Pns Planning Quiz No.03

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Pns Planning Quiz No.03 - Quiz

Today we’ll be taking a look at the topic of regional planning, which deals with the efficient placement of land-use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a large area of land. What do you know about it?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is a Region?

    • A.

      Region refers to a city or central place plus the outlying territories that are functionally integrated with it.

    • B.

      Region is based on natural/physical as well as economic/ political relationships between urban areas and its surrounding rural territories

    • C.

      Economic linkages

    • D.

      Nfrastructure linkages

    • E.

      All of the Choices

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the Choices
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that a region is defined as a city or central place along with its surrounding territories that are functionally integrated with it. This integration is based on both natural/physical relationships and economic/political relationships between urban areas and rural territories. Economic linkages and infrastructure linkages play a crucial role in defining a region. Therefore, all of the choices listed in the question are correct explanations of what a region is.

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  • 2. 

    Is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. It concerns planning for a sub-national territory with known scale (size) and extent (scope), normally a contiguous area whose parts have common orcomplementary characteristics and are linked byintensive interaction or flows

    • A.

      Regional Planning

    • B.

      Town Planning

    • C.

      City Planning

    • D.

      Provincial Planning

    Correct Answer
    A. Regional Planning
    Explanation
    Regional planning is a branch of land use planning that focuses on efficiently organizing land use activities, infrastructure, and settlement growth across a larger area than just one city or town. It involves planning for a sub-national territory with a known size and scope, typically an interconnected area with common or complementary characteristics. Regional planning takes into account the intensive interaction and flows between different parts of the region to ensure coordinated and sustainable development.

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  • 3. 

    Aspects of Regional Planning. except one

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Economic

    • C.

      Social

    • D.

      Cultural

    • E.

      Environmental

    • F.

      Natural

    Correct Answer
    F. Natural
    Explanation
    The given list consists of aspects of regional planning, and the correct answer is "Natural." This means that all the other aspects mentioned (Physical, Economic, Social, Cultural, Environmental) are considered in regional planning, but the natural aspect is not. Regional planning typically focuses on the human-made aspects of a region, such as infrastructure, economy, social needs, and cultural considerations. Natural aspects, on the other hand, generally refer to the existing natural resources, ecosystems, and biodiversity of a region, which may not always be the primary focus of regional planning.

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  • 4. 

    Geographical area which displays a certain functional coherence, an interdependence of parts, defined on the basis of certain criteria;

    • A.

      Functional Region

    • B.

      Economic Region

    • C.

      Natural Region

    • D.

      Bio-Region

    Correct Answer
    A. Functional Region
    Explanation
    A functional region is a geographical area that exhibits a certain functional coherence and interdependence of its parts, based on specific criteria. This means that the region is defined by the interactions and relationships between its different components, such as economic activities, transportation networks, or social systems. Unlike natural regions, which are defined by physical features like climate or landforms, or economic regions, which focus solely on economic activities, functional regions consider a broader range of factors that contribute to the overall functioning and interconnectedness of the area. A functional region can be thought of as a system where different elements work together to fulfill specific functions or purposes.

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  • 5. 

    Bound by economic linkages, interflows of factorsand materials, inputs-and outputs. Regions are often carvedout by Trans-National Corporations and other agents of Globalizationby their interlinking of industrial clusters, districts, zones and ports.

    • A.

      Economic Region

    • B.

      Natural Region

    • C.

      Functional Region

    • D.

      Bio-Region

    Correct Answer
    A. Economic Region
    Explanation
    The given passage describes how regions are formed through economic linkages, interflows of factors and materials, and the interlinking of industrial clusters, districts, zones, and ports by Trans-National Corporations and other agents of globalization. This suggests that the correct answer is "Economic Region," as the passage emphasizes the role of economic activities and connections in defining and shaping regions.

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  • 6. 

    A geographic area of interdependent ecosystems and natural communities (this will be discussed in subsequent sessions under Ecosystem-Based Planning)

    • A.

      Natural Region

    • B.

      Economic Region

    • C.

      Functional Region

    • D.

      Bio-Region

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural Region
    Explanation
    A natural region refers to a geographic area that consists of interdependent ecosystems and natural communities. It is a region where the various elements of the environment are closely connected and interact with each other. This concept will be further explored in subsequent sessions under Ecosystem-Based Planning.

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  • 7. 

    Types of Natural Region that interdependence and natural connectedness of ecosystems and their communities

    • A.

      Bio-Region

    • B.

      Eco-Region

    • C.

      Economic Region

    • D.

      Functional Region

    • E.

