Freud's theories.

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  • 29. 

    Which scientist proposed the importance of Extraversion-introversion 

    • A.

      Carl Jung

    • B.

      Sigmund Freud

    • C.

      Aldred Adler

    • D.

      Karen Horney

    Correct Answer
    A. Carl Jung
    Explanation
    Carl Jung proposed the importance of extraversion-introversion. He developed the concept of extraversion and introversion as fundamental personality traits. According to Jung, extraversion is characterized by an outgoing and social nature, while introversion is characterized by a more inward and reflective nature. Jung believed that understanding these personality traits is crucial in understanding an individual's behavior, motivations, and interactions with others.

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  • 30. 

    Which branch of psychology can best be represented by the idea that: The whole is more than the sum of its parts

    • A.

      Psychphysics

    • B.

      Gestalt

    • C.

      Psychoanalytic

    • D.

      Behaviourism

    • E.

      Cognitive

    Correct Answer
    B. Gestalt
    Explanation
    Gestalt psychology is the branch of psychology that best represents the idea that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts." Gestalt psychologists focus on how people perceive and interpret information as a whole rather than breaking it down into individual components. They believe that our perception is influenced by the organization and patterns we perceive in our environment. This perspective emphasizes the importance of context and the interconnectedness of different elements in understanding human behavior and cognition.

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  • 31. 

    The phi phenomenon is hearing sounds when there is none 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Seeing motion in still objects

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following scientists was not part of behavioural psychology

    • A.

      Kohler and his chimps

    • B.

      Thorndike and his cats

    • C.

      Carl Jung and his archetypes

    • D.

      Solomon Asch and conformity lines

    • E.

      Stanley Milgram and his obediance to authority

    Correct Answer
    C. Carl Jung and his archetypes
  • 33. 

    A prominent member of the cognitive revolution was 

    • A.

      Noam Chomsky

    • B.

      Kurt Lewins

    • C.

      Stanley Milgram

    • D.

      Skinner

    Correct Answer
    A. Noam Chomsky
    Explanation
    Noam Chomsky is considered a prominent member of the cognitive revolution because of his influential work in the field of linguistics. Chomsky proposed the theory of Universal Grammar, which suggests that humans are born with an innate ability to acquire language. This theory challenged the behaviorist view of language acquisition and emphasized the role of mental processes and innate knowledge in language development. Chomsky's ideas had a significant impact on the field of psychology and contributed to the shift towards studying cognitive processes and mental representations.

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  • 34. 

    Kurt lewins equation for social behaviour can best be described as:  With B = behaviour, P = Person, E = Environment 

    • A.

      B = E - P

    • B.

      B = P - E

    • C.

      B = f(P, E)

    • D.

      B = f(P - E)

    Correct Answer
    C. B = f(P, E)
    Explanation
    Kurt Lewin's equation for social behavior is best described as B = f(P, E) because it recognizes that behavior is a function of both the person and the environment. This equation acknowledges that individuals' behavior is influenced by their personal characteristics as well as the external factors and circumstances they are in. By considering both the person and the environment, this equation provides a more comprehensive understanding of social behavior.

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  • 35. 

    Which psychologist emphasised the importance of unconditional positive regard? 

    • A.

      Watson

    • B.

      Asch

    • C.

      Maslow

    • D.

      Rogers

    • E.

      Freud

    Correct Answer
    D. Rogers
    Explanation
    Carl Rogers is the psychologist who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard refers to showing acceptance, support, and empathy towards individuals without any judgment or conditions. Rogers believed that providing unconditional positive regard is essential for fostering personal growth, self-acceptance, and psychological well-being. He believed that individuals thrive when they receive genuine love, acceptance, and understanding from others, allowing them to develop a positive self-concept and reach their full potential.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following psychologists discussed the zone of proximal development in their work 

    • A.

      Piaget

    • B.

      Vygotsky

    • C.

      Erikson

    • D.

      Chomsky

    Correct Answer
    B. Vygotsky
    Explanation
    Vygotsky is the correct answer because he was the psychologist who discussed the zone of proximal development in his work. The zone of proximal development refers to the range of tasks that a learner can perform with the guidance and support of a more knowledgeable individual. Vygotsky believed that learning occurs through social interactions and that the zone of proximal development is an important concept in understanding how individuals acquire new knowledge and skills.

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  • 37. 

    Social psychology emerged from the _______ school and includes ________ as one of its important researchers.