      Historic Region

    Correct Answer
    B. Eco-Region
    Explanation
    An eco-region refers to a specific geographic area characterized by its distinct ecological features, such as climate, soil, and vegetation. It emphasizes the interdependence and natural connectedness of ecosystems and their communities within that region. Eco-regions are defined by their unique combination of flora, fauna, and ecological processes, and they play a crucial role in promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Unlike other types of regions listed, such as economic or historic regions, eco-regions focus specifically on the natural environment and its ecological relationships.

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  • 8. 

    Father of Town planning in western civilization

    • A.

      Hippodamus of Melitus

    • B.

      Frederic Law Olmstead Sr.

    • C.

      Daniel H. Burnham

    • D.

      Abercrombie

    Correct Answer
    A. Hippodamus of Melitus
    Explanation
    Hippodamus of Melitus is considered the father of town planning in western civilization. He was an ancient Greek architect and urban planner who introduced the concept of gridiron planning, which involved organizing cities into a grid-like pattern of streets and blocks. This approach to urban planning became the foundation for many cities in the western world. Hippodamus also emphasized the importance of public spaces and the separation of different functions within a city, such as residential, commercial, and civic areas. His ideas and principles have had a significant influence on urban planning throughout history.

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  • 9. 

    Region as Network: the model for ‘growth polygons’ New strategies treat Regions as alternatives to markets and hierarchies. except one

    • A.

      Self-organizing

    • B.

      Collaborative

    • C.

      Non-hierarchical

    • D.

      Flexible

    • E.

      Topological spatiality

    • F.

      Consultation

    Correct Answer
    F. Consultation
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Consultation," does not fit with the other characteristics listed in the question. The model for "growth polygons" treats regions as alternatives to markets and hierarchies, emphasizing self-organizing, collaborative, non-hierarchical, flexible, and topological spatiality. Consultation, on the other hand, suggests a more consultative or advisory approach, which does not align with the other characteristics of the model.

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  • 10. 

    Under Theoretical Basis for Regional Development, The reduction of regional disparities in terms of supply and demand of factors of production (labor, capital, technology) through increase in accessibility between regions towards mobility of production factors and commodities. Also, Reduction of regional gap through acceleration of growth in the leading region and encouraging migration of unemployed and low productivity laborto this region from lagging regions.

    • A.

      Neo-Classical Economics

    • B.

      Agriculture vs Industry Debate (Balanced vs Unbalanced Growth)

    • C.

      Rural vs Urban Development

    • D.

      Centralization vs Decentralization

    Correct Answer
    A. Neo-Classical Economics
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, Neo-Classical Economics, is that it focuses on the efficient allocation of resources and the role of markets in driving economic growth. It emphasizes the importance of free trade, competition, and entrepreneurship in promoting regional development. Neo-Classical economists argue that reducing regional disparities can be achieved through policies that promote investment, innovation, and technological progress. They also emphasize the need for balanced growth across sectors, such as agriculture and industry, and the importance of rural and urban development. Centralization versus decentralization is also a key consideration in Neo-Classical Economics, as it examines the optimal level of government intervention in regional development.

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  • 11. 

    Theories of regional planning by Francois Perroux:______A spatial agglomeration of related industries which contains a growing number of propulsive firms, which, through their expansion, induce growth in the surrounding hinterland.

    • A.

      Growth Pole

    • B.

      Growth Center

    • C.

      Regional growth center

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Growth Pole
    Explanation
    Francois Perroux's theories of regional planning propose the concept of a "growth pole." According to Perroux, a growth pole is a spatial agglomeration of related industries that includes a increasing number of propulsive firms. These propulsive firms, through their expansion and development, stimulate growth in the surrounding hinterland or region. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "Growth Pole."

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  • 12. 

    Social systems are not self-equilibrating (Circular and cumulative causation). Attention going back to core region; retards growth and widens economic gap between regions

    • A.

      Backwash effect

    • B.

      Spread effects

    • C.

      Backward effects

    • D.

      None of the Choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Backwash effect
    Explanation
    The backwash effect refers to the negative impact that occurs when economic development in one region leads to the concentration of resources and attention in that region, causing other regions to lag behind. This effect can widen the economic gap between regions and hinder overall growth. In the context of social systems, this means that social systems are not self-equilibrating and do not naturally balance themselves out. Instead, there is a circular and cumulative causation where attention and resources flow towards the core region, creating a backwash effect on other regions.

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  • 13. 

    Positive effects initially felt e.g. raw materials but backwash is stronger.

    • A.

      Backwash effect

    • B.

      Spread effects

    • C.

      Backward effect

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    B. Spread effects
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Spread effects." This refers to the positive impacts that are initially experienced, such as the availability of raw materials, but eventually result in negative consequences. The term "backwash" suggests that these negative effects are stronger and more significant than the initial positive effects. Therefore, "Spread effects" best captures this concept of positive effects followed by a stronger negative impact.

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  • 14. 

    Under theory of cumulative causation: Outputs or sales from one intermediate firm/industry is maximally utilized by another firm/industry.

    • A.

      Forward linkage

    • B.

      Backward linkage

    • C.

      Linkage

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Forward linkage
    Explanation
    Under the theory of cumulative causation, forward linkage refers to the concept that outputs or sales from one intermediate firm/industry are maximally utilized by another firm/industry. This means that the products or services produced by one firm/industry are used as inputs by another firm/industry, creating a chain of interdependence and promoting economic growth and development. Forward linkage is an important factor in stimulating industrialization and creating a strong and interconnected economy.

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  • 15. 

    Theory of cumulative causation: Factors of production or intermediary inputs from one firm/industry is maximally utilized by another firm/industry

    • A.

      Backward linkage

    • B.

      Forward linkage

    • C.

      Linkage

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Backward linkage
    Explanation
    Backward linkage refers to the interdependence between industries where one industry relies on the products or services provided by another industry as inputs for its own production. In the context of the theory of cumulative causation, backward linkage suggests that factors of production or intermediary inputs from one firm or industry are maximally utilized by another firm or industry. This implies that the success or growth of one industry can have a positive impact on the growth and development of other industries that are connected to it through the backward linkage.

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  • 16. 

    Theory of Uneven Development (Center-Down Paradigm) :Happens in the early stages of economic growth. As polarization becomes unfavorable, “trickle down” effect willstart.

    • A.

      Polarization

    • B.

      Trickle down effect”

    • C.

      Polarized

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Polarization
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Polarization". The theory of uneven development states that in the early stages of economic growth, polarization occurs. This means that there is a widening gap between the rich and the poor, leading to an unequal distribution of wealth. As this polarization becomes unfavorable, the "trickle down" effect is expected to start. This refers to the belief that as the rich accumulate more wealth, it will eventually "trickle down" to the poorer sections of society through increased investment, job creation, and economic opportunities.

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  • 17. 

    Economic growth would occur through a highly developed andinterconnected functional hierarchy of cities and towns and suchgrowth is proportional to the size of agglomeration. by John Friedmann in 1978

    • A.

      Core-Periphery Model

    • B.

      Industrial Linkage Model

    • C.

      Hierarchical Diffusion Model

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Core-Periphery Model
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that economic growth is dependent on the development and interconnectivity of cities and towns. This aligns with the concept of the Core-Periphery Model, which states that economic activities are concentrated in the core regions while the periphery regions are less developed and dependent on the core. The statement also mentions the importance of agglomeration, which refers to the concentration of economic activities in specific areas. Therefore, the Core-Periphery Model best explains the given statement.

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  • 18. 

    4 stages of growth of Core-Periphery Model. except one.

    • A.

      Stage 1: Preindustrial Economy.

    • B.

      Stage 2: Transitional Economy.

    • C.

      Stage 3: Industrial Economy.

    • D.

      Stage 4: Post-Industrial Economy.

    • E.

      Stage 5: Agri-Industrial Economy.

    Correct Answer
    E. Stage 5: Agri-Industrial Economy.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Stage 5: Agri-Industrial Economy. The Core-Periphery Model is a theory that explains the spatial organization of economic systems. It suggests that there is a core region that is developed and industrialized, while the periphery regions are less developed and rely on the core for resources and economic growth. The stages of growth in the Core-Periphery Model include a preindustrial economy, transitional economy, industrial economy, and post-industrial economy. The inclusion of Stage 5: Agri-Industrial Economy does not fit with the traditional stages of development outlined in the model.

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  • 19. 

    Under Stages of Growth of Core-Periphery Model, Country has a number of relativelyindependent local centres, each serving a small region. No hierarchy

    • A.

      Stage 1: Preindustrial Economy.

    • B.

      Stage 2: Transitional Economy.

    • C.

      Stage 3: Industrial Economy.

    • D.

      Stage 4: Post-Industrial Economy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Stage 1: Preindustrial Economy.
    Explanation
    In the preindustrial economy stage of the Core-Periphery Model, the country consists of several local centers that operate independently and serve small regions. There is no hierarchy or centralized control in this stage. This means that each local center has its own economic activities and resources, without significant integration or coordination with other regions. This stage is characterized by traditional and agrarian-based economies, with limited industrialization and technological advancements.