    • A.

      Humanistic; Milgram

    • B.

      Gestalt; Asch

    • C.

      Behaviourist; Tolman

    • D.

      Cognitive; Bartlett

    Correct Answer
    B. Gestalt; Asch
    Explanation
    Gestalt psychology focuses on the study of perception and how individuals perceive and interpret the world around them. Solomon Asch was an important researcher in social psychology, particularly known for his studies on conformity. Asch's experiments demonstrated the influence of social pressure on individuals' judgments and decision-making processes. Therefore, the correct answer is Gestalt; Asch.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following was not a cognitive psychologist 

    • A.

      Ebbinghaus; constructivism and nonsense syllabuls

    • B.

      Bartlett; Memory is a process of active construction

    • C.

      Chomsky; More occuring in the brain than simply behaviour

    • D.

      Watson; Little Albert experiment

    Correct Answer
    D. Watson; Little Albert experiment
    Explanation
    Watson is the correct answer because he was not a cognitive psychologist. He was a behaviorist who conducted the famous Little Albert experiment, which focused on classical conditioning and the role of fear in behavior. Cognitive psychologists, on the other hand, study mental processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving.

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  • 39. 

    Cartesian dualism refers to the idea that:

    • A.

      Because we can doubt, we can be sure we are real.

    • B.

      we have a material body and an immaterial mind.

    • C.

      eugenics has both a positive and negative aspect

    • D.

      we are born blank slates and nature writes on that slate through experience.

    Correct Answer
    B. we have a material body and an immaterial mind.
    Explanation
    The concept of Cartesian dualism, proposed by philosopher René Descartes, suggests that humans possess both a physical body and a non-physical mind or soul. This view asserts that the mind and body are distinct entities, with the mind being immaterial and the body being material. Descartes argued that because we can doubt and think, we can be certain of our existence as thinking beings. This dualistic perspective separates the mental and physical aspects of human existence, implying that the mind can exist independently of the body.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is not correct?

    • A.

      Anton Mesmer believed hypnosis could cure people of various ailments.

    • B.

      William Tuke proposed moral treatment for the mentally ill, and ran the York Retreat where patients were treated more humanely than in asylums.

    • C.

      Emil Kraepelin distinguished manic depressive psychosis from dementia praecox.

    • D.

      Egas Moniz won the Nobel prize in 1949 for developing the lobotomy technique.

    • E.

      Dorthea Dix was an American activist who worked for the humane treatment of the insane.

    Correct Answer
    A. Anton Mesmer believed hypnosis could cure people of various ailments.
    Explanation
    Anton Mesmer believed hypnosis could cure people of various ailments. This statement is not correct because although Mesmer was known for his work in hypnosis, his ideas and practices were later discredited and considered pseudoscience. Mesmer believed in a concept called "animal magnetism" and used techniques such as "mesmerism" to induce a trance-like state in patients. However, his theories and methods were not based on scientific evidence and are not considered valid in modern psychology and medicine.

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  • 41. 

    The _____________ school sought to ______________.

    • A.

      Behaviourist; understand the mind using a computational metaphor

    • B.

      Gestalt; emphasize the importance of unconscious drives

    • C.

      Humanist; restore power to the individual

    • D.

      Gestalt; use introspection to identify the basic elements of our perceptions

    Correct Answer
    C. Humanist; restore power to the individual
    Explanation
    The humanist school of thought aimed to empower individuals by emphasizing their personal agency and potential. This approach rejected the deterministic views of behaviorism and instead focused on the unique qualities and capabilities of each individual. Humanists believed in the importance of self-actualization and personal growth, and sought to restore power and autonomy to the individual.

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  • 42. 

    Milgram's ________ research showed that _________.

    • A.

      Conformity; some people will conform to an erroneous group's judgment even when the correct answer is obvious

    • B.

      Obedience to authority; all subjects will keep shocking someone when told to do so by an authority figure

    • C.

      obedience to authority; we can all be cruel and inhumane

    • D.

      Both B and C

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "None of the above". This means that neither the option about conformity nor the option about obedience to authority accurately represents Milgram's research. The explanation for this answer could be that Milgram's research focused on obedience to authority, specifically studying how individuals would obey orders to administer electric shocks to another person, even when it went against their own moral judgment. The research did not suggest that all subjects would continue to shock someone when told to do so by an authority figure, nor did it imply that we can all be cruel and inhumane.

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