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  • 20. 

    Elements of Sustainable Development. except one

    • A.

      Intra-generational Equity

    • B.

      Inter-generational Equity

    • C.

      Biogeographic Equity

    • D.

      Spatial Equity

    • E.

      Social Equity

    Correct Answer
    E. Social Equity
    Explanation
    Social equity refers to the fair distribution of resources, opportunities, and benefits among all members of society, regardless of their social or economic status. It aims to ensure that everyone has equal access to education, healthcare, employment, and other essential services. In the context of sustainable development, social equity is important because it promotes inclusivity and reduces inequality, which are crucial for creating a just and sustainable society. Therefore, social equity is an essential element of sustainable development.

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  • 21. 

    It is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” – Bruntland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

    • A.

      Sustainable Development

    • B.

      Social Development

    • C.

      Community Development

    • D.

      Natural Development

    Correct Answer
    A. Sustainable Development
    Explanation
    Sustainable development refers to the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This concept, as defined by the Bruntland Commission, emphasizes the importance of balancing economic growth, social progress, and environmental protection. It recognizes the interconnectedness between economic, social, and environmental factors and aims to ensure that development is carried out in a way that is sustainable in the long term. This means considering the impacts of current actions on future generations and making choices that promote the well-being of both present and future populations.

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  • 22. 

    Elements of Sustainable Development that balance among diverse ecosystem in terms of human use and treatment.

    • A.

      Biogeographic Equity

    • B.

      Inter-generational Equity

    • C.

      Intra-generational Equity

    • D.

      Spatial Equity

    Correct Answer
    A. Biogeographic Equity
    Explanation
    Biogeographic Equity refers to the fair and equitable distribution of biological diversity across different regions and ecosystems. It ensures that all ecosystems and species are protected and conserved, regardless of their location or importance to human use. This element of sustainable development recognizes the interconnectedness of ecosystems and the need to balance human activities with the preservation of biodiversity. By promoting biogeographic equity, sustainable development aims to maintain the health and resilience of ecosystems while meeting the needs of present and future generations.

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  • 23. 

    Elements of Sustainable Development: Obligation to the future, to ensure future well-being, leave to future generations the capacity to be as well-off as we are

    • A.

      Inter-generational Equity

    • B.

      Intra-generational Equity

    • C.

      Biogeographic Equity

    • D.

      Spatial Equity

    Correct Answer
    A. Inter-generational Equity
    Explanation
    Inter-generational equity refers to the fair distribution of resources and benefits between different generations. It emphasizes the responsibility of the current generation to ensure the well-being and sustainability of future generations. This concept recognizes that our actions today can have long-term impacts on future generations and highlights the importance of considering their needs and interests in decision-making processes. By practicing inter-generational equity, we can strive to leave a world that is as prosperous and sustainable for future generations as it is for us.

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  • 24. 

    Three Schools of Thought in Socio-Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation

    • A.

      Increase Income

    • B.

      Meet Needs

    • C.

      Build Capacities

    • D.

      None of the choices

    • E.

      All of the choices except none

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the choices except none
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the choices except none". This means that all three schools of thought in socio-economic development and poverty alleviation - increasing income, meeting needs, and building capacities - are valid approaches to address poverty. Each of these approaches plays a crucial role in improving the lives of individuals and communities. Increasing income helps to uplift people out of poverty by providing them with better economic opportunities. Meeting needs focuses on ensuring basic necessities such as food, shelter, and healthcare are met. Building capacities involves investing in education, skills training, and infrastructure development to empower individuals and communities to sustainably improve their living conditions.

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  • 25. 

    Spontaneous and inevitable process of development of backward areas because of pulls in input demand from developed regions.

    • A.

      “Trickle down effect”

    • B.

      ‘Polarization’

    • C.

      ‘Polarize

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. “Trickle down effect”
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Trickle down effect". This term refers to the idea that economic growth and development in a country or region will eventually benefit all members of society, including those in backward or underdeveloped areas. The concept suggests that as wealth and investment accumulate in developed regions, it will gradually "trickle down" to less developed areas through increased demand for goods and services, job creation, and improved infrastructure. This process is seen as spontaneous and inevitable, driven by the pull of input demand from developed regions.

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  • 26. 

    Philippine Strategies of “Concentrated Decentralization”

    • A.

      Regional Agro-Industrial Centers (Cory Aquino) and Regional Industrial Centers (FVR)

    • B.

      Growth Corridor

    • C.

      Industrial Estate

    • D.

      Special Economic Zone

    • E.

      Export Processing Zone

    • F.

      Balanced Countryside Agro-industrial Development (FVR)

    • G.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    G. All of the choices
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the choices" because all the strategies mentioned in the question - Regional Agro-Industrial Centers, Regional Industrial Centers, Growth Corridor, Industrial Estate, Special Economic Zone, Export Processing Zone, and Balanced Countryside Agro-industrial Development - are part of the Philippine strategy of "Concentrated Decentralization". These strategies aim to promote economic development and growth in different regions of the country by establishing specialized centers and zones for specific industries, thereby decentralizing economic activities away from the capital city.

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  • 27. 

    Regional Planning in the Philippines: ____means the promotion of new industries or the expansion of existing industries in areas outside of Metro Manila. These are selected urban centers having superior industrial potential and / or better infrastructure for accelerate industrial development. Other national development strategy of government sincelate seventies

    • A.

      National Industrial Policy

    • B.

      National Economical Policy

    • C.

      National Development Policy

    • D.

      National Infrastructure Policy

    Correct Answer
    A. National Industrial Policy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is National Industrial Policy because it refers to the promotion of new industries or the expansion of existing industries in areas outside of Metro Manila. This policy aims to develop selected urban centers with superior industrial potential and better infrastructure to accelerate industrial development. It is a part of the national development strategy of the government since the late seventies.

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  • 28. 

    Regional Planning in the Philippines: ____Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) of 1972 defined ‘regions’ in the Philippines

    • A.

      Presidential Decree No. 01

    • B.

      RA 001

    • C.

      Proclamation No.01

    • D.

      Executive Order No. 001

    Correct Answer
    A. Presidential Decree No. 01
    Explanation
    Presidential Decree No. 01 is the correct answer because it was the specific decree that established the Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) of 1972, which defined the regions in the Philippines. This decree was issued by the President of the Philippines and had the legal authority to implement the reorganization plan. The other options, such as RA 001, Proclamation No. 01, and Executive Order No. 001, do not specifically relate to the establishment of the regions or the IRP of 1972.

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  • 29. 

    Regional Planning in the Philippines: ____The objective of decongesting Metro Manila banned the location of new factories and plants within a 50-kilometer radius of Manila (Luneta), December 1973

    • A.

      Industrial Dispersal

    • B.

      Decentralization

    • C.

      Exurbanization

    • D.

      Decongestion

    Correct Answer
    A. Industrial Dispersal
    Explanation
    The objective of decongesting Metro Manila by banning the location of new factories and plants within a 50-kilometer radius suggests that the correct answer is Industrial Dispersal. This term refers to the dispersal or spreading out of industrial activities to different locations, away from a central area. By implementing this policy, the government aimed to reduce the concentration of industries in Metro Manila and promote their establishment in other regions of the Philippines.

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  • 30. 

    Consist of complex networks of research, production and marketingprocesses which take placein more than one country at any one time. Also, processes refer to human activities and social institutions that extend across national borders (Ostergaard-Nielsen)

    • A.

      Transnationalism

    • B.

      Transitional

    • C.

      Naionalism

    • D.

      None of the Choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Transnationalism
    Explanation
    The given answer, Transnationalism, is the correct choice because it aligns with the explanation provided. The explanation states that transnationalism refers to complex networks of research, production, and marketing processes that occur in multiple countries simultaneously. It also mentions that processes in this context refer to human activities and social institutions that extend across national borders. Therefore, Transnationalism is the most suitable term to describe the concept described in the explanation.

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  • 31. 

    Reduced cost of transportation and communication;increased flow of information, people, goods, services, andcapital; health improvement (WHO,

    • A.

      Positive Globalization

    • B.

      Negative Globalization

    • C.

      True Globalization

    • D.

      False Globalization

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive Globalization
    Explanation
    Positive globalization refers to the benefits and advantages that result from increased global interconnectedness. The reduced cost of transportation and communication allows for easier and faster movement of people, goods, services, and capital across borders. This increased flow of information and resources leads to economic growth, cultural exchange, and improved living standards. Additionally, positive globalization can also contribute to health improvement by facilitating the sharing of medical knowledge and resources.

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  • 32. 

    Increasing economic inequality both within andbetween countries; Structural Adjustment Programs, sanctionsgo in one direction making it difficult to impose on 1st worldnations.

    • A.

      Negative Globalization

    • B.

      Positive Globalization

    • C.

      True Globalization

    • D.

      False Globalization

    Correct Answer
    A. Negative Globalization
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it acknowledges the negative consequences of increasing economic inequality within and between countries. It also mentions the challenges of imposing structural adjustment programs and sanctions on developed nations. This highlights the uneven distribution of power and resources in the globalized world, which is a characteristic of negative globalization.

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  • 33. 

    WTO (2003) – global organization to promote free trade among member countries (with 146 member states). Globalism, Removal of barriers to free trade and closer integration of national economies (Stiglitz).Also, Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world (physical distance becomes less of a barrier to exchanges and movements of ideas, goods, people, and money)

    • A.

      Globalization

    • B.

      Worldwide

    • C.

      Globalism

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Globalization
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Globalization," is the correct choice because the explanation provided mentions the WTO as a global organization promoting free trade among member countries. It also refers to globalism and the removal of barriers to free trade, which are key aspects of globalization. Additionally, the explanation mentions the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world, further supporting the concept of globalization.

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  • 34. 

    Characterize relationship between one nation and anothernation or group of nations. Major Analytical Tool: Core-Periphery Model (Core industrialized countries were experiencing growth and economic development through the exploitation of the non-industrialized peripheral countries).World's nations divided into a core of wealthy nations which dominate a periphery of poor nations whose main function in the system is to provide cheap labor and raw materials to the core 

    • A.

      Dependency Theories

    • B.

      Globalization

    • C.

      Neo-Marxism

    • D.

      Neo-Classical

    Correct Answer
    A. Dependency Theories
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Dependency Theories. The explanation for this is that Dependency Theories focus on the relationship between wealthy and poor nations, with the core-periphery model being a key analytical tool used to understand this relationship. According to Dependency Theories, the core industrialized countries exploit the non-industrialized peripheral countries by extracting cheap labor and raw materials from them. This leads to a dependency relationship where the wealthy nations dominate and benefit from the poorer nations.

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  • 35. 

    Large companies dominated the world economy and were able to exploit poorer parts of the world. Baran argued that governments of poorer economies should intervene and prevent funds for development from being siphoned out of the country as profit. Unfortunately, these governments were either corrupt or lacked the power to prevent this exploitation

    • A.

      Neo-Marxism

    • B.

      Neo-Classical

    • C.

      Globalization

    • D.

      Dependency Theories

    Correct Answer
    A. Neo-Marxism
    Explanation
    Neo-Marxism is the correct answer because it aligns with Baran's argument that large companies dominated the world economy and exploited poorer parts of the world. Neo-Marxism focuses on the idea of class struggle and the exploitation of the working class by the capitalist class. Baran's suggestion that governments should intervene to prevent funds from being siphoned out of the country as profit reflects the neo-Marxist belief in the need for state intervention to address economic inequality and exploitation. Additionally, the mention of corrupt governments and lack of power to prevent exploitation further supports the neo-Marxist perspective on the role of power dynamics in economic systems.

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  • 36. 

    Economic growth to exist requires free competitive market to achieve efficient allocation of resources (reducing state intervention and allowing the market set prices and wages)

    • A.

      Liberal Theories (Neo-classical Theories)

    • B.

      Neo-Marxism

    • C.

      Dependency Theories

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Liberal Theories (Neo-classical Theories)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Liberal Theories (Neo-classical Theories). This is because liberal theories advocate for free markets and minimal state intervention in the economy. They argue that economic growth can only be achieved through the efficient allocation of resources, which is best achieved through market mechanisms such as price and wage setting. Neo-classical theories, which are a subset of liberal theories, emphasize the importance of free competition in the market for economic growth to exist.

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  • 37. 

    Development to occur: Requires developed countries to aid developing countries to learn from their own progress and grow faster than developed countries. Large transfers of money, technology, and expertise. Aid – a transfer of resources on concessional terms (more generous or “softer” than loans obtainable in the world’s capital market; grants, loans, technical advise, transfer of resources

    • A.

      Modernization Theory

    • B.

      Neo-Marxism

    • C.

      Neo-Classical

    • D.

      Dependency Theories

    Correct Answer
    A. Modernization Theory
    Explanation
    The Modernization Theory argues that for development to occur, developed countries need to assist developing countries by sharing their progress and helping them grow at a faster rate than the developed countries themselves. This assistance can be in the form of large transfers of money, technology, and expertise. Aid, which refers to the transfer of resources on concessional terms, such as grants, loans, and technical advice, is seen as crucial in promoting development according to the Modernization Theory.

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  • 38. 

    Walt Rostow (1960) introduced the five stages of growth, which one is stage no. 3?

    • A.

      Take off

    • B.

      Traditional Society

    • C.

      Pre-conditioning

    • D.

      Drive to Maturity

    • E.

      Maturity

    Correct Answer
    A. Take off
    Explanation
    Walt Rostow (1960) introduced the five stages of growth
    Stage 1: Traditional Society
    Stage 2: Pre-conditioning
    Stage 3: Take off
    Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
    Stage 5: Maturity

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  • 39. 

    Walt Rostow (1960) introduced the five stages of growth, which one is stage no. 5?

    • A.

      Maturity

    • B.

      Drive to Maturity

    • C.

      Take off

    • D.

      Pre-conditioning

    • E.

      Traditional Society

    Correct Answer
    A. Maturity
    Explanation
    Walt Rostow (1960) introduced the five stages of growth
    Stage 1: Traditional Society
    Stage 2: Pre-conditioning
    Stage 3: Take off
    Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
    Stage 5: Maturity

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  • 40. 

    Under Classical Theory: Economic growth explained by the level of savings and productivity of capital. National savings as a source of capital. Need to focus on capital formation; more investments result to more growth

    • A.

      Harrod-Domar Model

    • B.

      Albert Hirschman

    • C.

      W. Arthur Lewis

    • D.

      Walt Rostow

    Correct Answer
    A. Harrod-Domar Model
    Explanation
    Walt Rostow (1960) - introduced the five stages of growth
    W. Arthur Lewis - Structural Change Model
    Albert Hirschman (1958) - Spatial Dimensions

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  • 41. 

    Under Classical Theory: Developing countries gained independence. IMF, WB and GATT were created to promote stable economic growth within a capitalist system

    • A.

      Post-War Reconstruction (1945-1960)

    • B.

      Harrod-Domar Model (1946)

    • C.

      Linear Stages Theory

    • D.

      Structural Change Model – W. Arthur Lewis

    Correct Answer
    A. Post-War Reconstruction (1945-1960)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Post-War Reconstruction (1945-1960). This period refers to the time after World War II when countries were focused on rebuilding their economies and infrastructure. The creation of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB), and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was part of the effort to promote stability and economic growth within a capitalist system. The Harrod-Domar Model, Linear Stages Theory, and Structural Change Model by W. Arthur Lewis were all economic theories that emerged during this post-war reconstruction period to guide development strategies.

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  • 42. 

    Under Classical Theory: Driver of economic growth is real investment (investment in new infrastructure projects tocreate more jobs and generate wealth rather than replacement). Savings is equated with investment (government regulation of interest rates such that adjusting interest rates can hasten economic growth)

    • A.

      John Maynard Keynes

    • B.

      David Ricardo

    • C.

      Adam Smith

    • D.

      Harrod-Domar Model

    Correct Answer
    A. John Maynard Keynes
    Explanation
    John Maynard Keynes is the correct answer because his economic theories challenged the classical theory's belief that savings and investment are always in equilibrium. Keynes argued that government intervention, such as adjusting interest rates and increasing government spending, is necessary to stimulate economic growth during times of recession or depression. He believed that aggregate demand, not just real investment, is a key driver of economic growth. Keynes' ideas laid the foundation for modern macroeconomics and influenced government policies during the Great Depression and beyond.

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  • 43. 

    Under Classical Theory: He promotes specialization that leads to efficiency and greatercapacity for growth as well as effective utilization of scarce resources. Economic Development through Comparative Advantage countries experience gain when producing and selling products that they had an advantage in terms of their capital assets such as land, mineral resources, labor, technical orscientific expertise

    • A.

      David Ricardo

    • B.

      Adam Smith

    • C.

      John Maynard Keynes

    • D.

      Harrod-Domar Model

    Correct Answer
    A. David Ricardo
    Explanation
    David Ricardo is the correct answer because he is known for his work on comparative advantage, which is mentioned in the explanation. Comparative advantage suggests that countries should specialize in producing goods that they have a lower opportunity cost in producing, leading to increased efficiency and economic growth. Ricardo's theory emphasizes the importance of utilizing scarce resources effectively and promoting specialization for economic development.

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  • 44. 

    Under Classical Theory: Economic development through free market (trade without barriers) or market-centered. Approach to economic development or laissez-faire economics. Trade (mercantilism) as the stimulant of economic growth. Free trade limited government intervention. Market prices are controlled by competition

    • A.

      Adam Smith

    • B.

      David Ricardo

    • C.

      John Maynard Keynes

    • D.

      Harrod-Domar Model

    Correct Answer
    A. Adam Smith
    Explanation
    Adam Smith is the correct answer because he is widely regarded as the father of modern economics and a key figure in the development of classical economic theory. He advocated for free market principles and argued that economic development and growth could be achieved through trade without barriers and limited government intervention. Smith's ideas, as outlined in his book "The Wealth of Nations," laid the foundation for the concept of laissez-faire economics and the belief that market prices should be determined by competition.

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  • 45. 

    Three Schools of Thought in Socio-Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation. exccept one

    • A.

      Increase Income

    • B.

      Meet Needs

    • C.

      Poverty Reduction

    • D.

      Build Capacities

    Correct Answer
    C. Poverty Reduction
    Explanation
    • Increase Income
    o Economic Growth at all Costs
    o ‘Development as Raising Incomes’
    o Nobel Laureates Robert Solow & Simon Kuznets
    o Neo-Liberals Milton Friedman & Friedrich von Hayek
    • Meet Needs
    o Social Development
    o ‘Development as Meeting Needs’
    o Nobel Laureate Dag Hammarsjkold et.al.
    • Build Capacities
    o Sustainable Development
    o ‘Development as Capacitation or Capability-Building’
    o Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen

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  • 46. 

    Elements of Sustainable Development. except one

    • A.

      Needs + Capacities = Assets + Conservation

    • B.

      Build Up Capacities to Meet Needs

    • C.

      Equity and Justice

    • D.

      Social Equity

    Correct Answer
    D. Social Equity
    Explanation
    The given options are all elements of sustainable development, except for social equity. Social equity refers to fairness and justice in the distribution of resources and opportunities among different groups of people. It aims to ensure that everyone has equal access to basic needs and rights, regardless of their social or economic status. This is an important aspect of sustainable development as it promotes inclusivity and reduces inequalities within society. However, the other options such as needs, capacities, assets, and conservation are also crucial components of sustainable development, but they do not specifically address social equity.

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  • 47. 

    Sustainable Development consists of 3 fundamental tenets: (Dr.Julian Agyeman, Bullard and Evans 2003) Except one

    • A.

      That we should strive to increase the quality of human life, now and into the future;

    • B.

      That this should be done in a just and equitable manner;

    • C.

      That it should be done while respecting the limits of supporting ecosystems

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the choices
    Explanation
    The given answer "none of the choices" is correct because none of the options provided in the question accurately represent the three fundamental tenets of sustainable development. The options in the question do not mention increasing the quality of human life, doing it in a just and equitable manner, and respecting the limits of supporting ecosystems, which are the three fundamental principles of sustainable development as stated by Dr. Julian Agyeman, Bullard, and Evans in 2003.

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  • 48. 

    Under Three Core Values of Development by Todaro: The objectives is To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods (food, shelter, health, and protection)

    • A.

      Sustenance (ability to meet basic needs)

    • B.

      Self-esteem (to be a person)

    • C.

      Freedom from servitude (to be able to choose)

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Sustenance (ability to meet basic needs)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sustenance (ability to meet basic needs). This is because under the three core values of development by Todaro, the objective is to increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health, and protection. Sustenance refers to the ability to meet these basic needs, which aligns with the objective stated. Self-esteem and freedom from servitude are also important values, but they are not specifically mentioned as objectives in this context.

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  • 49. 

    Under the Three Core Values of Development by Todaro: The objectives is To raise levels of living

    • A.

      Self-esteem (to be a person)

    • B.

      Sustenance (ability to meet basic needs)

    • C.

      Freedom from servitude (to be able to choose)

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Self-esteem (to be a person)
    Explanation
    The objective of raising levels of living under the Three Core Values of Development by Todaro includes the aspect of self-esteem, which refers to the individual's sense of worth and identity. By emphasizing self-esteem as an objective, the focus is on empowering individuals to have a sense of personal value and dignity, allowing them to fully participate in society and make choices that align with their own aspirations and goals. This objective recognizes the importance of not only meeting basic needs but also promoting a sense of personal fulfillment and self-actualization.

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  • 50. 

    Under the Three Core Values of Development by Todaro: The objectives is To expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations

    • A.

      Freedom from servitude (to be able to choose)

    • B.

      Self-esteem (to be a person)

    • C.

      Sustenance (ability to meet basic needs)

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Freedom from servitude (to be able to choose)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Freedom from servitude (to be able to choose)." This answer aligns with the objective of expanding the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations. Freedom from servitude implies the ability to make choices freely without being constrained or controlled by external forces. This is an important aspect of development as it empowers individuals and allows them to pursue their own goals and aspirations.

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